8th Grade Ch. 5 Sec. 1 Infectious Disease


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8th Grade Ch. 5 Sec. 1 Infectious Disease

  1. 1. CH. 5 Sec. 1 Infectious Diseases
  2. 2. PG. 140 DISCOVER ACTIVITY- HOW DOES A DISEASE SPREAD? 3 2 1 Names of people whose hand you shook Round
  3. 3. infectious disease <ul><li>disease that can pass from one organism to another </li></ul>
  4. 4. pathogen <ul><li>organism that can cause disease </li></ul>
  5. 5. scientists & their ideas Louis Pasteur Joseph Lister Robert Koch <ul><li>showed microorganisms </li></ul><ul><li>cause disease </li></ul><ul><li>infectious disease caused </li></ul><ul><li>by specific pathogen </li></ul><ul><li>microorganisms caused </li></ul><ul><li>diseases </li></ul><ul><li>killing microorganisms </li></ul><ul><li>could prevent spread of </li></ul><ul><li>diseases </li></ul><ul><li>performed surgery under </li></ul><ul><li>more sterile conditions </li></ul>
  6. 6. Joseph Lister using a carbolic steam sprayer to spread a mist of carbolic acid.
  7. 7. <ul><li>In the 1800’s, surgery was performed under conditions that were very different from those used today. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Surgery today is performed in operating rooms that have been cleaned thoroughly to eliminate disease-causing organisms. </li></ul>
  9. 9. THEN NOW
  10. 10. <ul><li>http:// medmyst.rice.edu/index.html </li></ul>4 major groups of human pathogens 1. bacteria 2. viruses 3. fungi 4. protists
  11. 11. 1. bacteria <ul><li>1 celled microorganisms </li></ul><ul><li>produce toxins (poisons) </li></ul><ul><li>diseases caused by bacteria: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>strep throat- streptococcus bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tetanus </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Pictures Of Strep Throat Here are three pictures of strep throat. Notice the red flecks indicating a bacterial infection.
  13. 13. Infectious Diseases Caused by Bacteria [03:07]
  14. 14. 2. viruses <ul><li>smaller than bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>cannot reproduce unless inside living cells </li></ul>
  15. 15. 2. viruses <ul><li>diseases caused by viruses : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>influenza (flu) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chicken pox </li></ul></ul>chicken pox
  16. 16. The Littlest Assassins: What Are Viruses? [03:35]
  17. 17. 3. fungi <ul><li>molds, yeasts </li></ul><ul><li>athlete’s foot </li></ul>
  18. 18. 4. protists <ul><li>malaria </li></ul>The Anopheles mosquito carries the protist that causes malaria.
  19. 20. sources of pathogens 1. person  person 2. contaminated object 3. animal bite 4. environment
  20. 21. 1. person to person transfer <ul><li>thru direct physical contact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>kissing, shaking hands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>thru indirect contact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sneezing </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. 2. contaminated objects towels water food silverware
  22. 23. 3. animal bites
  23. 24. RABIES
  24. 25. rabies
  25. 26. The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorfer i , normally lives in mice, squirrels and other small animals. It is transmitted among these animals – and to humans -- through the bites of certain species of ticks.
