Relatorio pisa 2009_vol_iv

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Relatorio pisa 2009_vol_iv

  1. 1. PISA 2009 Results: What Makes a School Successful? RESOURCES, POLICIES AND PRACTICES VOLUME IV Programme for International Student Assessment
  2. 2. PISA 2009 Results: What Makes a School Successful? ResouRces, Policies and PRactices (Volume iV)
  3. 3. This work is published on the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD. The opinions expressed and arguments employed herein do not necessarily reflect the official views of the Organisation or of the governments of its member countries. Please cite this publication as: OECD (2010), PISA 2009 Results: What Makes a School Successful? – Resources, Policies and Practices (Volume IV) http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264091559-en ISBN 978-92-64-09148-1 (print) ISBN 978-92-64-09155-9 (PDF) The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law. Photo credits: Getty Images © Ariel Skelley Getty Images © Geostock Getty Images © Jack Hollingsworth Stocklib Image Bank © Yuri Arcurs Corrigenda to OECD publications may be found on line at: www.oecd.org/publishing/corrigenda. PISATM, OECD/PISATM and the PISA logo are trademaks of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). All use of OECD trademarks is prohibited without written permission from the OECD. © OECD 2010 You can copy, download or print OECD content for your own use, and you can include excerpts from OECD publications, databases and multimedia products in your own documents, presentations, blogs, websites and teaching materials, provided that suitable acknowledgment of OECD as source and copyright owner is given. All requests for public or commercial use and translation rights should be submitted to rights@oecd.org. Requests for permission to photocopy portions of this material for public or commercial use shall be addressed directly to the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) at info@copyright.com or the Centre français d’exploitation du droit de copie (CFC) at contact@cfcopies.com.
  4. 4. Foreword one of the ultimate goals of policy makers is to enable citizens to take advantage of a globalised world economy. this is leading them to focus on the improvement of education policies, ensuring the quality of service provision, a more equitable distribution of learning opportunities and stronger incentives for greater efficiency in schooling. Such policies hinge on reliable information on how well education systems prepare students for life. Most countries monitor students’ learning and the performance of schools. But in a global economy, the yardstick for success is no longer improvement by national standards alone, but how education systems perform internationally. the oecD has taken up that challenge by developing PISA, the Programme for International Student Assessment, which evaluates the quality, equity and efficiency of school systems in some 70 countries that, together, make up nine- tenths of the world economy. PISA represents a commitment by governments to monitor the outcomes of education systems regularly within an internationally agreed framework and it provides a basis for international collaboration in defining and implementing educational policies. the results from the PISA 2009 assessment reveal wide differences in educational outcomes, both within and across countries. the education systems that have been able to secure strong and equitable learning outcomes, and to mobilise rapid improvements, show others what is possible to achieve. Naturally, GDP per capita influences educational success, but this only explains 6% of the differences in average student performance. the other 94% reflect the potential for public policy to make a difference. the stunning success of Shanghai-china, which tops every league table in this assessment by a clear margin, shows what can be achieved with moderate economic resources and in a diverse social context. In mathematics, more than a quarter of Shanghai-china’s 15-year-olds can conceptualise, generalise, and creatively use information based on their own investigations and modelling of complex problem situations. they can apply insight and understanding and develop new approaches and strategies when addressing novel situations. In the oecD area, just 3% of students reach that level of performance. While better educational outcomes are a strong predictor of economic growth, wealth and spending on education alone are no guarantee for better educational outcomes. overall, PISA shows that an image of a world divided neatly into rich and well-educated countries and poor and badly-educated countries is out of date. this finding represents both a warning and an opportunity. It is a warning to advanced economies that they cannot take for granted that they will forever have “human capital” superior to that in other parts of the world. At a time of intensified global competition, they will need to work hard to maintain a knowledge and skill base that keeps up with changing demands. PISA underlines, in particular, the need for many advanced countries to tackle educational underperformance so that as many members of their future workforces as possible are equipped with at least the baseline competencies that enable them to participate in social and economic development. otherwise, the high social and economic cost of poor educational performance in advanced economies risks becoming a significant drag on economic development. At the same time, the findings show that poor skills are not an inevitable consequence of low national income – an important outcome for countries that need to achieve more with less. But PISA also shows that there is no reason for despair. countries from a variety of starting points have shown the potential to raise the quality of educational outcomes substantially. korea’s average performance was already high in 2000, but korean policy makers were concerned that only a narrow elite achieved levels of excellence in PISA. Within less than a decade, korea was able to double the share of students demonstrating excellence in reading literacy. A major overhaul of Poland’s school system helped to dramatically reduce performance variability among PISA 2009 ReSultS: WhAt MAkeS A School SucceSSful? – VoluMe IV © OECD 2010 3
  5. 5. Foreword schools, reduce the share of poorly performing students and raise overall performance by the equivalent of more than half a school year. Germany was jolted into action when PISA 2000 revealed a below-average performance and large social disparities in results, and has been able to make progress on both fronts. Israel, Italy and Portugal have moved closer to the oecD average and Brazil, chile, Mexico and turkey are among the countries with impressive gains from very low levels of performance. But the greatest value of PISA lies in inspiring national efforts to help students to learn better, teachers to teach better, and school systems to become more effective. A closer look at high-performing and rapidly improving education systems shows that these systems have many commonalities that transcend differences in their history, culture and economic evolution. first, while most nations declare their commitment to education, the test comes when these commitments are weighed against others. how do they pay teachers compared to the way they pay other highly-skilled workers? how are education credentials weighed against other qualifications when people are being considered for jobs? Would you want your child to be a teacher? how much attention do the media pay to schools and schooling? Which matters more, a community’s standing in the sports leagues or its standing in the student academic achievement league tables? Are parents more likely to encourage their children to study longer and harder or to spend more time with their friends or in sports activities? In the most successful education systems, the political and social leaders have persuaded their citizens to make the choices needed to show that they value education more than other things. But placing a high value on education will get a country only so far if the teachers, parents and citizens of