Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.



Published on

biological science

Published in: Science
  • Be the first to comment


  1. 1. Gas exchange in animals GROUP #3 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
  2. 2. It involves at least 3 distinct processes: 1. Pulmonary ventilation – movement of air into and out of lungs. • Pulmonary ventilation have process which oxygen enters and carbon dioxide exits the alveoli, respiration is the process by which oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse in and out of the blood.
  3. 3. 2. External respiration – exchange of gases between the blood and air in the alveoli •Air from the outside environment enters the nose or mouth during inspiration (inhalation) 3. Internal respiration – exchange of gases between the blood and issues cells.
  4. 4. Gas exchange in animals 1. Direct diffusion –unicellular organisms like amoeba and paramecium resort to direct diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide through the plasma membrane. 2. Use of gills – large animals use gills for gas exchange.
  5. 5. 3. Tracheal system – tracheal system are found in insect. Air enters the body through the opening at the side of the abdomen called spiracles which lead to a system of tube called tracheae. Found in insect. 4. Book lungs – these are found in spiders. Each “lung” has a number of leaf-like folds. Air enters the book lungs through a pair of slit- like openings on the under surface of the abdomen. Ex. Spiders
  6. 6. 5. Lung system – terrestrial vertebrates use lungs for gas exchange. Air entered through the nostril which usually leads to nasal cavity which opens to the mouth or pharynx
  7. 7. parts 1. NOSE  Internal part is called the nasal cavity large cavity superior to the oral cavity & inferior to the brain.  External part protruding from the face.  Contains cilia which is responsible for filtering out foreign bodies.  Internal nares - opening to exterior.  External nares - opening to pharynx.  Nasal conchae - folds in the mucous membrane that increase air.  Contains olfactory cells which detect smell. 1. PHARYNX  Common space used by both the respiratory and digestive systems.  Commonly called the throat.  Common pathway for both air and food.  Walls are lined by a mucosa and contain skeletal muscles thatare primarily used for swallowing.  Flexible lateral walls are distensible in order to force swallowed food into the esophagus.  Tonsil-are found in the nasopharynx, oropharynx, & larygopharynx,
  8. 8. Three Sections of the Pharynx •Nasopharynx  contains the pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) which aid in thebody’s immune defense •Oropharynx  back portion of the mouth that contains the palatine tonsils which aid in the body’s immune defense •Laryngopharynx  bottom section of the pharynx where the respiratory tractdivides into the esophagus and the larynx. 3.LARYNX OR VOICE BOX  Voice box is a short,somewhat cylindrical airway ends in the trachea.  Consists of:  Tyroid cartilage or adam’s apple.  Epiglottis or lid cartilage.  Cricoid or signet ring cartilag.  Arytenoid or pyramid shaped cartilage.  Prevents swallowed materials from entering the lower respiratory tract.  Conducts air into the lower respiratory tract.  Produces sounds (vocal cords)  Movement of lips, tougue and jaws make sound to form words.
  9. 9. 4.TRACHEA  A flexible tube also called windpipe.  Supported in front by rings of unshaped cartilages which prevent and continuous of the tube facilitating easy and continuous passage of air into the lungs.  The walls of the trachea & bronchi are provide with cilia that traps dust particles and micro- oragnisms. Tube exteding from the larynx to bronchi.
  10. 10. 5.LUNGS  Occupy most of the thorax bounded by the chest wall with ribs and dome-shaped sheet of skeletal muscle, the diaphragm.  Its superior region called the apex projects superiorly to apoint that is slightly superior and posterior to the clavicle. • Both lungs are bordered by the thoracic wall interiorly, laterally, and posteriorly, and supported by the rib cage. • Toward the midline, the lungs are separated from each other by the mediastinum. • The relatively broad, rounded surface in contact with the thoracic wall is called the costal surface of the lung.
  11. 11. • Structures associated with lungs: a) Bronchi – right and left formed by branching of trachea. b) Bronchioles – smaller brances of bronchi . c) Alveolar ducts – microscopic branches of bronchioles. d.M Alveoli – microscopic sacs / pouch-like spaces at the ends of the alveolar ducts provided with a network of lung capillaries facilitating gas exchange between the air within it and the blood within the capillaries  Left lungs • – divided into 2 lobes by oblique fissure • – smaller than the right lung– cardiac notch accommodates the heart.  Right lungs • – divided into 3 lobes by oblique and horizontal fissure. – located more superiorly in the body due to liver on right side lungs.  Fissure • – located more superiorly in the body due to liver on right side lungs.