Microsoft PowerPoint 2007 is a presentation application. A presentation is a series of slides that can be shown with a computer and projector, shown as a Web page or overhead transparencies, or printed as a handout. Individual slides contain elements such as text, charts, graphics, photographs, sounds, and more. PowerPoint allows the presenter to focus on the message and content he or she wishes to communicate, while the application takes care of design and consistency. Think about all of the presentations you have seen. Did the presenter use presentation software? Did it make the presentation more interesting? Was it easier to understand the points the presenter was making?
The goal of chapter one is to provide an introduction to professional digital presentations. The objectives of this chapter are: Identify PowerPoint user interface elements Use PowerPoint views Open and save a slide show Get help Create a storyboard Use slide layouts
Additional objectives are: 7. Apply design themes 8. Review the presentation 9. Add a table 10 Insert clip art 11. Use transitions and animations 12. Run and navigate within a slide show 13. Print with PowerPoint.
Let’s begin by looking at a PowerPoint application window. If you are familiar with Microsoft Windows or Microsoft Office in other versions, you will see quite a few things you can identify. Do you recognize the Title bar? The Menu bar? The scroll bars? The document area? After you have looked at the parts of the window, consider what the slide displayed says. It summarizes how you and PowerPoint will interact. When you work with PowerPoint, remember that the digital presentation is a visual aid. The real star of the presentation should be the presenter.
Did you identify the parts of the PowerPoint window correctly? The Title Bar contains the Microsoft Office Button which provides you with commands for saving, printing, and preparing your work for sharing with others. The Quick Access Toolbar gives you access to some of the same commands, but it is even quicker than using the Microsoft Office Button. Using this toolbar, you can Save, Print, Undo, and Redo. You may also modify this toolbar to suit the way you like to work. The Title Bar contains the Minimize, Restore, and Close buttons. It also show the filename of the presentation.
The next toolbar is the Ribbon where groups of commands are available. These commands are context sensitive, meaning that when you have an element selected, the Ribbon shows commands for manipulating that element. For instance, if a graphic was selected, the commands available on the Ribbon would allow you to change the graphic. If a text element was selected, changes such as font, font size, and alignment are available. The commands are grouped into a gallery. In this slide you can see a Clipboard, Slides, Font, Paragraph, WordArt Styles, and an Editing gallery. Tabs above the Ribbon organize the most commonly used commands for creating presentations. As you can see, there are tabs for Home, Insert, Design, Animations, Slide Show, Review, View, and Adds-Ins.
The document window is where the slide is developed. There are different panes that will appear based on the view you are using. Later we will discuss the views, but let’s focus on the document area for now. The slide, in the design you have selected, is displayed. In the case of this slide, you can see the blue corner graphic which is a design element. The title is keyed by you, but will automatically format into the design that is selected. The same is true for the other text on the slide. Bullet points are formatted based on the design theme. This makes for fast slide development. You can select a slide design, input your message, review it, and quickly show it to an audience. The status bar, at the bottom of the window, provides you with information related to the position of the slide in the slide show (for example, Slide 2 of 6), the design theme being used (which, in our example, is Concourse), the Views available, and a Zoom feature. Scroll bars will appear on the right side and bottom of the document window when they are needed.
Four views are available in PowerPoint. Three of the views are used to prepare the presentation. The fourth is used to show the presentation to an audience. You may use the View buttons on the status bar to switch between views or use the View tab above the Ribbon to change to another view. Each of these views will be discussed in the following slides.
The Normal View of the PowerPoint application is where you will key the information onto the slides. Three panes appear in the Normal View: an Outline tab pane with a Slides tab and an Outline tab, the Slide pane, and the Notes pane. With the Slides tab in the Outline pane selected, you see small representations of what is on each of the slides in the presentation. These are called thumbnails. A long presentation will cause the scroll bar in the Outline pane to appear so that you may scroll to view more slides. With the Outline tab in the Outline pane selected, only the text portion of the slides will show. This view can be very convenient for keying text onto your slides because each time you press the Enter key, an additional slide is created. As slides are created, the text will appear on the slide view in the document window. The Slide pane contains the slide with the text and design. Many people use this area for inputting the information on the slides. It is more visual and allows you to fine-tune the placement of elements. The Notes pane is used for entering notes that the speaker will use as they deliver the presentation. These will not be displayed to the audience as the presentation is shown.