  26. 28. engorged deer tick
  27. 29. 4. environment <ul><li>soil </li></ul>water
  28. 31. PROJECT
  29. 32. Choose 1 famous person from the following list: <ul><li>Joseph Lister </li></ul><ul><li>Louis Pasteur </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Koch </li></ul><ul><li>Marie Curie </li></ul><ul><li>Pierre Curie </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander Fleming </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Hooke </li></ul><ul><li>Edward Jenner </li></ul><ul><li>Anton van Leeuwenhoek </li></ul><ul><li>Jonas Salk </li></ul><ul><li>Florence Nightingale </li></ul>For example: Marie Curie
  30. 33. <ul><li>Construct a biography of your scientist </li></ul><ul><li>Type a 2 page comprehensive paper and then summarize the biography on 1 index card , which will be attached to the top of the diorama </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements for the scientist’s biography: </li></ul><ul><li>Vital statistics (date of birth & death, marriage, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Educational history </li></ul><ul><li>Major discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Accomplishments, publications, or recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Reception of discovery at time period </li></ul><ul><li>3 adjectives that would sum up this scientist (Place on back of shoebox). </li></ul><ul><li>Include bibliography , listing at least 2 sources. (Place on back of shoebox). </li></ul><ul><li>Create a likeness of your scientist using an empty eggshell </li></ul><ul><li>Place the egghead in a shoebox diorama </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrate the significant discovery made by the scientist, detailed with background, props and extra pictures on the back of the shoebox </li></ul><ul><li>Include name of scientist and actual picture of scientist on top of shoebox </li></ul><ul><li>Place your name on the back of the shoebox. </li></ul><ul><li>EVERYTHING MUST BE TYPED! </li></ul>Due: Wed. April 9
  31. 34. Making an egghead <ul><li>Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Raw egg </li></ul><ul><li>Straight pin </li></ul><ul><li>Cardboard or cardstock, about 8 cm wide and 13 cm long </li></ul><ul><li>Decorating items (colored pencils, bits of yarn, wire, cloth, felt, </li></ul><ul><li>thread, cotton, modeling clay, tissue paper, construction paper, string, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Shoebox </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Wash the raw egg with soap and water and bring the egg to room temperature for easier extraction of contents. Shake the egg. </li></ul><ul><li>Using a straight pin, make a hole in one end of the egg, pushing the pin far enough into the egg to break the yolk. Enlarge the hole by rotating the pin. </li></ul><ul><li>Make another hole in the opposite end of the egg. This hole can be smaller. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a small straw to blow gently into the small hole in the egg with the larger hole of the egg facing down into a clean bowl. Safety Note: Be sure to avoid getting the raw egg in your mouth! </li></ul><ul><li>Once the contents are out of the egg, clean the inside by putting a bit of liquid soap into the large hole and holding the shell under running water with the large-hole side up. Turn the egg over and let water drain from the large hole. Repeat. Set empty eggshell with large hole down and let dry overnight. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a small cylinder out of cardboard to serve as an egg collar by stapling two sides together. Use a thin bead of glue to secure eggshell into collar. This serves to steady the egg while you work. (Hint: If the collar is too large, the scientist loses his or her neckline.) </li></ul><ul><li>Create a likeness of your scientist. After penciling in the main features of the face, tissue paper or modeling clay can be used to create noses, ears, and facial texture. Yarn, raffia, fiber, cotton, or thread can be used for hair, and twist ties for glasses. (Hint: Digital likenesses of scientists can also be contoured using photo software and then glued to the egghead for more accurate depictions.) </li></ul>
  32. 35. 3 sources of information listed 2 sources of information listed 1 source of information listed Did not list sources Reference sources 5 pts. Diorama is well constructed and illustrates the significant discovery Includes props Name of scientist & actual picture included Diorama is good quality Missing 1 requirement Diorama is satisfactory Missing 2 requirements Diorama is poorly constructed Does not illustrate the significant discovery Does not include props or background Missing picture & scientist’s name Construction of diorama 15 pts. Well written 2 pages Includes all requirements Few spelling & grammatical errors Typed Missing 1-2 requirements Some spelling & grammatical errors Typed Missing 3-4 requirements Spelling & grammatical errors Not typed Missing more than half of the requirements Biography 40 pts. Egghead is well constructed and actually looks like the scientist. Egghead gives an impression of the scientist. Added features help with scientist’s recognition. If viewed from certain angle, egghead resembles the chosen scientist. Work on adding features to eggshell that would make it more closely resemble scientist Construction of egghead 40 pts. Master egghead Accomplished egghead Informed egghead Novice egghead Rubric