that country believe that only some subset of the nation’s children can or need to achieve world class standards. this report shows clearly that education systems built around the belief that students have different pre-ordained professional destinies to be met with different expectations in different school types tend to be fraught with large social disparities. In contrast, the best-performing education systems embrace the diversity in students’ capacities, interests and social background with individualised approaches to learning. Second, high-performing education systems stand out with clear and ambitious standards that are shared across the system, focus on the acquisition of complex, higher-order thinking skills, and are aligned with high stakes gateways and instructional systems. In these education systems, everyone knows what is required to get a given qualification, in terms both of the content studied and the level of performance that has to be demonstrated to earn it. Students cannot go on to the next stage of their life – be it work or further education – unless they show that they are qualified to do so. they know what they have to do to realise their dream and they put in the work that is needed to achieve it. third, the quality of an education system cannot exceed the quality of its teachers and principals, since student learning is ultimately the product of what goes on in classrooms. corporations, professional partnerships and national governments all know that they have to pay attention to how the pool from which they recruit is established; how they recruit; the kind of initial training their recruits receive before they present themselves for employment; how they mentor new recruits and induct them into their service; what kind of continuing training they get; how their compensation is structured; how they reward their best performers and how they improve the performance of those who are struggling; and how they provide opportunities for the best performers to acquire more status and responsibility. Many of the world’s best-performing education systems have moved from bureaucratic “command and control” environments towards school systems in which the people at the frontline have much more control of the way resources are used, people are deployed, the work is organised and the way in which the work gets done. they provide considerable discretion to school heads and school faculties in determining how resources are allocated, a factor which the report shows to be closely related to school performance when combined with effective accountability systems. And they provide an environment in which teachers work together to frame what they believe to be good practice, conduct field-based research to confirm or disprove the approaches they develop, and then assess their colleagues by the degree to which they use practices proven effective in their classrooms. last but not least, the most impressive outcome of world-class education systems is perhaps that they deliver high- quality learning consistently across the entire education system, such that every student benefits from excellent learning opportunities. to achieve this, they invest educational resources where they can make the greatest difference, they attract the most talented teachers into the most challenging classrooms, and they establish effective spending choices that prioritise the quality of teachers. 4 © OECD 2010 PISA 2009 ReSultS: WhAt MAkeS A School SucceSSful? – VoluMe IV
  6. 6. Foreword these are, of course, not independently conceived and executed policies. they need to be aligned across all aspects of the system, they need to be coherent over sustained periods of time, and they need to be consistently implemented. the path of reform can be fraught with political and practical obstacles. Moving away from administrative and bureaucratic control toward professional norms of control can be counterproductive if a nation does not yet have teachers and schools with the capacity to implement these policies and practices. Pushing authority down to lower levels can be as problematic if there is not agreement on what the students need to know and should be able to do. Recruiting high-quality teachers is not of much use if those who are recruited are so frustrated by what they perceive to be a mindless system of initial teacher education that they will not participate in it and turn to another profession. thus a country’s success in making these transitions depends greatly on the degree to which it is successful in creating and executing plans that, at any given time, produce the maximum coherence in the system. these are daunting challenges and thus devising effective education policies will become ever more difficult as schools need to prepare students to deal with more rapid change than ever before, for jobs that have not yet been created, to use technologies that have not yet been invented and to solve economic and social challenges that we do not yet know will arise. But those school systems that do well today, as well as those that have shown rapid improvement, demonstrate that it can be done. the world is indifferent to tradition and past reputations, unforgiving of frailty and complacency and ignorant of custom or practice. Success will go to those individuals and countries that are swift to adapt, slow to complain and open to change. the task of governments will be to ensure that countries rise to this challenge. the oecD will continue to support their efforts. *** this report is the product of a collaborative effort between the countries participating in PISA, the experts and institutions working within the framework of the PISA consortium, and the oecD Secretariat. the report was drafted by Andreas Schleicher, francesca Borgonovi, Michael Davidson, Miyako Ikeda, Maciej Jakubowski, Guillermo Montt, Sophie Vayssettes and Pablo Zoido of the oecD Directorate for education, with advice as well as analytical and editorial support from Marilyn Achiron, Simone Bloem, Marika Boiron, henry Braun, Nihad Bunar, Niccolina clements, Jude cosgrove, John cresswell, Aletta Grisay, Donald hirsch, David kaplan, henry levin, Juliette Mendelovitz, christian Monseur, Soojin Park, Pasi Reinikainen, Mebrak tareke, elisabeth Villoutreix and Allan Wigfield. Volume II also draws on the analytic work undertaken by Jaap Scheerens and Douglas Willms in the context of PISA 2000. Administrative support was provided by Juliet evans and Diana Morales. the PISA assessment instruments and the data underlying the report were prepared by the PISA consortium, under the direction of Raymond Adams at the Australian council for educational Research (AceR) and henk Moelands from the Dutch National Institute for educational Measurement (cIto). the expert group that guided the preparation of the reading assessment framework and instruments was chaired by Irwin kirsch. the development of the report was steered by the PISA Governing Board, which is chaired by lorna Bertrand (united kingdom), with Beno csapo (hungary), Daniel McGrath (united States) and Ryo Watanabe (Japan) as vice chairs. Annex c of the volumes lists the members of the various PISA bodies, as well as the individual experts and consultants who have contributed to this report and to PISA in general. Angel Gurría OECD Secretary-General PISA 2009 ReSultS: WhAt MAkeS A School SucceSSful? – VoluMe IV © OECD 2010 5
