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Unit 0 the elements of a civilization

Introduction of History

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Unit 0 the elements of a civilization

  1. 1. Almudena Corrales Marbán
  3. 3. 1. WHAT IS A CIVILISATION? History is the study of human civilisations that have existed in the past, such as Ancient Egypt, Classical Greece or the Roman Empire. A civilization is a human society that exists in a particular time and place, with a complex organisation which includes political, economic andd social and cultural elements. The specific nature of these elements and their organisation make each civilisation unique. Almudena Corrales Marbán
  4. 4. What are the elements of a civilisation? Almudena Corrales Marbán
  5. 5. 2. CHRONOLOGY The chronology of a civilisation refers to its location in time, shown in years, decades, centuries or historical periods. To establish a chronology we need to determine the order in which important events happened. A timeline is a graphic representation of a chronology. Timelines can indicate the major events of an entire civilisation, a specific historical period of a perticular process. Almudena Corrales Marbán
  6. 6. 2.1. Before and After Christ In their chronologies, historiand often use the birth of Christ as an important point of reference. • Years before Christ’s birth are indicate by the letters B.C. (Before Christ) or BCE (Before the Commion Era) • Years after his birth are indicated by the letters A.D. (Anno Domini-’the year of our Lord’ in Latin) or CE (Common Era) Almudena Corrales Marbán
  7. 7. 2.2. Making a timeline  The beginning and end dates for the entire timeline  The major periods into which we can divide the timeline  The dates of important events, such as the start of a new government, a battle or the approval of a new law. The distance between the events on a timeline should be proportional to the amount of time that passed between them.. Almudena Corrales Marbán
  8. 8. Almudena Corrales Marbán
  9. 9. Make a timeline of the historical periods from the first human beings until nowadays Almudena Corrales Marbán
  10. 10. 3. GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION The geographical location of a civilisation refers to the regions or continents where it develops. We can represent this development geographically with a historical map that provides information about.  Politics  Economy  Society  Culture Almudena Corrales Marbán
  11. 11. All maps should have a KEY that explains any symbols used, such as: • Lines (border, roads, trade routes) • Colours (to identify differnt regions) • Dots or starts (for towns and cities) • Arrows (for movements, such as migration) • Swords or cannons (for battles) Almudena Corrales Marbán
  12. 12. Almudena Corrales Marbán THE RECONQUEST
  13. 13. 4. POLITICS Politics refers to the government of a country or area, and especially the relationship between groups that have power. The state is a structure that exercises three types of power, usually though three branches of government. LESGISLATIVE EXECUTIVE JUDICIAL Almudena Corrales Marbán
  14. 14. In many countries, government is divided into two parts. • Central government controls activities that affect all the inhabitants of the country • Regional and local government control activities that affect people in a specific region, province or municipality of the country. Types of government 1. MONARCHY - a monarch (either a king or queen) controls a kingdom. 2. EMPIRE- in an empire, an emperor o empress controls a state or a group of states. 3. REPUBLIC- Iin a republic, a president is the highest authority of the state. Almudena Corrales Marbán
  15. 15. We can also classify governments into two groups, depending on the distribution of the state’s powers. • In a dictatorship, one person, known as a director, has all the power • In a democracy, the power belongs to the citizens of the state, who vote for political representatives in elections. Almudena Corrales Marbán
  16. 16. 5. THE ECONOMY The economy of a society refers to the management of its resources, production and commercial activities. A country or region’s economic activities are normally divided into three different sectors Almudena Corrales Marbán Oxford Education. History 4
  17. 17. Almudena Corrales Marbán We can classify economies into different types. The two more general types are: 1. CLOSED OR SUBSISTENCE ECONOMY Population depends on resources, goods and services that are provided by its own members. There is little or no trade. This type of economy was typical in feudal societies. 1. OPEN ECONOMY Population exchanges resources , goods and services with people from other regions. Ancient Rome had a very open economy.
  18. 18. 6. SOCIETY Almudena Corrales Marbán SECOND STATE FIRST STATE THIRD STATE OxfordEducation.History4
  19. 19. 7. CULTURE Almudena Corrales Marbán Culture refers to a society’s beliefs, customs and knowledge, as well as its artistic, literacy, scientific and technological achievements. As a result of this, culture refers a people’s way of life, attitudes and values. In addition, it also demostrates how a society thinks about and explains the world around it.
  20. 20. Almudena Corrales Marbán OxfordEducation.History4