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B21 big ideas protein synthesis ppt

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B21 big ideas protein synthesis ppt

  1. 1. B io lo g y 2 ndS e me s te r D iv e r s it y , two lines, turns gene G e nae t i c s nd E v o lu t io n
  2. 2. Big Ideas / MajorUnderstandings:
  3. 3. What determines structure and function of cells? The DNA molecule
  4. 4. Offspring receive geneticinformation (DNA) from their parents.
  5. 5. Chromosomal mutations may lead to genetic variation
  6. 6. Unity and Diversity
  7. 7. Explainthe structural properties of DNAand the role of DNA in hereditypassing of traits to offspring and protein synthesis production of protein
  8. 8. AssessmentDiagram and explain the role of DNA in heredity : DNA replication replicating DNA and protein synthesis which includes producing mRNA from transcription DNA translation making protein using tRNA and ribosomes (rRNA)
  9. 9. ExplainMendels laws of heredity• the Law of Segregation and• the Law of Independent AssortmentThe Law of Segregation states that the members of each pair ofalleles separate when gametes are formed. A gamete will receiveone allele or the other.The Law of Independent assortment states that two or more pairsof alleles segregate independently of one another duringgamete formation. And how can the laws can be used to determine the traits of possible offspring
  10. 10. AssessmentUse Mendels laws to predictthe potential offspring of two parents: Both phenotype and genotype
  11. 11. Explain possible causes ofchromosomalmutationsand their effects ongenetic variation
  12. 12. Assessment Name human chromosomal disordersSickle cell anemia Down Syndrome and describe the cause and symptoms of each Cystic Fibrosis
  13. 13. Week 21DNAandGenes –Let’s Make aProtein!!Ch 11.1-2 Pg 280 Week 21
  14. 14. DNA / Nucleus / Gene / Chromosomes / Protein use these words in two sentences nucleus chromosomesIn the ________ there are _____________ that are made of ________________ acid. (aka (DNA)) DeoxyribonucleicA section of DNA that codes for a protein is called a gene _______.
  15. 15. products substrate enzyme activator Enzymes__________ are proteins that control chemical reactions _________ ___________.
  16. 16. Nucleotides Nucleic Acids are made of these DNA RNAThey consist of 3 molecules bonded togethera phosphate groupa sugar,and a nitrogenous base
  17. 17. DNA has 4 types of nitrogenous basesA T G C• Adenine (A) and• Thymine (T)• Guanine (G) and• Cytosine (C)
  18. 18. Watson and Crick_______________proposed that DNAis composed of twostrands twistedtogether in a helixdouble ____.
  19. 19. DNA replicationA process in which DNA in the chromosomes is copied (replicated) Click to see
  20. 20. What are the 3 steps of DNA replication1 DNA unzips - enzyme breaks hydrogen bonds between bases2. Bases pair3. Bases bond
  21. 21. protein / polymer / amino acid– write as sentence polymersProteins are ___________composed of strands of amino acids 40 or more ___________
  22. 22. 3 ways RNA differs from DNARNA is• 1) single stranded (DNA is _________stranded) double• 2) has ribose sugar (DNA has ____________) deoxyribose Thymine• 3) contains uracil (U) (DNA has __________ (T)) nucleic acid nucleic acid
  23. 23. Messenger RNA (mRNA)Takesinstructions (a message)for making proteins from theDNA in the nucleusto theribosomes (rRNA) in the cytoplasm rRNA
  24. 24. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)• The assembly line for producing proteins, bonds amino acids together
  25. 25. Transfer RNA (tRNA)• Supplies amino acids to the ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
  26. 26. TranscriptionWhen enzymes make an mRNA copy of a section of DNA (gene) RNA gene
  27. 27. Sections of gene that are expressed ExonsSections of a gene that are NOT expressed Introns Not expressed expressed
  28. 28. codon / base / amino acid base• A group of three nitrogenous _____s in amino a gene that code for an ______ acid is codon called a ______
  29. 29. protein AminoTranslation tRNA acidAfter transcription, mRNA rRNA goes to the ribosome and begins a process which converts mRNA mRNA code into a protein
  30. 30. AND NOW THE QUIZ
  31. 31. 1A process in which DNA in the chromosomes is copied Click to see
  32. 32. 21 DNA unzips - enzyme breaks hydrogen bonds between bases2. Bases pair3. Bases bond
  33. 33. 3 polymersProteins are ___________composed of strands of 40 or more ___________
  34. 34. 4) 2 ways RNA differs from DNARNA is• 1) ________ stranded• 2) has _______ sugar nucleic acid
  35. 35. 5Takesinstructions (a message)for making proteins from theDNA in the nucleusto theribosomes (rRNA) in the cytoplasm rRNA
  36. 36. 6 nucleusIn the ________ there are _____________ that are made of ________________ acid. (aka (DNA)) DeoxyribonucleicA section of DNA that codes for a protein is called a _______.
  37. 37. 7_________ are proteins that control chemical ___________. _________ reactions
  38. 38. 8 The two kinds of nucleic acids, DNA and RNA are made of theseThey consist of 3 molecules bonded togethera phosphate groupa sugar,and a nitrogenous base
  39. 39. 9• Supplies amino acids to the ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
  40. 40. 10• The assembly line for producing proteins, bonds amino acids together
  41. 41. 11When enzymes make an mRNA copy of a section of DNA (gene) RNA gene
  42. 42. Sections of gene that are expressed 12Sections of a gene that are NOT expressed Introns Not expressed expressed
  43. 43. 13_______________proposed that DNAis composed of twostrands twistedtogether in a helixdouble ____.
  44. 44. 14 The two kinds of nucleic acids, DNA and RNA are made of theseThey consist of 3 molecules bonded togethera phosphate groupa sugar,and a nitrogenous base
  45. 45. codon / base / amino acid base• A group of three nitrogenous _____s in amino a gene that code for an ______ acid is 15 called a ______
  46. 46. protein Amino16 tRNA acid rRNA A process which converts mRNA into a protein mRNA
  47. 47. Mahalo!

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