  7. 7. Table of Contents ExEcutivE summary ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................13 introduction to Pisa ...................................................................................................................................................................................................17 rEadEr’s GuidE ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................23 ChapTEr 1 somE FEaturEs sharEd by hiGh-PErForminG school systEms...........................................................25 Performance differences among countries, schools and students ............................................................................................................. 26 common characteristics of successful school systems ...................................................................................................................................... 27 the learning environment inside schools and classrooms .............................................................................................................................. 29 the Pisa 2009 evidence base.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 29 ChapTEr 2 how rEsourcEs, PoliciEs and PracticEs arE rElatEd to studEnt PErFormancE ...........33 how Pisa examines resources, policies, practices and learning outcomes ....................................................................................... 34 • how selecting and grouping students are related to student performance ................................................................................34 • how the governance of school is related to student performance ..................................................................................................41 • how assessment and accountability policies are related to student performance ..............................................................46 • how resources invested in education are related to student performance ................................................................................47 • how resources, policies and practices are related to each other .....................................................................................................53 how the learning environment is related to student performance .......................................................................................................... 54 how the features of schools and school systems are interrelated............................................................................................................. 58 ChapTEr 3 how schoolinG is orGanisEd ..............................................................................................................................................61 selecting and grouping students........................................................................................................................................................................................62 • Vertical differentiation ....................................................................................................................................................................................................62 • horizontal differentiation at the system level ................................................................................................................................................64 • horizontal differentiation at the school level.................................................................................................................................................65 • country profiles in selecting and grouping students .................................................................................................................................66 Governance of school systems............................................................................................................................................................................................ 68 • School autonomy ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................68 • School choice ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................72 • Public and private stakeholders ...............................................................................................................................................................................73 • country profiles in the governance of school systems .............................................................................................................................73 assessment and accountability policies .......................................................................................................................................................................75 • Assessment practices and purposes ......................................................................................................................................................................75 • Accountability arrangements .....................................................................................................................................................................................76 • country profiles in assessment and accountability policies .................................................................................................................77 resources invested in education ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 78 • time resources .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................78 • human resources ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................81 • Material resources.............................................................................................................................................................................................................83 • Spending on education .................................................................................................................................................................................................84 • country profiles in resources invested in education .................................................................................................................................84 PISA 2009 ReSultS: WhAt MAkeS A School SucceSSful? – VoluMe IV © OECD 2010 7
  8. 8. Table of ConTenTs ChaptEr 4 The Learning environmenT .....................................................................................................................................................87 Teacher-student relations........................................................................................................................................................................................................88 Disciplinary climate ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................90 how teachers stimulate students’ engagement with reading .......................................................................................................................92 Student-related factors affecting school climate ...................................................................................................................................................94 Teacher-related factors affecting school climate ...................................................................................................................................................96 Parents’ involvement in and expectations of schooling ....................................................................................................................................98 Principal leadership ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................99 relationship between learning environment and school climate variables .....................................................................................101 PoLicy imPLicaTionS ......................................................................................................................................................................................................103 a commitment to children matters, as does the belief that all students can attain high levels of achievement.........104 Setting standards and showing students how to meet them matters....................................................................................................104 autonomy matters when combined with accountability..............................................................................................................................105 how resources are allocated in schools matters more than overall spending ...............................................................................106 The school climate and teacher-student relations matter ............................................................................................................................107 referenceS .