Primary sector


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Primary sector

  2. 2. Introduction It is difficult to conceive agriculture without soil , we have overpassed 7000 million people all over the world and population need to be fed. Science and technology have made it possible with technics like hydrophonics: it is a method of growing plants without soil but using nutrients that are fundamental for life: water, oxygen, carbon dioxide and enough light for photoshynthesis.
  3. 3. News: Today Israel leads this type of agricultural cultivation. Most of Israel is arid and has little water available for crop production
  4. 4. Personal opinion I personally beleive this kind of products do not taste the same as if they had been grown naturally, why? Because they do not follow an ordinary proccess and they can also be the cause of some of the most common diseases nowadays.
  5. 5. 1. THE PRIMARY SECTOR: Agriculture Economic activities are grouped into three main sectors: primary, secondary and tertiary. The primary sector includes the economic activities related to obtain resources directly from nature Although agriculture is the main activity that belongs to this sector, there are other economic actvities involved in the primary sector such as livestock farming, fishing and forestry.
  6. 6. There are three activities in the primary sector which use land to obtain natural resources: AGRICULTURE: cultivation of land in order to obtain different kind of plants: grasses (cereals); vegetables, bushes (vines); or trees (olive, fruit trees). They provide food for people, fodder for cattle and raw materials for industry.
  7. 7. LIVESTOCK FARMING is the breeding of animals in order to obtain products for human use. A great variety of animal species are bred, but the most common are cows, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry*. Livestock farming provides food and raw materials for industry (meat, milk, leather, wool, fertilizer). In some cases, animals are also put to work (in agriculture, transportation, etc.). This is common in underdeveloped countries or poor families living in rural areas. Poultry: aves de corral.
  8. 8. FORESTRY consists of managing forests in order to obtain natural products such as wood (used to make furniture and paper), rubberand resins.
  9. 9. 2. AGRICULTURE DEPENDS ON A VARIETY OF FACTORS: • The influence of the climate • The influence of the land relief • The influence of the soil and the vegetation
  10. 10. a. The influence of the climate The growth of plants depends on the temperature, the humidity of the land and the amount of ligth received. It is impossible to practice agriculture at temperatures lower than 0°C or higher than 45°C, or in areas of very severe drought.
  11. 11. b. The influence of the land relief Farmers prefer to cultivate flat land on plains and in valley bottoms. They avoid mountainous areas because it is much harder to cultivate land on slopes as machines can’t be used and it is necessary to cut terraces. In addition, above a certain altitude, the low temperatures prevent the growth of crops. Livestock farming and forestry, on the other hand, are better able to adapt to mountainous terrain.
  12. 12. c. The influence of the soil and the vegetation The soil provides the nutrients necessary for plants to grow. Their fertility depends on the depth, the texture, which influences water retention, and its acidity or alkalinity, because very acid or very alkaline soils are toxic for plants. Activities such as livestock farming and forestry depend to a great extent on the natural vegetation.
  13. 13. 3. HUMAN FACTORS IN AGRICULTURE Agricultural landscapes are the result of human activities. Both natural and human factors determine agricultural activity, but the latter makes it possible to compensate for the natural factors. Demographic growth and certain advances in technology have contributed to the overexploitation of natural resources, which causes serious ecological and environmental damage
  14. 14. The human factors that influence agriculture are: a. Population growth An increase in the population means that a more space is needed to grow crops and to be used for pasture. Consequencies: • Natural land is used and vegetation is lost. • In some cases deforestation has serious impacts on the environment • In some areas animal species are in danger of extinction.
  15. 15. b. Technological progress The evolution of technology influences the cultivation of the land. In traditional societies, farmers use very simple tools, such as the digging* stick*, the hoe*, the sickle* and the plough*. In developed societies, modern equipment and materials are used, such as tractors, harvesters, chemical fertilisers, computers, etc. Technology makes it is possible to modify unfavourable natural conditions. Fertilisers are used to increase nutrients in the soil or part of the land is left uncultivated (fallow land*) to regain fertility; crops can be watered* to produce more; chemicals are used to kill pests*; greenhouses are built to protect crops; and the livestock are kept inside stables. Vocabulary pala azada hoz arado Vocabulary plaga
  16. 16. c. Social and economic organisation The agricultural economy is reflected in the choice of crops cultivated. In a subsistence economy, which produces food for its now needs, several crops may be planted, whereas in a market economy, which produces surpluses* to sell, the tendency is towards specialisation in a single crop. Social organisation affects agriculture through the systems of ownership and use of the land: • Ownership can be private, a cooperative or a company; or collective, if it belongs to a community (tribe, municipality, state (Comunism). Land is also categorized according to size and called either large estates, medium-sized concerns or smallholdings. • The agricultural production system refers to the people who work the land. In the direct system, the owner works the land or hires workers; in the indirect system or tenant farming, the land is cultivated by another person in exchange for payment (rental) or a percentage of the production (share farming). Vocabulary oferta, suministro, v íveres. excedente specialisation in a single crop
  17. 17. 4. FEATURES OF AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES The agricultural landscape (paisaje agrario) Agriculture transforms the natural environment greatly and in different ways. Agricultural landscapes have three elements in common which are: fields, rural settlement and the cultivation systems. Small, irregular fields and ones enclosed by hedges or trees are usually the result of the natural land relief or long historical evolution. Large, regular and open fields are usually the consequence of planning.
