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Girls Rock Title Ix


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Title IX and Black females

Published in: Economy & Finance, Sports
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Girls Rock Title Ix

  1. 1. Presentation Overview <ul><li>Issue: Black female athletes </li></ul><ul><li>Equity: Frequencies & Likelihood </li></ul><ul><li>Investment: Cost of cultivating female athletes </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy: Has Title IX failed Black Females? </li></ul>
  2. 2. Black Females & Title IX <ul><li>Silenced (Smith, 1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Double jeopardy (Lattimer, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Invisible (Edwards, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Sport saturated (Roby, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>At Black females expense (Greenlee, 1997) </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1999-2000 Participation Frequencies
  4. 4. Likelihood 1999-2000
  5. 5. Implications <ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>66% OF BFSAS v. 50 of BNSAS (NCAA, 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>21% increase in BSAS rates since ’84 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$2.1 million over a lifetime (DOE, 2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BFS 1.5 % of senior administrators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BFS >2 % of head coaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2007 LPGA Purse is $55.6 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2007 WTA Purse is $40.6 million </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Equity & Equality <ul><li>Sometimes women are fighting for individual rights against men and they tend to forget there are other women in the mix… Tina Sloan Green (Lees, 2001) </li></ul>
  7. 7. INVESTMENT <ul><li>LACROSSE </li></ul><ul><li>Expenses = 21 </li></ul><ul><li>Yearly = $5,205 </li></ul><ul><li>7Y cultivation =$36,435 </li></ul><ul><li>SOCCER </li></ul><ul><li>Expenses = 19 </li></ul><ul><li>Yearly = $5,867 </li></ul><ul><li>7Y cultivation = $41,069 </li></ul>$236,639,578 $64,599,255
  8. 8. Infrastructure <ul><li>BWSF & National League of Negro Women </li></ul><ul><li>USTA, US Lacrosse, WTA, USA Soccer, WNBA, & USOC </li></ul><ul><li>Boston, San Francisco, Detroit, New York, San Antonio, TX, & Springfield, MO </li></ul><ul><li>USDOE, DOL, NCAA, Local Government, & Major Sporting Events Proceeds </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Black Feminists </li></ul><ul><li>Black Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional Evolution </li></ul>Has Title IX Failed Black Females?
  10. 10. <ul><li>Acquire & maintain baseline data </li></ul><ul><li>USOC & 1978 Amateur Sports Act </li></ul><ul><li>Insist that NCAA give grants </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure pro organizations </li></ul>Engineering Change
  11. 11. Select Works Corbett, D. & Johnson, W. (1993). The African female in collegiate sport: Sexism and racism. In D. Brooks & Althouse (Eds.), racism in college athletics: the African American athlete’s experience (2 nd Edition), p.199-225. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology, Inc. Evans, T.M. (1999). In the Title IX race toward gender equity, the black female athlete is left to finish last: The lack of access for the invisible woman. Howard Law Journal , 42 How. L.J. 105, 20-37. National Collegiate Athletic Association (2005). 1999-2000/2004-2005 Student-Athlete Ethnicity Report. National Collegiate Athletic Association . Indianapolis, IN. Hammer, B (2003) Reconsidering the Status of Title IX. Black Issues In Higher Education . Vol. 20, Issue 4, p.20-23. Stone, Deborah A. (1997). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. New York: W.W. Norton and Co.