The Notes Page View is another way to add speaker’s notes to the presentation. In this view you see the slide at the top of the document window. As you key your notes, they will appear below the slide. This is also how the printed speaker’s notes will look. The notes entered on the Notes Page View do not appear when the presentation is shown.
The Slide Sorter View shows each of the slides in the presentation in thumbnail view. In this view you can change the order of the slides, delete slides, and add transitions. Moving slide six to position two is as easy as dragging it to the proper place. Once this change has been made, the other slides move into their respective positions. This is also a dynamic move because this change will be made in all views in the presentation. The Slide Sorter View also allows you to move quickly from this view into the Normal View. Select a slide by double clicking it, and the Normal view of that slide will be displayed.
In the Slide Show View, the slide fills the screen. This is the view that is used during the presentation to an audience. Each slide will be displayed one at a time. To start the presentation, click on the View tab and select Slide Show in the Presentation Views gallery. This will start the presentation from the beginning. There are two methods of advancing the slides. The presenter can advance the slides manually or pre-determined amounts of time can be used to advance the slides. When the speaker is giving the presentation, it is often best to advance the slides manually so that time is allowed for questions from the audience or additional comments by the speaker. If the presentation was developed to run itself, as it might in a kiosk, then predetermined timings should be used. To end the slide show, at any time, press the Esc key on the keyboard. Later in this presentation there will be more information on navigating through a slide show.
You will store your presentation on storage media such as a hard drive, CD, DVD, or flash drive. If you store it to a CD, DVD, or flash drive, you are able to “hit the road” with your presentation and it is backed up in case of a computer disaster. When you open a presentation, you are bringing a copy of it from your storage media into the memory of the computer. Once you have opened the presentation you can continue to work on it or display it for an audience. Use the Office button menu to open files. Be sure to select the correct storage location in the Look In: text box. When you have located the file, click on it and click on the Open button. The file will open into the Normal view.
Saving a file works in a similar way as Open. Use the Office button menu to select Save As. Again, make sure you locate the correct storage location using the Save in: text box. Key a file name in the File name: text box. Click on the Save button. You will also notice a Save option on the Office button menu. After you have saved the file for the first time, you can save changes you make by selecting the Save option. This will save the file with the same file name as you specified the first time you saved the file. Realize that when you save a file with the Save command it will be saved over the previously saved file. Save often! Some people even suggest saving after each slide is completed. When you save files, be sure to use descriptive file names. This will help you to quickly find files. It is also a good idea to create folders and store the files in a folder. Save your work often. It is better to have saved too often, than not to have saved at all!
Many people forget about one of the most informative options in Microsoft Office applications – Help! Great care has been taken in preparing information files to help you. Take advantage of these files when you want to learn how to do something new, when you have forgotten how to do something, or when you can’t quite seem to get something to work as you think it should. To access Help, click on the Help icon (a question mark in a circle) in the upper right corner of the PowerPoint window. You may also use the F1 key to access the information. Shown here are the Help topics and a keyword search box. You may select a Help hyperlink from the Browse PowerPoint help menu, which will open into the topic menu. From there, you can select an article that fits your needs. Often the topic articles contain graphics to help you visualize the process. An alternative to using the Help hyperlinks is to use a keyword search. If you are connected to the Internet, the search will include articles that are available on the Office Online Web site. After keying the topic area you are trying to find information about and clicking on the Search button, you will see a list of topics. Select one and the article will appear in the Help window.
