Bacterial genetics

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Bacterial genetics

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Bacterial genetics

  1. 1. BACTERIAL GENETICS <ul><li>Submitted To :- </li></ul><ul><li>DEPT OF VETERINARY MICROBIOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>SUBMITTED BY :- </li></ul><ul><li>ALOK BHARATI </li></ul><ul><li>RVM/08-32 </li></ul><ul><li>DEPT OF AGB </li></ul>
  2. 2. CENTAL DOGMA
  3. 3. RECOMBINATION
  4. 5. GENETIC ELEMENTS <ul><li>Plasmids </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteriophage </li></ul><ul><li>Transposons </li></ul>
  5. 6. GENETIC TRANSFER <ul><li>Conjugation </li></ul><ul><li>Transduction </li></ul><ul><li>Transformation </li></ul>
  6. 7. CONJUGATION <ul><li>Bacterial &quot;sex&quot; or mating </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange of genetic information through a hollow tube, the pilus, from the F+ donor cell to the F- recipient bacterial cell </li></ul>
  7. 9. TRANSDUCTION
  8. 11. TRANSFORMATION <ul><li>Natural - Streptococcus pneumoniae expresses DNA-binding proteins on the cell surface when in stationary phase growth conditions. This natural competent state allows uptake of &quot;naked DNA&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>In vitro (Ca 2+ heat shock, PEG, electroporation); artificially induced competence due to increased membrane permeability </li></ul>
  9. 13. MUTATION <ul><li>CAUSES : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spontaneous -point (error) - deletion - insertional sequence element (IS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Induced (mutagen) - indirect (requires DNA replication) - direct (affects transcription or translation) - repair-induced (error prone) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 16. REPAIR <ul><li>Direct Repair - enzymatic removal of damages like pyrimidine dimers and alkylated bases </li></ul><ul><li>Excision Repair is removal of damaged DNA segments followed by synthesis of a new DNA strand </li></ul><ul><li>Postreplication Repair is the retrieval of missing information by genetic recombination when both DNA strands are damaged </li></ul><ul><li>Error-Prone Polymerase - induced as a &quot;last resort&quot; before bacterial cell death </li></ul>
  11. 17. GENETIC ENGINEERING
  12. 18. GENETIC CONTROL OVER METABOLIC FUNCTION The Operon Repressor Regulation Inducible Regulation
  13. 19. THANK YOU

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