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................109 annEx a TechnicaL BackgrounD ..............................................................................................................................................................113 annex a1: construction of reading scales and indices from the student, school and parent context questionnaires ....................................................................................................................................................114 annex a2: the PISA target population, the PISA samples and the definition of schools .......................................................126 annex a3: Standard errors, significance tests and subgroup comparisons......................................................................................139 annex a4: Quality assurance .........................................................................................................................................................................................141 annex a5: technical notes on analyses in Volume IV ...................................................................................................................................143 annex a6: testing results in Volume IV ...................................................................................................................................................................152 annEx B TaBLeS of reSuLTS ...................................................................................................................................................................................153 annex B1: Results for countries and economies ...............................................................................................................................................154 annex B2: Results for regions within countries..................................................................................................................................................268 annEx C The DeveLoPmenT anD imPLemenTaTion of PiSa – a coLLaBoraTive efforT .........................299 This book has... StatLinks 2 ® A service that delivers Excel files   from the printed page! Look for the StatLinks at the bottom left-hand corner of the tables or graphs in this book. To download the matching Excel® spreadsheet, just type the link into your Internet browser, starting with the http://dx.doi.org prefix. If you’re reading the PDF e-book edition, and your PC is connected to the Internet, simply click on the link. You’ll find StatLinks appearing in more OECD books. 8 © OECD 2010 PISA 2009 ReSultS: WhAt MAkeS A School SucceSSful? – VoluMe IV
  9. 9. Table of ConTenTs Boxes Box IV.A key features of PISA 2009 .....................................................................................................................................................................................19 Box IV.1.1 Interpreting the data from students, parents and schools ............................................................................................................................29 Box IV.1.2 tAlIS: teacher and learning International Survey ........................................................................................................................................31 Box IV.2.1 how to interpret the figures .................................................................................................................................................................................39 Box IV.3.1 Interpreting data on student learning time .......................................................................................................................................................79 Box IV.3.2 Availability and use of resources: School libraries ........................................................................................................................................83 Figures figure IV.A A map of PISA countries and economies .........................................................................................................................................................26 figure IV.1.1 how much of the variation in reading performance lies between countries, schools and students .............................................26 figure IV.1.2 Selected characteristics of school systems with reading performance above the oecD average ..................................................28 figure IV.2.1a how school systems’ policies for selecting and grouping students are related to educational outcomes ..................................36 figure IV.2.1b countries in which school policies for selecting and grouping students are related to reading performance ...........................37 figure IV.2.2 School systems with low transfer rates tend to give more autonomy to schools to determine curricula and assessments .........38 figure IV.2.3 how school policies for selecting and grouping students are related to reading performance ......................................................40 figure IV.2.4a how the governance of school systems is related to educational outcomes ........................................................................................44 figure IV.2.4b countries in which school governance is related to reading performance ...........................................................................................44 figure IV.2.5 how the governance of schools is related to reading performance ........................................................................................................45 figure IV.2.6a how school systems’ assessment and accountability policies are related to educational outcomes ...........................................47 figure IV.2.6b countries in which school assessment and accountability policies are related to reading performance ....................................48 figure IV.2.7 how schools’ assessment and accountability policies are related to reading performance ............................................................49 figure IV.2.8 how school systems’ resources are related to educational outcomes ....................................................................................................51 figure IV.2.9 how school resources are related to reading performance........................................................................................................................52 figure IV.2.10 how selected organisational features are inter-related ................................................................................................................................53 figure IV.2.11 how the learning environment at school is related to reading performance .......................................................................................55 figure IV.2.12 countries in which the learning environment at school is related to reading performance ............................................................56 figure IV.2.13 how student and school characteristics are related to reading performance .......................................................................................57 figure IV.3.1 Age at which students enter school and how they progress.......................................................................................................................63 figure IV.3.2 how school systems select and group students for schools, grades and programmes ......................................................................67 figure IV.3.3a how much autonomy individual schools have over resource allocation ..............................................................................................70 figure IV.3.3b how much autonomy individual schools have over curricula and assessments .................................................................................71 figure IV.3.4 countries in which parents can choose schools for their children ..........................................................................................................73 figure IV.3.5 how school systems are governed .....................................................................................................................................................................74 figure IV.3.6 how school systems use