Speaking in front of a group is often feared by people. One of the best ways to alleviate this fear is to adequately plan for your presentation. First, consider who will be your audience. What are their demographics? What is their age range? Does their political or educational background affect how you will present your message? What leisure activities might they like? What is their occupation? How many people will be in attendance? Do they have prior knowledge about your topic? What is their motivation? What are their needs? What are their wants? Why are they attending your presentation? Are audience members potential customers, existing customers, staff members, peers, or supervisors? Storyboarding allows you to get your ideas down on paper. Still thinking about your audience, consider these questions: What is the main objective of my presentation? What are 3 – 5 key points I want to make? How much detail should I include? What is an appropriate tone? Serious? Lightly humorous? Informal? What kind of visuals will work best? Graphics? Charts? Tables? Pictures? What do the audience members already know about the topic? Once the storyboard is fleshed out, complete any additional research you might need for your presentation. Do you need a good quote as an ice-breaker? Do you have all the facts that you are planning to use in your presentation? With your content ideas completed, prepare your presentation and add it to the PowerPoint application. Experiment with slide design themes to determine what will fit the needs of your presentation. Review your presentation for accuracy. Practice giving the presentation. Make a list of all of the items you will need to effectively make the presentation. Do you need extension cords for the projector or computer? Will your audience want handouts? Will you use other visuals or props? Do you have a back-up plan in case something goes wrong? Do you have an extra copy of the presentation on a different storage media? What will you wear? When should you leave to be sure you have enough time to set-up? No wonder people are afraid to make presentations! There is so much planning!
Storyboards give you the opportunity to brainstorm and get your initial ideas on paper. Some people prefer written storyboards, as shown here. Others prefer a more graphic storyboard where thumbnails of the slides are sketched out. A storyboard is a good tool when many people are participating in the planning of the presentation. The storyboard allows you to organize your information. There are three sections used in a storyboard. The content section contains the information for each slide in the presentation. The layout section allows you to select the best layout to fit the information you are putting on each slide. The visual elements section helps you to plan what kind of graphics will support the information. Remember, there are many choices to make about the elements on the slides. Be sure that visual elements support the message and don’t distract the audience from what you will be saying.
Presentations will have three major parts. The content of the parts can be varied, but leaving out one part is probably not a good idea. The introduction of the presentation happens in the first few slides of the presentation. It may be as simple as a title slide or more complex with a title which includes goals, objectives, or an agenda for the presentation. It can contain elements that draw the audience into the presentation and get them thinking, “This is going to be good!” Quotations, questions, and compelling graphics all fall into this category. The second part of the presentation is where you make your points or share your information. Most people will only take three to five points away from a presentation. Be sure that you are very clear in what you are saying. Put the emphasis on giving the audience information they didn’t have before. What do you want them to remember? Support your ideas with graphics, text, charts, photographs, sound, and video. The final part of the presentation is to summarize your message. In this area your slides will focus on your main points, your purpose, or what you want the audience to do. Remember that the summary is the final chance you have to make the information “stick.” Some presenters use this area to offer other sources of information about the topic.
After you have gathered your information, prepare to discard most of it for your slides. Long sentences, lots of text, and too many ideas on a slide can wear your audience out. Use short phrases on the slides, and as you speak give more information and embellish the thoughts. Bullet points help people to organize the information. Bullet points start with a capital letter and end without a period. Active voice involves the user in your message. Use action verbs whenever possible on your slides. Avoid “is, am, are, was, were” as they mean passive voice is creeping into your presentation. Be as clear and concise as possible in the development of your ideas. If there is a logical order to the ideas, put them in that order. Avoid straying from the original topic. Elements, such as graphics and charts, should support the message. They should also match the feel of the presentation. Don’t just throw things in because they are cute. Bunnies, cats, and dogs probably don’t belong on a business presentation unless you are in the pet store business. One instructor I know often puts a cartoon in the middle of her PowerPoint presentation for classes. She thinks that this gives the students a “time-out,” but in reality, it moves the students’ minds completely off of the topic and it is hard to get them back. Also, don’t think that your sense of humor will be funny to everyone. Presentations can be thrown completely off center by inappropriate cartoons, animations, and sounds. And finally, one last rule… be consistent. Be consistent in the tone of your presentation; in the design of your presentation; in the graphics used in your presentation.
