Digestive System TerminologyAllyson LofgrenBiology 120Professor AbdullahMarch 7, 2011
Serum Bilirubin What is bilirubin?• Bilirubin is the main brown/yellow pigment in bile.• It is created when heme, the pigment that makes red blood cells red, breaks down in older cells.• It moves into the liver where it undergoes many processes to make it more water soluble.
What does serum bilirubin tell us? • Serum bilirubin is a test given to most babies. • It indicates how much of the waste product bilirubin is in the baby’s blood. • Elevated bilirubin indicates that red blood cells are being destroyed rapidly or that bilirubin is not being excreted as quickly as it should be • It is a good test of the blood, gallbladder and liver functions as it indicates the liver’s ability to • take up bilirubin • process bilirubin • secrete bilirubin into the bile
How is a Serum Bilirubin test taken?• Generally, a phlebotomist takes blood from the babys heel tissue instead of a vein. • A baby’s veins are easily damaged because they are so small and fragile. It is much safer to take tissue punctures.• The blood is drawn into a small test tube about 2 inches long that is stoppered at each end when full.• The tube is spun in a centrifuge to separate the serum from the red blood cells.• Spectrophotometry (a technique that measures the amount of ultraviolet light absorbed by a substance) is used to measure the amount of bilirubin in a the serum.
Lavage What is lavage?• Lavage is the irrigation or washing out of an organ.• It is often called stomach pumping. It empties the stomach of dangerous substances quickly so the body does not absorb large quantities. • It removes poisons that are dangerous to vomit like acids or bleach. • It is also used for those who have overdosed on drugs or alcohol.
How is lavage performed?• The patient lies on his or her left side, with the head lowered.• A lubricated tube is inserted through the mouth, down the esophagus, and into the stomach.• The poison, drugs and/or alcohol are suctioned out through the tube.• The stomach is washed out with lukewarm water and/or salt water until the water comes out clear.• Sometimes the patient is given charcoal after the stomach is pumped because it absorbs drugs, alcohol or poisons that may still be in the stomach.
Anastomosis What is anastomosis?• An anastomosis is a surgical connection between two structures. • It is usually made between tubular structures like blood vessels or parts of the intestine.
How is an Anastomosis Performed?• An example of a common digestive anastomosis surgery is a bowel resection. • The blocked portion is removed and the two sections are stitched back together. • In some cases, the sections cannot be reconnected. This is called a colostomy. • The surgeon will bring the cut intestine through the skin. • The contents are emptied into an external bag.
Cachexia What is cachexia?• Cachexia is general weight loss and wasting that occurs during chronic diseases like cancer.• As cancer progresses, the patient’s basal metabolic rate usually drops. • Cachexia is often caused by tumors in the lungs, pancreas, and upper gastrointestinal tract. • Cachexia is occasionally caused by breast cancer or lower gastrointestinal cancer.
Works Cited• Golonka, MHP, Debby; “Digestive Disorders Health Center: Bilirubin”, 05/27/08, http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/bilirubin-15434• Lo, PhD, DABCC, FACB, Stanley F.; “Bilirubin: the Test”, 11/24/10, American Association for Clinical Chemistry, http://www.labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/bilirubin/test.html• Boggs, MD, William M.; “Stomach Pumping (Gastric Lavage, Gastric Suctioning)”, 07/05/01, Healthopedia.com, http://www.healthopedia.com/stomach-pumping/• Vorvick, MD, Linda J.; “Anastomosis”, 08/08/09, MedlinePlus, http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002231.htm,• Bhimji, MD, PhD, Shabir; “Intestinal obstruction repair”, 05/17/10, Medline Plus, http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002927.htm• Fremgen, Bonnie F. and Frucht, Suzanne S. “Glossary: Cachexia” Medical Terminology: a Living Language. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2009. 547. Print• Staff writers for the National Cancer Institute, “Nutrition in Cancer Care - Tumor-Induced Effects on Nutritional Status”,08/02/10, WebMD, http://www.webmd.com/cancer/tc/ncicdr0000276584-tumor-induced-effects-on-nutritional- status