student assessments ................................................................................................................................................78 figure IV.3.a Relationship between learning hours per week and learning hours per year in the language of instruction .............................79 figure IV.3.7 how school systems allocate resources for education ................................................................................................................................85 figure IV.4.1 Students’ views of teacher-student relations....................................................................................................................................................89 figure IV.4.2 Students’ views of how conducive classrooms are to learning .................................................................................................................91 figure IV.4.3 Students’ views of how well teachers motivate them to read ....................................................................................................................93 figure IV.4.4 School principals’ views of how student behaviour affects student learning .......................................................................................95 figure IV.4.5 School principals’ views of how teacher behaviour affects student learning .......................................................................................97 figure IV.4.6 School principals’ views of their involvement in school matters........................................................................................................... 100 figure IV.4.7 Relationship between student, teacher and principal behaviour .......................................................................................................... 101 figure A3.1 labels used in a two-way table ........................................................................................................................................................................ 139 figure A5.1 latent profile analysis with two categorical latent variables................................................................................................................... 145 PISA 2009 ReSultS: WhAt MAkeS A School SucceSSful? – VoluMe IV © OECD 2010 9
  10. 10. Table of ConTenTs TaBles table A1.1 levels of parental education converted into years of schooling ............................................................................................................ 117 table A1.2 A multilevel model to estimate grade effects in reading, accounting for some background variables ...................................... 119 table A2.1 PISA target populations and samples ............................................................................................................................................................. 128 table A2.2 exclusions ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 130 table A2.3 Response rates ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 132 table A2.4a Percentage of students at each grade level ................................................................................................................................................... 135 table A2.4b Percentage of students at each grade level, by gender ............................................................................................................................. 136 table A2.5 Percentage of students and mean scores in reading, mathematics and science, according to whether students are in or out of the regular education system in Argentina ..................................................................................................................... 138 table A5.1 entropy value for each latent profile analysis .............................................................................................................................................. 146 table A5.2 Data used for the “selecting and grouping students into schools, grades and programmes” latent profile analysis and latent class for each school system ......................................................................................................................................................... 147 table A5.3 Data used for the “governance of school systems” latent profile analysis and latent class for each school system.............. 148 table A5.4 Data used for the “assessment and accountability policies” latent profile analysis and latent class for each school system ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 149 table A5.5 Data used for the “resources invested in education” latent profile analysis and latent class for each school system .......... 150 table A5.6 Data source for variable used for latent profile analyses ......................................................................................................................... 151 table IV.1.1a Selected characteristics of school systems with reading performance at the oecD average ....................................................... 154 table IV.1.1b Selected characteristics of school systems with reading performance below the oecD average............................................... 155 table IV.2.1 correlations between system-level characteristics and educational outcomes ................................................................................ 156 table IV.2.2a Within- and between-school variation in reading performance and variation explained by schools’ policies on selecting and grouping students ................................................................................................................................................................ 160 table IV.2.2b Relationships between schools’ policies on selecting and grouping students and reading performance................................. 162 table IV.2.2c Relationships between schools’ policies on selecting and grouping students and reading performance, accounting for students’ and schools’ socio-economic and demographic background ................................................................ 163 table IV.2.3 School systems’ policies on transferring and grouping students and the relationship between reading performance and socio-economic background of students and schools ...................................................................................................................... 165 table IV.2.4a Within- and between-school variation in reading performance and variation explained by school governance.................. 166 table IV.2.4b Relationships between school governance and reading performance................................................................................................. 168 table IV.2.4c Relationships between school governance and reading performance, accounting for students’ and schools’ socio-economic and demographic background ................................................................................................................ 169 table IV.2.5 Ratio of schools’ posting achievement data publicly and the relationship between school autonomy in allocating resources and reading performance ...................................................................................................................................... 171 table IV.2.6 likelihood of attending schools competing for students in the same area ......................................................................................... 171 table IV.2.7 Parents’ reports on reasons for choosing schools for their children as “very important”, by quarters of the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status of students (eScS) ...................................................................................................................... 172 table IV.2.8 Systems’ school competition rates and the relationship between reading performance and socio-economic background of students and schools ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 172 table IV.2.9a Within- and between-school variation in reading performance and variation explained by schools’ assessment and accountability policies................................................................................................................................................................................. 