  18. 18. a. Agricultural plots fields Fields are the basic divisions of agricultural land. Each field is an area of land dedicated to one particular crop and separated from other fields by borders. They vary according to: • Size. They can be small (less than 10 hectares), medium-sized (between 10 and 100 hectares) or large (more than 100 hectares). • Shape. They can be regular or irregular. • Limits. They can be open or enclosed (by hedges*, trees or fences*). Vocabulary vallas
  19. 19. b. The systems of cultivation The cultivation systems are the techniques system used to obtain the agricultural products. Classified according to: • The variety of crops. * monoculture (monocultivo) or single-crop farming when the fields are dedicated to just one crop. *polyculture (policultivo)or mixed farming if they are dedicated to several crops. • The water the plants receive. *Dry farming (agricultura de secano) is when the crops only receive the natural precipitation *Irrigation* farming (agricultura de regadío) is when the farmer provides additional water from rivers, wells or springs /sprinkles (aspersores).
  20. 20. • The use of the land. There may be constant cultivation of the land without rest, or rotation (periodic change of crops). Rotation may include fallow land, leaving part of the land uncultivated, or it may be continuous, i.e. alternating between crops which exhaust the land to different extents. Depending on the duration of the rotation, we talk about two-year rotation, three-year rotation, etc. • The working of the land. Agriculture can be intensive (intensiva) if the maximum use is made of the land (high yield), or extensive (extensiva) (low yield). • The destination of the produce. In subsistence agriculture (agricultura de subsistencia), the products are used to feed the farmer and his/her family, and in commercial agriculture (agricultura de mercado), they are sold on the domestic or international market. Vocabulary mercado nacional o interior mercado internacional
  21. 21. Rural settlement is the way the agricultural population is distributed in the area. There are three types: disperse, concentrated and intermediate. • In disperse rural settlement, the farmers’/workers’ houses are separated from each other and surrounded by agricultural land. • In concentrated settlement, they are grouped together in a village, which may be lineal, when the houses are arranged in a line along a river, a path or a road; or clustered, when the houses are arranged around a centre. • In intermediate rural settlement the population is distributed in a combination of these two, some houses are isolated and others are grouped together in villages. c. Rural settlement
  22. 22. 5. TRADITIONAL AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES In traditional agriculture farmers practise subsistence agriculture, they use primitive technology and it involves a great deal of labour. The production is low and it is used for self-consumption. A. Itinerant or ‘slash and burn’ agriculture (Agricultura itinerante) This type of agriculture is typical in the equatorial and tropical climates of Africa, Central and South America. Trees are cut down and burnt along with the weeds*. Mixed farming is practiced, with cereals and other products (sorghum, millet, maize, cassava, yam, sweet potato, etc.), for self-consumption. The soil is cultivated continuously, so it becomes exhausted after two or three years. Then, the farmer moves to another place and repeats the process. Vocabulary rastrojos
  23. 23. B. Dry sedentary agriculture This type of agriculture is found in the tropical savannah areas of Africa and in certain regions of South America and Asia. The agricultural landscape is composed of vegetable plots and small fields, near the houses, which are fertilised with waste and animal manure*. This permits the continuous cultivation of vegetables, beans or maize. The land around the village is divided into three areas where a main crop (millet or maize) is rotated with another, complementary one (peanut or tubers) and fallow land (where cattle feed and fertilise it with their dung*). With this system, the soil is not exhausted, which allows the permanent settlement of the population. Vocabulary terreno abono animal estiércol
  24. 24. C. Monsoon irrigation agriculture This type of agriculture is found in the monsoon tropical climate zone of south and south-east Asia, in countries such as China, Vietnam, Cambodia or the Philippines. The typical agricultural landscape is rice paddies*, on the alluvial* plains and the river deltas. TDeveloped agricultural landscapeshe main activity is the cultivation of rice in small, floodable paddies, separated by dykes*. The cultivation technique consists of firstly planting rice in a nursery treated with manure. While it grows, the paddies are ploughed, fertilized and flooded. When the plants have grown a little, they are transplanted into the paddy and they begin to mature. Later the water is drained off and the rice is harvested, threshed* and collected. This system permits continuous production, with two or three harvests a year. Vocabulary arrozales llanuras aluviales acequias trillar (to separate the shell from the seed) vivero
  25. 25. 6. DEVELOPED AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES What are the main characteristics and geographical distribution? Developed agricultural landscapes are those where farmers practice market agriculture, use advanced technology and require less intensive labour than traditional agricultural systems. Production is abundant and farmers specialise in the products best adapted to the physical environment or those which are most profitable.