The 7 x 7 guideline can help you edit your slide information. Using this guideline gives you a maximum of 49 words on a slide, which is enough to support your idea, and not so much that your audience gets more involved with reading your slides than listening to you. Remember, PowerPoint presentations are visual aids. You are the star of the show. You have the real information to present to your audience. If you find yourself consistently going over the limit imposed by this guideline, try putting just one concept on each slide. This will focus the audience’s attention. It will help you edit your slides for maximum retention. Don’t be one of those presenters who says “I know you can’t read this but…” Support your words with other elements for greatest understanding and retention.
When you add a new slide to the presentation, you will have the opportunity to select a slide layout. There are nine slide layouts in the Office Theme shown. Slide layouts guide the person creating the presentation with placeholders for different elements on the slide. There are placeholders for the title, content, and graphics in the layouts. If placeholders do not fit into your style of design, you may delete any placeholder you do not wish to use. You also can select a blank slide. If the size of the placeholder does not fit the content, you can drag it larger or smaller by the handles on the edges of the placeholder. Placeholders can also be moved if you do not like the position.
After determining the content of your presentation, the design should receive your attention. PowerPoint has a number of design themes from which to choose. You can also modify an existing theme or create your own. Additional themes are available from the Web at Microsoft Office Online. The design theme shown here is called Opulent. The design theme includes formatting for colors, fonts, and theme effects. When you select and apply a theme, the formatting is automatically added to elements in the presentation. This allows you to concentrate on your content first, and then to apply design to the presentation. Design themes give a certain “feel” to the presentation. Look at the theme shown in the slide. Is it professional? Do the colors suggest anything? Does it appear to be easy to read?
After the hard work of creating the content and designing the presentation are over, many people feel that they have completed the presentation. This just isn’t a good practice. All presentations should be reviewed for accuracy. It is very embarrassing to be standing in front of a large group of people with your presentation displayed in a larger-than-life size, and realize that you misspelled something or that the wrong word has crept into the middle of a sentence. Spelling is checked in two phases of the presentation development. The red wavy line appears when a word does not match one in the dictionary of the Office application. It is a good idea to right click on those words and either correct the spelling or add the correctly spelled word to the dictionary. Some words get marked as incorrect when they are really correct. Proper names sometimes are flagged as bad along with abbreviations. The second phase where spelling is checked is after all content has been added to the slide and the design decisions are complete. At this time, use the Review tab and check the spelling again. Review the presentation for correct word usage. Make sure you haven’t spelled words correctly but not put them in the proper context. For instance, for and fore are two words with different meanings, but both are spelled correctly. The final step is really three steps. Proofread your presentation from beginning to end. Then proofread it from end to beginning. This perspective often allows mistakes to pop out at you. Then take a nap, a walk, or have a meal. Just get away from the computer for awhile. Come back to the presentation at a later time and proofread it again.
Tables allow you to arrange information in a way that makes sense to your audience. Most people are used to seeing spreadsheets of information arranged in rows and columns. If you are using numbers in your table, make sure that the font size is large enough to allow your audience to read it easily. If you can’t be sure of this, then provide the audience with handouts of the same data. The source of your table can be from Word or Excel, or the table can be created directly in PowerPoint.
Presentations with visual appeal are usually more memorable. PowerPoint allows you to insert clips of all sorts. Clip art is usually line art. A vast amount of clip art is available via the Internet and Microsoft Office Online. Personal photographs or photographs from online sources can be used in presentations. A movie or short video that applies to your presentation can be used as a way for you to catch your breath during a presentation and make a point in a memorable way. Sounds can also add spice to the presentation. But just as your favorite recipe can have too much spice and end up tasting terrible, too much “sound spice” can distract your audience. You can record your own voice reading from a script, or use sounds from online sources. PowerPoint can play a wide variety of file format sounds from slide presentations. Animations can be applied to elements causing them to arrive on the screen in different ways. Repeated use of slow moving animations can also bore your audience. Use them sparingly, especially with text elements. Transitions allow your slides to move onto the stage in interesting ways. For instance, they can fade in, fly in, or checker board in. Consistency is the key with transitions otherwise your audience will begin to try to guess which method is coming with the next slide. The transition gallery contains 58 different transitions. When using media from online sources, remember that copyright laws apply. Use public domain media, request permission for the use of media, or use media you create yourself. Remember, media should always support the message!
