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Unit 6 The Catholic Monarchs and the Discovery of America

Introduction to the Early Modern Era

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Unit 6 The Catholic Monarchs and the Discovery of America

  1. 1. UNIT 6: THE CATHOLIC MONARCHS AND THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA 2nd graders Social Studies Department Almudena Corrales Marbán
  2. 2. 1. THE EARLY MODERN EUROPE Almudena Corrales Marbán The fall of Constantinople by the Turks (1453) and the Discovery of America(1492) marked a new historical period known as the Early Modern Period (Edad Moderna), which lasted until the year 1789, with the French Revolution.
  3. 3. MORE INFO…. Almudena Corrales Marbán walk-through-history-35210530 A WALK THROUGH HISTORY
  4. 4. Almudena Corrales Marbán What are the main characteristics of the modern states? In several European countries the modern state emerged. It was a new political system ruled by authoritarian monarchs. The king succeeded in their authority over the feudal lords, using various methods. a) The creation of a PERMANENT ARMY formed of professional soldiers. b) Application of COMMON LAWS in all the territories. c) Organisation of the administration with GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS who worked for monarchs. d) The development of DIPLOMACY to defend their interest abroad.
  5. 5. 2. THE REIGN OF THE CATHOLIC MONARCHS Almudena Corrales Marbán 2.1. INTRODUCTION The modern state began in Spain with the reign of Isabel of Castilla and Fernando of Aragón, who were known as the Catholic Monarchs. During their reign, the Iberian Peninsula began to be governed by a common policy. However, Castilla and Aragon continued to be independent kingdoms and even kept their own Cortes, laws, languages, coins and institutions
  6. 6. Almudena Corrales Marbán 2.2. DOMESTIC POLICY –POLÍTICA INTERNA- • The Catholic Monarchs subjected the nobility and the clergy to royal authority. They controlled the municipalities increasing the role of the CORREGIDOR. • The Holy Brotherhood (La Santa Hermandad) was created to keep order in rural areas. • The Catholic Monarchs transformed the Royal Council of Castilla (Consejo Real de Castilla) and established the Council of Aragón. • In order to administrate justice they created the Chancillerías or Courts of Justice. • They decided to organised a permanent army, which enabled them to conquer the kingdom of Granada in 1492, incorporate the Canary Islands in 1496, and Navarra in 1515. • They also achieved the religious unification of the Peninsula by expelling the Jews in 1492, and extended the INQUISITION, which already existed in Aragon, to Castilla.
  7. 7. Almudena Corrales Marbán LA RENDICIÓN DE GRANADA, Francisco Pradilla y Ortiz, 1882. Palacio del Senado, Madrid
  8. 8. Almudena Corrales Marbán 2.3. FOREIGN POLICY –POLÍTICA EXTERIOR- • The Catholic Monarchs set up alliances with other European Kingdoms like the Holy Roman Empire and the Habsburg dynasty, England and Portugal. They did this through a carefully planned MATRIMONIAL POLICY, marrying the sons and daughters to the princes and princesses of Portugal, the Habsburg Empire and England. • During their reign they conquered land in the North of Africa: Melilla, Oran, Tripoli. • After a war against France, they recovered the kingdom of Naples, which had belonged to the Trastámara family, of which, both, Isabel and Fernando were members. This helped the Aragonese expansion throughout the Mediterranean. • They supported geographical expeditions in the Atlantic Ocean. These initiatives led to the Discovery of America.
  9. 9. Almudena Corrales Marbán THE CONQUEST OF ORAN El cardenal Cisneros en la toma de Orán. Detalle del mural de Juan de Borgoña de 1514. Catedral de Toledo. For more info visit the website: Also 13/11/19/cien-alcarrenos-a-la-conquista-de- oran/
  10. 10. 3. THE DISCOVERY AND CONQUEST OF AMERICA Almudena Corrales Marbán At the end of the 15th century, Spain and Portugal discovered and occupied new territories unknown to the Europeans before. New world Old world
  11. 11. Almudena Corrales Marbán 3.1. THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISCOVERIES Factors that influenced the geographical discoveries: • The Turkish presence in the Eastern Mediterranean made it necessary to look for other route to Asia. • Advances in cartography and navigation and the use of the caravels. • Travellers’ tales like Marco Polo’s diary • The opportunity to get rich.
  12. 12. Almudena Corrales Marbán Going back to MARCO POLO……
  13. 13. Almudena Corrales Marbán The Portuguese first sailed along the coast of Africa trying to reach India.
  14. 14. Almudena Corrales Marbán