  26. 26. A. The agriculture of new-world countries New-world countries are those which were colonised by Europeans between the 16th and 19th centuries in North and South America (USA,Canada, Argentina) and Australia. The agricultural landscape is characterised by large, regular fields, with the use of the most advanced technology and very little labour. The land normally belongs to highly- trained farmers or large companies which also control the processing, distribution and sale of the products. Production is massive and specialised, and it is intended for sale on the international market. In the United States, for example, agricultural land forms belts specialised in the production of one crop (wheat*, maize*, tobacco, cotton, etc.). In drier areas, extensive livestock farming is common (cattle or sheep), for the production of meat, wool and leather Vocabulary
  27. 27. EUROPEAN AGRICULTURE How is the European agriculture like? Agriculture extends throughout the European continent, though there is a great variety of agricultural landscapes. In some areas there are large estates (Paris basin, Po and Guadalquivir valleys); in others, medium-sized concerns* are more common (Western Europe and the Mediterranean), and also smallholdings (some countries in East Europe).
  28. 28. The Common Agricultural Policy: CAP (Política Agraria Comunitaria PAC) The countries that form part of the European Union have adopted a common agricultural policy, the CAP, whose aims are: 1. To establish fair prices for farmers and consumers, setting* maximum and minimum levels for each product. 2. To achieve competitive agriculture, reducing production surpluses. In order to avoid to the overexplotation of the land. 3. To achieve sustainable agriculture by helpng in rural development, promotyng organic agriculture and setting environmental and food health regulations.
  29. 29. 7. LIVESTOCK FARMING SYSTEMS  Which animals are most commonly reared in the region where you live? Vocabulary criar
  30. 30. 7.1 The evolution of livestock farming Traditionally, livestock farming has performed two functions: • The perfect complement of agriculture, providing food, animals to work and manure for fields. • And sometimes livestock farming was the dominant activity, especially in those areas where the natural characteristics were not favourable for agriculture: • on the edges of deserts • temperate prairies, tropical savannahs • cool, humid areas of the oceanic climate. Today, the market has forced many farmers to modernise and introduce technical innovations. This explains why there are different livestock farming systems.
  31. 31. 7.2 Traditional livestock farming systems Traditional livestock farming follows two basic models: • A)Nomadic livestock farming is typical in the dry areas at the edge of deserts (bordes de los desiertos). Farmers move constantly with their herds of camels, goats and sheep, for example the Tuaregs in the Sahara . •B) Transhumant livestock farming is found in some mountainous regions of America, Asia and North Africa. Farmers migrate seasonally with their goats and sheep. They sometimes travel large distances between the plains (winter pasture) and the mountains (summer pasture).
  32. 32. 7.3 Market livestock farming systems Market livestock farming is characteristic of developed areas with temperate climates. There are two types: • A) In extensive livestock farming, the livestock graze* (pastorea) in the open air on pasture land, so it does not require much investment in labour and capital: North American and Australian ranches, or the Argentinean Pampas. • B) In intensive livestock farming, cattle are sheltered in stables or enclosed farms. It requires investment in facilities, selection of breeds, technology, food and veterinary care.
  33. 33. 8. FISHING. USING THE RESOURCES OF THE SEA Which is your favourite fish or seafood dish?
  34. 34. 8.1 Fishing and fishing grounds Fishing is any activity which obtains natural products from the sea. It is used to obtain food and raw materials for industry: canned* goods, frozen goods, oils, fish meals, fertilizers, etc. The areas of the sea in which fish are abundant are called fishing grounds or banks. (bancos de peces) The main fishing areas are found where plankton is abundant, such as the continental platforms, and where warm currents meet cold currents. the Pacific Ocean, the Northern Atlantic and the western coasts of Africa. The leading fishing countries are: China, Peru, United States, Indonesia and Japan. WHY?
  35. 35. 8.2 Types of fishing and techniques Depending on the level of development, fishing can be artisanal or industrial. • Artisanal fishing uses small boats and ships, traditional techniques and little labour, so production is small and is intended for the local market. • Industrial fishing uses large factory ships with modern technology (radar, sonar) and a great deal of labour, the production is abundant and is intended for sale on the domestic or international market. Fishing also depends on the distance from the coast and the duration of the trips. It can be: • Coastal fishing (pesca de bajura), is when fishermen go out and return each day. • Offshore fishing (pesca de altura), is when ships typically remain out at sea for days; and deep-sea or high-sea fishing, far from the coast.
  36. 36. Coastal fishing Offshore fishing