Human rights


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Human rights

  1. 1. HUMAN RIGHTS Citizenship Almudena Corrales Marbán Social Studies Department
  2. 2. RIGHTS Right is the capacity of a person to do, to choose, and also refrain from things. All human beings own human rights since they are born, and they are necessary for our development. These human rights cannot be won, and any institution can deprive people from them.
  3. 3. HUMAN RIGHTS THROUGH HISTORY MESOPOTAMIA The Hammurabi’s Code or Code of Hammurabi (1800-1750 BC) was a compilation of rights and duties for the babilonian citizens. This code was based on lex talionis, law of retaliation or“eye for an eye”, which is the principle that a person who has injured another person is penalized to a similar degree, or according to other interpretations the victim receives the value of the injury in compensation. •Thievery Ex. Law #22: "If any one is committing a robbery and is caught, then he shall be put to death”. The sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabi, enacted the code, and partial copies exist on a human-sized stone stele and various clay tablets. The Code consists of 282 laws, with scaled punishments, adjusting "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth" as graded depending on social status, of slave versus free man.
  4. 4. CLASSICAL CULTURE Greeks and Romans wrote several laws in which they incuded some rights, but they were not the same for all people, because they were stablished according to the social rank and sex (man and women). Along the 5th century BC, Athens started a democracy, but they were just the men who owned those rights, like voting; women, foreigners and slaves didn’t have rights. Once the Peloponesian wars ended and Sparta won, oligarchy was established again. There was in Rome when the civil rights were set for citizens. They regulated property and family matters.
  5. 5. FAR EAST Mohism or Moism (Chinese: 墨家; pinyin: Mòjiā; literally "School of Mo") was a Chinese philosophy developed by the followers of Mozi (also referred to as Mo Tzu (Master Mo), 470 BC–391 BC. Mozi taught that as long as a person was qualified for a task, he should keep his position, regardless of blood relations. If an officer were incapable, even if he were a close relative of the ruler, he ought to be demoted, even if it meant poverty. In a perfect governmental structure where the ruler loves all people benevolently, and officials are selected according to meritocracy, the people should have unity in belief and in speech. His original purpose in this teaching was to unite people and avoid sectarianism. However, in a situation of corruption and tyranny, this teaching might be misused as a tool for oppression.
  6. 6. MIDDLE AGES: CHRISTIANITY, JUDAISM AND ISLAM These three monotheistic religions compilated codes of behavior, rights and duties in their sacred books. These books were elaborated according to different towns or peoples. Following some rules, we can think they are updated and many of them even sexist for us noawadys. Muslims  The Koran Jews  The Torah ChristiansThe Holy Bible Jews use a pointer because the Torah cannot be touched.
  7. 7. FEUDAL SYSTEM During the Middle Ages religion was very important but society was organised under a feudal system that started with the fall of the Western Roman Empire. It was a system in which a free person was dependent on another and became his vassal. The commitment between the vassal and the lord was sealed with the act of homage. The feudal lords exercised their authority over the peasants who worked on their lands (manor land). So dependentrelationships were also created between the lower social classes and the ruling classes. In this unfair society there were privileged groups and non privileged groups who had no rights, and plenty of duties imposed like paying taxes.
  8. 8. BETWEEN THE MODERN AGE AND THE CONTEMPORARY AGE It is said tha it was in the United States, during the 18th century, when the first declaration of human rights was written. But we can state that it was in England, birthplace of the Parlamentarism (cuna del Parlamentarismo), where we find the first Bill of Rights (Carta de Derechos), in 1689, by the time William and Mary of England reached the power.