173 table IV.2.9b Relationships between schools’ assessment and accountability policies and reading performance.............................................. 174 table IV.2.9c Relationships between schools’ assessment and accountability policies and reading performance, accounting for students’ and schools’ socio-economic and demographic background .......................................................................................... 175 table IV.2.10 Systems’ assessment and accountability policies and the relationship between reading performance and socio-economic background of students and schools ..................................................................................................................... 177 table IV.2.11 Relationship between schools’ average PISA index of economic, social and cultural status and school resources ............. 178 table IV.2.12a Within- and between-school variation in reading performance and variation explained by resources invested in education .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 179 10 © OECD 2010 PISA 2009 ReSultS: WhAt MAkeS A School SucceSSful? – VoluMe IV
  11. 11. Table of ConTenTs table IV.2.12b Relationships between resources invested in education and reading performance ............................................................................... 180 table IV.2.12c Relationships between resources invested in education and reading performance, accounting for students’ and schools’ socio-economic and demographic background ..................................................................................................................... 182 table IV.2.13a Within- and between-school variation in reading performance and variation explained by the learning environment .......... 185 table IV.2.13b Relationships between the learning environment and reading performance ....................................................................................... 186 table IV.2.13c Relationships between the learning environment and reading performance, accounting for students’ and schools’ socio-economic and demographic background .................................................................................................................. 187 table IV.2.14a Within- and between-school variation in reading performance and variation explained jointly by student and school characteristics .................................................................................................................................................................................. 189 table IV.2.14b Relationships between reading performance and students’ reading engagement and approaches to learning, the learning environment, resources, policies and practices .................................................................................................................. 190 table IV.2.14c Relationships between reading performance and students’ reading engagement and approaches to learning, the learning environment, resources, policies and practices, accounting for students’ and schools’ socio-economic and demographic background ......................................................................................................................................... 195 table IV.3.1 Vertical differentiation of school systems ...................................................................................................................................................... 201 table IV.3.2a horizontal differentiation of school systems ................................................................................................................................................ 203 table IV.3.2b School admittance policies................................................................................................................................................................................ 204 table IV.3.2c School admittance policies, by lower or upper secondary level of education ................................................................................. 207 table IV.3.3a horizontal differentiation at the school level: school transfer policies ............................................................................................... 209 table IV.3.3b horizontal differentiation at the school level: school transfer policies, by lower or upper secondary level of education ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 210 table IV.3.4 horizontal differentiation at the school level: ability grouping and reading performance ........................................................... 212 table IV.3.5 Index of school responsibility for resource allocation and reading performance, by national quarters of this index .......... 213 table IV.3.6 Index of school responsibility for curriculum and assessment and reading performance, by national quarters of this index ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 216 table IV.3.7 School choice: system level .............................................................................................................................................................................. 219 table IV.3.8a School choice: school level ............................................................................................................................................................................... 222 table IV.3.8b School choice, by lower or upper secondary level of education .......................................................................................................... 223 table IV.3.9 Percentage of students and performance in reading, mathematics and science, by type of school ........................................... 224 table IV.3.10 Assessment practices ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 227 table IV.3.11 evaluation and accountability: system level ................................................................................................................................................ 229 table IV.3.12 Assessment purposes ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 230 table IV.3.13 use of achievement data for accountability purposes .............................................................................................................................. 231 table IV.3.14 School accountability to parents...................................................................................................................................................................... 232 table IV.3.15 Schools’ methods for monitoring teachers’ practices ................................................................................................................................ 233 table IV.3.16a Students’ learning time at school ..................................................................................................................................................................... 234 table IV.3.16b Students’ learning time at school, by lower or upper secondary level of education ....................................................................... 235 table IV.3.17a Percentage of students attending after-school lessons, by enrichment or remedial lessons .......................................................... 236 table IV.3.17b Percentage of students attending after-school lessons, by hours per week......................................................................................... 237 table IV.3.18 Percentage of students attending pre-primary education ......................................................................................................................... 239 table IV.3.19 Index of schools’ extra-curricular activities and reading performance, by national quarters of this index .............................. 240 table IV.3.20 Index of teacher shortage and reading performance, by national quarters of this index ............................................................... 242 table IV.3.21a teachers’ salaries: system level ........................................................................................................................................................................ 244 table IV.3.21b cumulative expenditure by educational institutions: system level ....................................................................................................... 245 table IV.3.21c GDP per capita: system level ............................................................................................................................................................................ 246 table IV.3.22 class size for the language of instruction lessons ....................................................................................................................................... 247 table IV.3.23 Index of quality of schools’ educational resources and reading performance, by national quarters of this index ................ 248 table IV.3.24 Percentage of students using the library ........................................................................................................................................................ 250 PISA 2009 ReSultS: WhAt MAkeS A School SucceSSful? – VoluMe IV © OECD 2010 11
