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7th Grade Ch 3 Sec 4 Nonmetals & Metalloids

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7th Grade Ch 3 Sec 4 Nonmetals & Metalloids

  1. 1. Ch. 3 Sec. 4 Nonmetals & Metalloids
  2. 2. Nonmetal <ul><li>Element that lacks most properties of metals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dull- not shiny </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>brittle- not malleable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>poor conductors </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Nonmetals <ul><li>Located at right of zigzag line on periodic table </li></ul><ul><li>10/16 = gases </li></ul><ul><li>Most form compounds, except Group 18 </li></ul>
  4. 5. The table salt on a pretzel is mined from deposits found on Earth. The same compound can also be formed from a reaction between the metal sodium and the nonmetal chlorine.
  5. 6. Boron Family <ul><li>Group 13 </li></ul>
  6. 7. Carbon Family <ul><li>Group 14 </li></ul><ul><li>C (nonmetal)  Pb </li></ul><ul><li>4 valence electrons </li></ul>
  7. 8. Carbon Family <ul><li>Contains elements important to life & computers </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon = basis for an entire branch of chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>silicon & germanium- important semiconductors </li></ul>
  8. 9. Nitrogen Family <ul><li>Group 15 </li></ul><ul><li>N  Bi </li></ul><ul><li>2 nonmetals- N & P </li></ul><ul><li>5 valence electrons </li></ul>
  9. 10. Nitrogen Family <ul><li>Group 15 </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen makes up over ¾ of the atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen and phosphorus are both important in living things. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the world’s nitrogen is not available to living things. </li></ul><ul><li>The red stuff on the tip of matches is phosphorus. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Diatomic molecules <ul><li>Compounds of 2 identical </li></ul><ul><li>atoms </li></ul>
  11. 12. 
  12. 15. Oxygen Family <ul><li>Group 16 </li></ul><ul><li>O  Po </li></ul><ul><li>3 nonmetals- O, S, Se </li></ul><ul><li>6 valence electrons </li></ul>
  13. 17. Halogen Family <ul><li>Group 17 </li></ul><ul><li>F  At </li></ul><ul><li>7 valence electrons </li></ul><ul><li>very reactive </li></ul><ul><li>typically gains or shares 1 </li></ul><ul><li>electron </li></ul>
  14. 19. Halogens <ul><li>Group 17 </li></ul><ul><li>Very reactive, volatile, diatomic, nonmetals </li></ul><ul><li>Always found combined with other element in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Used as disinfectants & to strengthen teeth </li></ul>
  15. 20. Noble Gases <ul><li>group 18 </li></ul><ul><li>He  Rn </li></ul><ul><li>8 valence electrons </li></ul><ul><li>very stable & unreactive </li></ul><ul><li>do not form compounds b/c do not gain, lose, or share valence electrons </li></ul>
  16. 22. The Noble Gases <ul><li>Group 18 </li></ul><ul><li>VERY unreactive, monatomic gases </li></ul><ul><li>Used in lighted “neon” signs </li></ul><ul><li>Used in blimps to fix the Hindenberg problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a full valence shell. </li></ul>
  17. 23. The Noble Gases
  18. 24. Hydrogen <ul><li>alone in upper corner </li></ul><ul><li>not grouped in a family </li></ul><ul><li>very diff. properties </li></ul><ul><li>has 1 proton & 1 electron </li></ul><ul><li>some have neutrons </li></ul>
  19. 25. Metalloids <ul><li>on border between metals & nonmetals </li></ul><ul><li>8 metalloids </li></ul><ul><li>characteristics of both metals & nonmetals </li></ul>
  20. 26. Metalloids <ul><li>most useful property= varying ability to conduct electricity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>used to make semiconductors = can conduct electricity under certain conditions </li></ul></ul>
  21. 27. Periodic Table of Elements Name each family and give a description of each, include examples from each group. Name______________________ Date________________ 15 14 13 Li Fr Very reactive Alkali metals 18 17 16 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  22. 28. Bo

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