8th Grade-Ch.1 Sec. 1 Body Organization & Homeostasis

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8th Grade-Ch.1 Sec. 1 Body Organization & Homeostasis

  1. 1. Ch. 1 Sec. 1 Body Organization & Homeostasis
  2. 3. Cell Size and Scale levels of organization in body cells  tissues  organs  organ systems
  3. 4. Cell Types Bone Cell Muscle Cell Nerve Cell Cartilage Cell Blood Cell Small IntestineCell
  4. 5. CELL STRUCTURES (organelles) cell membrane nucleus cytoplasm
  5. 6. Cell Membrane <ul><li>forms outside boundary of cell </li></ul>
  6. 7. Nucleus <ul><li>control center- directs cell’s activities </li></ul>
  7. 8. The nuclei can be seen in the photograph of human cheek cells below.
  8. 9. Cytoplasm <ul><li>clear, jellylike substance </li></ul><ul><li>contains organelles </li></ul>
  9. 10. 4 basic types of tissues muscle tissue nerve tissue connective tissue epithelial tissue
  10. 11. 4 basic types of tissues muscle tissue nerve tissue connective tissue epithelial tissue movement Contracts& shortens
  11. 12. 4 basic types of tissues muscle tissue nerve tissue connective tissue epithelial tissue Movement Contracts & shortens Directs & controls movement Carries messages back & forth from brain
  12. 13. 4 basic types of tissues muscle tissue nerve tissue connective tissue epithelial tissue Movement Contracts & shortens Directs & controls movement Carries messages back & forth from brain Connects & supports
  13. 14. 4 basic types of tissues muscle tissue nerve tissue connective tissue epithelial tissue movement Contracts& shortens Directs & controls movement Carries messages back & forth from brain Connects & supports Covers body surfaces in & out Absorbs & releases chemicals Bone & fat
  14. 15. Tissues
  15. 16. An organ is a structure that is made of different kinds of tissue. <ul><li>Your stomach, heart, brain, and lungs are all organs. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Each organ in your body is part of an organ system. <ul><li>Your heart is part of your circulatory system, which carries oxygen and other materials throughout the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Besides the heart, blood vessels are organs in the circulatory system. </li></ul>
  17. 18. organ systems
  18. 19. Circulatory System <ul><li>FUNCTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>carries needed materials to body cells </li></ul><ul><li>carries wastes away from body </li></ul><ul><li>helps fight disease </li></ul>
  19. 20. homeostasis <ul><li>process by which an organism’s internal environment is kept stable in spite of changes in external environment </li></ul><ul><li>examples: </li></ul><ul><li>internal body temp.= 37 degrees Celsius no matter outside temp. </li></ul><ul><li>perspiring on a hot day </li></ul>
  20. 21. Maintaining Homeostasis Regardless of the surrounding temperature, your body temperature remains fairly constant at about 37°C. Sweating and shivering help regulate your body temperature.
  21. 24. stress <ul><li>reaction of your body & mind to threatening, challenging or disturbing events </li></ul><ul><li>disrupts homeostasis </li></ul>
  22. 25. Review Time
  23. 26. Cell Membrane <ul><li>surrounds cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>allows water, oxygen & other materials to pass in & out of cells </li></ul>
  24. 27. Nucleus <ul><li>cell’s command center </li></ul><ul><li>contains cell's DNA (genetic code) </li></ul>
  25. 28. Cytoplasm <ul><li>material between nucleus & cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>contains organelles & nutrients </li></ul>
  26. 29. List the 4 levels of organization in the human body. Give an example of each level. <ul><li>cell- bone cell </li></ul><ul><li>tissue- muscle tissue </li></ul><ul><li>organ- heart </li></ul><ul><li>organ system- circulatory system </li></ul>
  27. 30. What are the 4 types of tissue found in the human body? What is the general function of each type? <ul><li>muscle tissue = movement </li></ul><ul><li>nerve tissue = carries messages between the brain and other parts of the body </li></ul><ul><li>connective tissue = provides support and connects all parts of the body </li></ul><ul><li>epithelial tissue = covers surfaces of body; absorbs & releases substances </li></ul>
  28. 31. Describe the structure of an animal cell. <ul><li>The cell membrane forms the outside boundary of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Inside the cell membrane is the nucleus , the control center of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>The area between the nucleus and cell membrane is the cytoplasm , which contains important cell structures. </li></ul>
  29. 32. What systems of the body are involved when you prepare a sandwich and then eat it? <ul><li>skeletal system </li></ul><ul><li>nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>muscular system </li></ul><ul><li>circulatory system </li></ul><ul><li>digestive system </li></ul>
  30. 33. What is homeostasis ? <ul><li>process by which an organism’s internal environment is kept stable in spite of changes in external environment </li></ul><ul><li>examples: </li></ul><ul><li>internal body temp = 37 degrees Celsius no matter outside temp. </li></ul><ul><li>perspiring on a hot day </li></ul>
  31. 34. What is stress? How does it affect homeostasis? <ul><li>reaction of your body & mind to threatening, challenging or disturbing events </li></ul><ul><li>upsets homeostasis </li></ul>

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