The world of industry


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Studying the secondary sector. Bilingual Education, Year 3

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The world of industry

  1. 1. THE WORLD OF INDUSTRY 3 Year Geography Social Studies Department
  2. 2. 1. THE SECONDARY SECTOR The secondary sector includes the economic activities that transform raw materials into other products in order to meet human needs.
  3. 3. This activities are:  INDUSTRY Industry is the biggest activity within the secondary sector. It transforms raw materials into finished products, for direct consumption, or semifinished products, which are used as materials in other industrial processes.
  4. 4.  MINING Mining is the process of locating, extracting and refining the rocks and minerals that are in the ground. To carry out this activity, the following steps are required: • Prospecting • Extraction techniques, which vary depending on whether the minerals are found in open-air deposits or in underground deposits known as mines. • Refining systems, to separate the usable mineral (ore) from the surrounding rocks (gangue) which are of no commercial interest. : Mena : ganga
  5. 5.  ENERGY PRODUCTION Energy production transforms fuel into forms of energy, such as heat or electricity, which make it possible to do work. Major investments and large facilities are required to produce energy, for example power stations*, which are specialised in each type of energy source: thermal power stations, wind power stations, solar power stations, hydraulic power stations. : centrales electricas
  6. 6.  CONSTRUCTION Construction creates different types of structures (buildings) and infrastructure (roads, bridges, dams*, etc.). This activity requires construction projects and materials, such as steel* and concrete*, which are the most used today. Construction has a great impact on the environment. : dique : acero : hormigón
  7. 7. 2. INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY USES A. RAW MATERIALS (Materias primas) Depending on the origin they can be: Biological: • Plant raw materials come from agriculture like cotton or linen, and forestry like cork (corcho). • Animal raw materials come from livestock farming like wool or leather, and fishing activities like fishing for the canning industry, oils and fishmeal. Geological: • Minerals which can be used to extract metals (iron, lead*, aluminium, copper*, zinc, uranium), precious metals (gold, silver) and also nonmetallic materials (glass, precious stones and fertilisers). • Rocks, such as granite, clay*, limestone* and marble, are used to manufacture construction materials (cement, concrete, ceramics) • Fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas), which we obtain energy from.
  8. 8. INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY ALSO USES B. ENERGY RESOURCES (Fuentes de energía) Which can be classified into: Traditional Coal Fuentes de energía Oil tradicionales Natural gas Nuclear Solar Alternative Wind power Biomass Tidal power Geothermal Nuclear fusion All of these resources are non-renewable energies, because they are being used at a much faster rate than they can be replaced, which means that in the future they will run out. Oil is the most commonly used, representing 42%, followed by natural gas (23%), coal (22%), hydroelectric (7%) and nuclear (7%). Fuentes de energía alternativas The word ‘alternative’ is used to describe sources of energy that could replace traditional energies in the future. They are also called GREEN ENERGIES
  9. 9. 3. HOW HAS IT BEEN THE EVOLUTION OF THE INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY? First we must talk about: Manual industry Before the middle of the 18th century almost all industrial work was done by hand, using traditional instruments and low level power sources, such as animals and wood fires. Production was very low and as each worker made the product entirely by hand, each one was unique. People worked in small workshops, which were owned by a ‘master’. These workshops were found all across the country in towns and cities. workshops : talleres
  10. 10. Then Modern industry was introduced Things began to change in Great Britain in the First Industrial Revolution (1770-1850) and developed even more in the Second Industrial Revolution (1850-1950). Machines were used which were driven by more powerful sources of energy, such as coal, oil and electricity. Production increased dramatically and because it was done using machines the items were uniform and much cheaper. People built larger factories near areas rich in raw materials, sources of energy or in large cities. Large factories. Powerful machines driven by new energies. Workers specialised in a single task. Abundant, uniform and cheap production.
  11. 11. Industry today From the middle of the 20th century to the present day, industry has been developing due to what is known as the Third Industrial Revolution. Today, work tends to be automated, and incorporates new energy sources (nuclear, alternative energies), new technologies (microelectronics, telecommunications, IT) and industrial robots. Production consists of short production runs of diverse, cheap products, made in factories which can be located anywhere in the world because of the use of new technologies and cheap transport. IT: Information Technology
  13. 13. 4. INDUSTRY ACTIVITY CREATES Different types of industries such as: • BASIC INDUSTRIES (Industrias de primera elaboración o de base). They include the iron and steel industry and the petrochemical industry, which produces chemical products. • EQUIPMENT AND MACHINERY (Industrias de equipo). Examples are machinery, industrial equipment and railway, naval and construction materials. These are also considered heavy industries (industria pesada) because of the high consumption of energy and materials. • CONSUMER INDUSTRIES (Industrias de bienes de uso y consumo). This kind of industry makes finished products aimed directly at the consumer, such as foods, textiles, chemical products, etc. All of them are light industries (industria ligera), as they consume less energy and raw materials.
  14. 14. 5. INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY ALSO CREATES INDUSTRIAL SPACES SUCH AS 1. Industrial Estates: (Áreas industriales) They are different sized spaces for traditional industries. They have the appropriate infrastructure for industrial activity. 2. Technology parks: (Parques tecnológicos) They are similar in size to the industrial estates, but contain high-tech industries. 3. High-tech zones: (Zonas de alto desarrollo tecnológico) These are large areas where high-tech industries are concentrated, many of these are innovative companies and R&D centres. (Research and Development centres)
  15. 15. 6. FINALLY INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY GIVES RISE TO : INDUSTRIAL REGIONS • United States, Japan and the European Union have high concentrations of industry which benefit from advanced technology and large markets for their products. • Some regional powers, such as Russia, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and the oil exporting countries, owe their high levels of industrialisation to the exploitation of their abundant natural resources. • Emerging countries in Asia, such as China, South Korea and India, or in Latin America, such as Brazil and Mexico, have developed industrially because of globalisation. Many multinational companies have transferred* some of their factories to these countries .
  16. 16. The least industrialised areas of the Earth are in developing countries. The reasons why they have little industry is because they lack of resources or the capital to exploit them, the absence of markets and poor transport and Communications infrastructure. What are the reasons why some areas of the Earth are least industrialised?
  18. 18. THE INDUSTRIAL AREAS IN EUROPE The industrial areas in Europe are • Western Europe, and the EU, is the most industrialised area. In this area, traditional industries are having serious problems new industrial spaces for high-technology industries are growing rapidly near the large metropolises. • In Eastern Europe, the main industrial areas are located in Ukraine, in the Donets basin, and in Russia around Moscow and in the Ural Mountains. They are specialised in traditional sectors and are currently having serious problems.