  9. 9. English Bill of Rights 1689 Introduction: The Bill of Rights was passed by Parliament on 16 December 1689. It was a re-statement in statutory form of the Declaration of Right presented by the Convention Parliament to William and Mary in March 1689 inviting them to become joint sovereigns of England. It lays down limits on the powers of sovereign and sets out the rights of Parliament and rules for freedom of speech in Parliament, the requirement to regular elections to Parliament and the right to petition the monarch without fear of retribution. It reestablished the liberty of Protestants to have arms for their defense within the rule of law, and condemned James II of England. “Whereas the late King James the Second, by assistance of divers evil counsellors, judges and ministers employed by him, died endeavour to subvert and extirpate the Protestant religion and the laws and liberties1 of this kingdom” (First lines of the English Bill of Rights)
  10. 10. The Bill of Rights laid out certain basic rights for (at the time) all Englishmen. These rights continue to apply today, not only in England and Wales, but in each of the jurisdictions of the Commonwealth realms as well. The Act set out that there should be: no royal interference with the law. Though the sovereign remains the fount of justice, he or she cannot unilaterally establish new courts or act as a judge. no taxation by Royal Prerogative. The agreement of parliament became necessary for the implementation of any new taxes. only civil courts, not Church courts, are legal freedom to petition the monarch without fear of retribution no standing army may be maintained during a time of peace without the consent of parliament. no royal interference in the freedom of the people to have arms for their own defence as suitable to their class and as allowed by law (simultaneously restoring rights previously taken from Protestants by James II) no royal interference in the election of members of parliament the freedom of speech and debates or proceedings in Parliament ought not to be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of Parliament "grants and promises of fines or forfeitures" before conviction are void no excessive bail or "cruel and unusual" punishments may be imposed
  11. 11. United States Declaration of Independence 1776 The Declaration of Independence was a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies then at war with Great Britain regarded themselves as independent states, and no longer a part of the British Empire. John Adams put forth a resolution earlier in the year which made a formal declaration inevitable. A committee was assembled to draft the formal declaration, which was to be ready when congress voted on independence. Adams persuaded the committee to select Thomas Jefferson to compose the original draft of the document, which congress would edit to produce the final version. The Declaration was ultimately a formal explanation of why Congress had voted on July 2 to declare independence from Great Britain, more than a year after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War. The birthday of the United States of America—Independence Day—is celebrated on July 4, the day the wording of the Declaration was approved by Congress. The first sentence of the Declaration asserts as a matter of Natural law the ability of a people to assume political independence, and acknowledges that the grounds for such independence must be reasonable. When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. The next section, the famous preamble, includes the ideas and ideals that were principles of the Declaration. It is also an assertion of what is known as the "right of revolution": that is, people have certain rights, and when a government violates these rights, the people have the right to "alter or abolish" that government. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
  12. 12. CONTEMPORARY AGE: FRENCH REVOLUTION The French Revolution was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France from 1789 to 1799 that had a fundamental impact on French history and on modern history worldwide. Experiencing an economic crisis exacerbated by the Seven Years' War and the American Revolutionary War, the common people of France became increasingly frustrated by the ineptitude of King Louis XVI and the continued decadence of the aristocracy. This resentment, coupled with burgeoning Enlightenment ideals, fueled radical sentiments and launched the Revolution in 1789 with the convocation of the Estates-General in May. The first year of the Revolution saw members of the Third Estate proclaiming the Tennis Court Oath in June, the assault on the Bastille in July, the passage of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in August, and an epic march on Versailles that forced the royal court back to Paris in October. 1789
  13. 13. DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN AND OF THE CITIZEN: 1793 The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, or Declaration of Human and Civic Rights (French: Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen) is a fundamental document of the French Revolution and in the history of human rights, defining the individual and collective rights of all the estates of the realm as universal. Influenced by the doctrine of "natural right", the rights of man are held to be universal: valid at all times and in every place, pertaining to human nature itself.
  14. 14. DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN AND OF THE CITIZEN: 1789 The last article of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen was adopted on 26 August 1789, by the National Constituent Assembly, during the period of the French Revolution, as the first step toward writing a constitution for France. Inspired by the Enlightenment, the original version of the Declaration was discussed by the representatives on the basis of a 24 article draft proposed by the sixth bureau,led by Jérôme Champion de Cicé. The draft was later modified during the debates. A second and lengthier declaration, known as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen of 1793 was later adopted
  15. 15. DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN AND OF THE CITIZEN: 1789 The Declaration also asserted the principles of popular sovereignty, in contrast to the divine right of kings that characterized the French monarchy, and social equality among citizens, "All the citizens, being equal in the eyes of the law, are equally admissible to all public dignities, places, and employments, according to their capacity and without distinction other than that of their virtues and of their talents," eliminating the special rights of the nobility and clergy. 1. Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be founded only upon the general good. 4. Liberty consists in the freedom to do everything which injures no one else; hence the exercise of the natural rights of each man has no limits except those which assure to the other members of the society the enjoyment of the same rights. These limits can only be determined by law. 11. The free communication of ideas and opinions is one of the most precious of the rights of man. Every citizen may, accordingly, speak, write, and print with freedom, but shall be responsible for such abuses of this freedom as shall be defined by law.
  16. 16. WORLD WARS ARFTERMATH: THE UNITED NATIONS The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945 after the Second World War by 51 countries committed to maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations and promoting social progress, better living standards and human rights. Due to its unique international character, and the powers vested in its founding Charter, the Organization can take action on a wide range of issues, and provide a forum for its 193 Member States to express their views, through the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council and other bodies and committees. The UN has 4 main purposes • To keep peace throughout the world; • To develop friendly relations among nations; • To help nations work together to improve the lives of poor people, to conquer hunger, disease and illiteracy, and to encourage respect for each other’s rights and freedoms; • To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations to achieve these goals.
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