  12. 12. Table of ConTenTs table IV.4.1 Index of teacher-student relations and reading performance, by national quarters of this index................................................ 251 table IV.4.2 Index of disciplinary climate and reading performance, by national quarters of this index ......................................................... 253 table IV.4.3 Index of teachers’ stimulation of students’ reading engagement and reading skills and performance, by national quarters of this index .................................................................................................................................................................... 255 table IV.4.4 Index of student-related factors affecting school climate and reading performance, by national quarters of this index .......... 257 table IV.4.5 Index of teacher-related factors affecting school climate and reading performance, by national quarters of this index .......... 259 table IV.4.6 Parents’ involvement in schools ....................................................................................................................................................................... 261 table IV.4.7 Parents’ expectations for higher academic standards ................................................................................................................................ 262 table IV.4.8 Index of school principal’s leadership and reading performance, by national quarters of this index ........................................ 263 table IV.4.9 correlations among six learning environment indices.............................................................................................................................. 266 table S.IV.a School admittance policies................................................................................................................................................................................ 268 table S.IV.b horizontal differentiation at the school level: school transfer policies ............................................................................................... 271 table S.IV.c horizontal differentiation at the school level: ability grouping and reading performance ........................................................... 272 table S.IV.d Index of school responsibility for curriculum and assessment and reading performance, by national quarters of this index ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 273 table S.IV.e School choice: school level ............................................................................................................................................................................... 275 table S.IV.f Percentage of students and performance in reading, mathematics and science, by type of school ........................................... 276 table S.IV.g Assessment practices ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 279 table S.IV.h use of achievement data for accountability purposes ................................................................................................................................ 281 table S.IV.i School accountability to parents ....................................................................................................................................................................... 282 table S.IV.j Students’ learning time at school and percentage of students attending after-school lessons, by remedial or enrichment lessons.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 283 table S.IV.k Percentage of students attending pre-primary education ......................................................................................................................... 284 table S.IV.l Index of schools’ extra-curricular activities and reading performance, by national quarters of this index .............................. 285 table S.IV.m Index of quality of schools’ educational resources and reading performance, by national quarters of this index ................ 287 table S.IV.n Index of teacher-student relations and reading performance, by national quarters of this index................................................ 289 table S.IV.o Index of disciplinary climate and reading performance, by national quarters of this index ......................................................... 291 table S.IV.p Index of student-related factors affecting school climate and reading performance, by national quarters of this index ..... 293 table S.IV.q Index of teacher-related factors affecting school climate and reading performance, by national quarters of this index ..... 295 table S.IV.r Parental expectations for higher academic standards.................................................................................................................................. 297 12 © OECD 2010 PISA 2009 ReSultS: WhAt MAkeS A School SucceSSful? – VoluMe IV
  13. 13. Executive Summary Since school is where most learning happens, what happens in school has a direct impact on learning. In turn, what happens in school is influenced by the resources, policies and practices approved at higher administrative levels in a country’s education system. Successful school systems – those that perform above average and show below-average socio-economic inequalities – provide all students, regardless of their socio-economic backgrounds, with similar opportunities to learn. Systems that show high performance and an equitable distribution of learning outcomes tend to be comprehensive, requiring teachers and schools to embrace diverse student populations through personalised educational pathways. In contrast, school systems that assume that students have different destinations with different expectations and differentiation in terms of how they are placed in schools, classes and grades often show less equitable outcomes without an overall performance advantage. earlier PISA assessments showed these expectations to be mirrored in how students perceived their own educational future. the results of these differences can also be seen in the distribution of student performance within countries and in the impact that socio-economic background has on learning outcomes: • In countries, and in schools within countries, where more students repeat grades, overall results tend to be worse. • In countries where more students repeat grades, socio-economic differences in performance tend to be wider, suggesting that people from lower socio-economic groups are more likely to be negatively affected by grade repetition. • In countries where 15-year-olds are divided into more tracks based on their abilities, overall performance is not enhanced, and the younger the age at which selection for such tracks first occurs, the greater the differences in student performance, by socio-economic background, by age 15, without improved overall performance. • In school systems where it is more common to transfer weak or disruptive students out of a school, performance and equity both tend to be