A wide variety of media items can be inserted through the Clip art pane, accessed through the Illustrations gallery. Clips include clip art, photographs, sound, and movies. In the Clip art pane seen here, there are three different types of clips available. The clip already added to the slide is clip art. When a clip is selected a shortcut menu appears that allows you to manipulate the clip file by inserting it, copying it, deleting it, changing the keywords, and previewing the properties. Most often you will use the insert option. The Clip art pane allows you to search for clips by keyword, collection, and type. To search for a clip, key a keyword into the search dialog box. Specify which collections to search. Indicate the types of clips you want to use. Click the Go button and the search will be completed. You may also search for clips from Microsoft Office Online if you are connected to the Internet.
Clips can be moved and re-sized as needed. When the clip is selected, it will have editing handles. Move the mouse pointer over the handles and they will change to a double-pointed or four-pointed arrow. A double-pointed arrow is used to re-size the clip by dragging the handles with the mouse pointer. If you re-size the clip using the editing handles in the corners of the clip, the proportions of the clip will be maintained. If you don’t use the corner editing handles, the clip will be distorted in height or width. To move the clip around the slide, place the mouse pointer inside of the clip editing handles. When the pointer changes to a four-pointed arrow you may drag the clip to the new location. You may also select the clip and use the arrow keys on the keyboard to move the clip.
Transitions are the way the slides move onto the screen during the presentation. The effects include fades, dissolves, wipes, push and cover, stripes, bars, and random effects. Fifty-eight transitions are available in the Transitions Gallery. Access the gallery by using the Animations tab. Click the More button in the Transitions to This Slide group to display the gallery. Live Preview allows you to see the transition before you select the transition. Hold your mouse pointer over a transition icon to see the Live Preview. Remember that transitions are the effect as the slide enters the screen.
Animations are different from transitions because they affect individual objects such as text, diagrams, tables, hyperlinks and clips. These items can move onto the slide using different schemes. Often presenters will animate bullet points so that they appear one at a time during the presentation. Open the Animation list by clicking on the Animation tab. Click the Animate down arrow in the Animation group. Select the object you wish to animate and click on the effect. If you are animating text, you will be given options for how the text is displayed. A Custom Animation pane is available by clicking on the Custom Animation button in the Animations group. Click the Add Effect button on the Custom Animation pane to select the entrance, emphasis, exit, or motion paths for objects on the slide. With the choices shown here, you can see that the coffee clip will exit in a special way which hasn’t been selected yet. The number next to the clip indicates that this will be the first item to animate. As you animate other objects they will be numbered progressively. You can test the animation by clicking on the Play button at the bottom of the Custom Animation pane. Every object on the slide can be animated. The title can display one effect. The text may be set to fly in after a mouse click. The clip art can follow a path across the slide. It is fun to experiment with different effects, but remember that too many on one slide can be distracting to the audience.
When you finally arrive at the time to make the presentation, you will have to be comfortable with how to navigate through the slides. There are multiple keystrokes for each of the methods listed here. The key is to find a method you like and stick with it. For instance, some people use N for Next, and P for Previous. They can black out the screen at any time by touching the B key. They can also white out the screen with W but that tends to blind the audience so it is not recommended. Why would you want to black out the screen? If you wished to stop the presentation for a discussion, you might want to display a black screen so that the audience doesn’t focus on the items you have on the slide. And how do you turn the presentation back on after going to black? Press the B key again! Some people prefer to click the mouse button to move forward in the slide show. Other people find it easy to press the Enter key on the keyboard to move to the next slide. To end a slide show, simply press the ESC key on the keyboard. This can be done at any time during the slide show. Some presenters prefer not to show the PowerPoint design screens to the audience. These presenters will make a blank slide for the final slide in their presentation and display that until the audience leaves the room or the projector is turned off. Still more options exist for navigation. Using the shortcut menu, you have additional ways to navigate. There is even an option to annotate your slides. These methods will be discussed in the next few slides.
At times you may not wish to use the navigation suggested in the previous slide. A shortcut menu is available by right-clicking. As you can see you have choices to move to the next slide or the previous. This is probably not the best way to move in your slide show as it can be distracting to see the menu over and over. Most of the available commands on the shortcut menu are for adjusting the presentation as you go along. The Screen option allows you to go to a white or black screen. The Pointer options will be discussed a later slide, as will the Go to Slide options. Notice that you can End Show from this menu.
