Broiler poultry farming and backyard poultry management
Broiler Poultry Farming and
Backyard Poultry Management
Houses Preparation and Biosecurity
Management in Brooding
Heat Stress and control
Some Important Diseases
Backyard Poultry Relevance
Poultry house should be dry, up
ground & away from locality.
Ensure pure water & electricity
Predators & others animal are
not allowed in the farm.
Ensure good transport system
for marketing of poultry.
House should be constructed in east-
Should have good transport system
Ensure good ceiling system for
Should have proper ventilation system
that remove excess heat
First 2 week 0.5 sqft/chick should
In summer season 1.2 sqft and winter
1 sqft place should be provided.
PREPARATION FOR CHICK ARRIVAL
Litter material should be spread
evenly to a depth of 3–4 in (7.5–10 cm)
and then levelled and compacted in
the brooding area.
The necessary equipment must be
assembled in the appropriate
Feeder- 30 inch long/ 50 chicks
Waterer- 2 litre capacity/ 50 chicks
PREPARATION FOR CHICK ARRIVAL
Equipment in the house (i.e.,
feeders, drinkers, heaters and fans)
should be arranged to allow chicks to
maintain body temperature without
dehydration and to find feed and water
Houses should be pre-heated for a
sufficient period to achieve target
house and litter temperatures prior to
Firstly provide lukewarm water for 2-3 hrs
then provide following solution-
Electrolytes- 1gm/ 2 litre
Provide instant energy and restore normal
Note: feed should be supply after 3 hrs on
arrival to avoid early enteritis in chicks
In winter season litter should be 2-3 inch
& for winter season 4-5 inch depth
Daily spray with disinfactant
Moisture level should be keep in
Moist litter should dried in sun heat &
treat with surface agent.
Should maintain cool chain of vaccine
Should be vaccinate at cool environment
i.e morning or late night
Diseased or weakness bird should be
separate from normal one.
Maintain appropriate route of
For better efficacy vaccinate with non fat
Air quality is critical during the brooding
Ventilation is required during the brooding
period to maintain temperatures at the
targeted level and to allow sufficient air
exchange to prevent the accumulation of
harmful gases such as carbon monoxide,
carbon dioxide and ammonia.
Establishing minimum ventilation rates
from one day of age will ensure fresh
air is supplied to chicks at frequent,
Stirring fans can be used to maintain
evenness of air quality at chick level.
Relative humidity (RH) in the hatcher,
at the end of the incubation process
will be high (approx. 80 percent).
Houses with whole house heating,
especially where nipple drinkers are
used, can have RH levels as low as 25
Houses with more conventional
equipment (i.e., spot brooders, which
produce moisture as a byproduct of
combustion and bell drinkers, which
have open water surfaces) have a much
higher RH (usually over 50 percent).
To limit the shock to the chicks of
transfer from the incubator
RH levels in the first three days should
be maintained near 70 percent.
RH within the broiler house should be
If it falls below 50 percent in the first
week, chicks will begin to dehydrate,
Causing negative effects on
In such cases, action should be taken
to increase RH.
If the house is fitted with high-pressure
spray nozzles (i.e.,foggers) for cooling
in high temperatures, then these can
be used to increase RH during
Chicks kept at appropriate humidity
levels are less prone to dehydration
and generally make a better, more
As the chick grows, ideal RH falls.
High RH from 18 days onward can
cause wet litter and its associated
As broilers increase in live weight, RH
levels can be controlled using
ventilation and heating systems.
Heat stress negatively affects growth
rate and livability.
Effects of heat stress can be
minimized by altering the environment
to reduce the temperature
experienced by the bird.
CONTROL OF HEAT STRESS
Normal body temperature of a broiler
chicken is 106ºF (41ºC).
Broilers regulate their body temperature
by two methods:
Radiation/convection of heat and
Evaporative cooling through
Within the temperature range 55–77ºF
(13–25ºC), heat loss is mainly
accomplished through physical radiation
and convection to the cooler
CONTROL OF HEAT STRESS
As the temperature rises above 86ºF (30ºC) the
majority of heat loss is accomplished by
evaporative cooling and panting, and
increased respiration rate.
Panting allows the bird to control body
temperature by evaporation of water from the
respiratory surfaces and air sacs.
The process uses energy. In conditions of high
humidity, panting is less effective.
Where high temperatures are maintained for
long periods, or humidity is very high, panting
may be insufficient to control body
temperature and the bird may experience heat
Significance of backyard Poultry
70% of house holds rear backyard
It is Rural poultry production
Low feeding cost technology
Production of Egg in the state ~ 127
Commonly used Backyard
variety in Jharkhand
◦ Good in Egg laying ~ 180-200 eggs per
◦ Goof in Meat Production
◦ Developed in Ranchi Veterinary College
◦ Highly adapted to the state Climatic
◦ Good in Meat production
Benefits of Backyard Poultry
Hardy nature and adapted to the soil
Better Price because of colored nature
Minimum land, labour and capital
High skill not required
Regular source of income
Decreased Inbreeding by introduction
of superior germplasm