Something that often happens in a presentation is that the audience wants to go back to a previous slide or you may want to skip a slide. This is possible in PowerPoint through the use of the go to function in the shortcut menu accessed by right-clicking. Point to the Go to Slide command and click on the slide you want to view. The presentation will jump to that slide and you may continue going forward from that point or use the go to function again. Notice that the slides are named in the menu by the titles on the slides. This makes it easy to navigate. If the slide does not have a title, as Slide 7 does not, then you will see the word “Slide” and the number of the slide.
If you want to feel like the football TV announcer, you may annotate your slides while you are displaying them. You can circle words, underline, and erase what you have done. Right-clicking the mouse will bring up a shortcut menu. Select Pointer Options and a menu of different annotation tools appears. Select the tool you wish to use. There are options for a pen, felt tip pen, highlighter, eraser, and arrows. You can even select the color of your annotations. As you move the mouse, hold down the left mouse button to draw on your slides. You can decide whether to keep the annotations at the end of the show or remove them so you have a clean presentation for your next audience.
You will find that after your inspiring presentation, the audience will often request handouts. PowerPoint has multiple options for printing. Slides can be printed full size which fills a sheet of paper for each. Handouts with the complete speaker’s notes can be printed, again taking a full sheet of paper for each slide. The outline of the presentation can be printed, taking less paper to produce. Handouts can also be made with three slides on a page with lines for notes. Other options include two, four, six, or nine slides per page. The slides can be printed vertically or horizontally on the page. You might also find that people would be just as happy if you email them with an attachment of the presentation. This saves trees!
Power point2007 chapter_1
Exploring Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007 Committed to Shaping the Next Generation of IT Experts. Chapter 1:
Objectives <ul><li>Identify PowerPoint user interface elements </li></ul><ul><li>Use PowerPoint views </li></ul><ul><li>Open and save a slide show </li></ul><ul><li>Use help </li></ul><ul><li>Create a storyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Use slide layouts </li></ul>
Objectives (continued) <ul><li>Apply design themes </li></ul><ul><li>Review the presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Add a table </li></ul><ul><li>Insert clip art </li></ul><ul><li>Use transitions and animations </li></ul><ul><li>Run and navigate within a slide show </li></ul><ul><li>Print with PowerPoint </li></ul>
Planning for a Presentation <ul><li>Consider your audience </li></ul><ul><li>Storyboard your ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Complete research </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare the presentation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Add content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make design decisions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Review the presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare to give the presentation </li></ul>
Parts of a Presentation <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>“ Tell ‘em what you’re going to tell ‘em, tell ‘em, then tell ‘em what you told ‘em!”
Decisions, Decisions <ul><li>Edit to short phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Use bullet points </li></ul><ul><li>Use active voice </li></ul><ul><li>Be clear and concise </li></ul><ul><li>Elements should support not distract </li></ul><ul><li>Be consistent </li></ul>
7 X 7 Guideline <ul><li>Seven words per line </li></ul><ul><li>Seven lines per slide </li></ul>7 7 <ul><li>Edit to short phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Use bullet points </li></ul><ul><li>Use active voice </li></ul><ul><li>Be clear and concise </li></ul><ul><li>Elements should support not distract </li></ul><ul><li>Be consistent </li></ul>Decisions, Decisions
Slide Layouts <ul><li>Placeholders hold content </li></ul><ul><li>Placeholders control element location </li></ul><ul><li>Placeholders can be deleted </li></ul><ul><li>Placeholder size can be changed </li></ul><ul><li>Placeholders can be moved </li></ul>
Animation Animation effects Custom Animation pane Sequence of animation Play button
Navigating through the Slide Show <ul><li>Next </li></ul><ul><li>Previous </li></ul><ul><li>Black/White </li></ul><ul><li>End </li></ul><ul><li>Shortcut menu </li></ul><ul><li>Go to </li></ul><ul><li>Annotations </li></ul>