lower. Individual schools that make more use of transfers also perform worse in some countries. these associations account for a substantial amount of the differences in the outcomes of schooling systems. for example, the frequency with which students are transferred across schools is associated with a third of the variation in country performance. this does not necessarily mean that if transfer policies were changed, a third of country differences in reading performance would disappear, since PISA does not measure cause and effect. the transfer of pupils who do badly may be partly a symptom, rather than a cause, of schools and school systems that are not producing satisfactory results, especially for lower-achieving students. It is worth noting that the schools with lower transfer rates tend to have greater autonomy and other means of addressing these challenges. the cluster of results listed above suggests that, in general, school systems that seek to cater to different students’ needs through a high level of differentiation in the institutions, grade levels and classes have not succeeded in producing superior overall results, and in some respects they have lower-than-average and more socially unequal performance. PISA 2009 ReSultS: WhAt MAkeS A School SucceSSful? – VoluMe IV © OECD 2010 13
  14. 14. ExEcutivE Summary Most successful school systems grant greater autonomy to individual schools to design curricula and establish assessment policies, but these school systems do not necessarily allow schools to compete for enrolment. the incentive to deliver good results for all students is not just a matter of how a school’s student body is defined. It also depends on the ways in which schools are held accountable for their results and what forms of autonomy they are allowed to have – and how that could help influence their performance. PISA has looked at accountability both in terms of the information that is made available about performance and in terms of the use made of that information – whether by administrative authorities through rewards or control systems, or by the parents, for example through their choice of school. thus the issues of autonomy, evaluation, governance and choice interact in providing a framework in which schools are given the incentives and the capacity to improve. PISA 2009 finds that: • In countries where schools have greater autonomy over what is taught and how students are assessed, students tend to perform better. • Within countries where schools are held to account for their results through posting achievement data publicly, schools that enjoy greater autonomy in resource allocation tend to do better than those with less autonomy. however, in countries where there are no such accountability arrangements, the reverse is true. • countries that create a more competitive environment in which many schools compete for students do not systematically produce better results. • Within many countries, schools that compete more for students tend to have higher performance, but this is often accounted for by the higher socio-economic status of students in these schools. Parents with a higher socio- economic status are more likely to take academic performance into consideration when choosing schools. • In countries that use standards-based external examinations, students tend to do better overall, but there is no clear relationship between performance and the use of standardised tests or the public posting of results at the school level. however, performance differences between schools with students of different social backgrounds are, on average, lower in countries that use standardised tests. After accounting for the socio-economic and demographic profiles of students and schools, students in OECD countries who attend private schools show performance that is similar to that of students enrolled in public schools. on average, socio-economically disadvantaged parents are over 13 percentage points more likely than socio- economically advantaged parents to report that they consider “low expenses” and “financial aid” as very important determinants in choosing a school. If children from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds cannot attend high-performing schools because of financial constraints, then school systems that offer parents more choice of schools for their children will necessarily be less effective in improving the performance of all students. School systems considered successful spend large amounts of money on education, and tend to prioritise teachers’ pay over smaller classes. School systems differ in the amount of time, human, material and financial resources they invest in education. equally important, school systems also vary in how these resources are spent: • At the level of the school system and net of the level of national income, PISA shows that higher teachers’ salaries, but not smaller class sizes, are associated with better student performance. teachers’ salaries are related to class size in that if spending levels are similar, school systems often make trade-offs between smaller classes and higher salaries for teachers. the findings from PISA suggest that systems prioritising higher teachers’ salaries over smaller classes tend to perform better, which corresponds with research showing that raising teacher quality is a more effective route to improved student outcomes than creating smaller classes. • Within countries, schools with better resources tend to do better only to the extent that they also tend to have more socio-economically advantaged students. Some countries show a strong relationship between schools’ resources and their socio-economic and demographic background, which indicates that resources are inequitably distributed according to schools’ socio-economic and demographic profiles. • In other respects, the overall lack of a relationship between resources and outcomes does not show that resources are not important, but that their level does not have a systematic impact within the prevailing range. If most or all schools have the minimum resource requirements to allow effective teaching, additional material resources may make little difference to outcomes. 14 © OECD 2010 PISA 2009 ReSultS: WhAt MAkeS A School SucceSSful? – VoluMe IV
  15. 15. ExEcutivE Summary In more than half of all OECD countries, over 94% of 15-year-old students reported that they had attended pre-primary schools for at least some time. Students who had attended pre-primary school tend to perform better than students who have not. this advantage is greater in school systems where pre-primary education lasts longer, where there are smaller pupil-to-teacher ratios at the pre-primary level and where there is higher public expenditure per pupil at that level of education. Across all participating countries, school systems with a higher proportion of students who had attended pre-primary education tend to perform better. Schools with better disciplinary climates, more positive behaviours among teachers and better teacher-student relations tend to achieve higher scores in reading. Across oecD countries, 81% of students report that they feel they can work well in class most of the time, 71% report that they never, or only in some classes, feel that other students don’t listen, and 72% say that their teacher never, or only in some lessons, has to wait a long time before students settle down to learn. Meanwhile, 28% of students in oecD countries are enrolled in schools whose principals report that their teaching staff’s resistance to change negatively affects students or that students’ needs are not met; 23% attends schools whose principals report that students are not encouraged by teachers in the school; 22% attend schools whose principals believe that learning is hindered by low teacher expectations; and 17% of students attend schools whose principals say that teacher absenteeism hampers learning. PISA 2009 ReSultS: WhAt MAkeS A School SucceSSful? – VoluMe IV © OECD 2010 15
  16. 16. Introduction to PISA The PISA SurveyS Are students well prepared to meet the challenges of the future? can they analyse, reason and communicate their ideas effectively? have they found the kinds of interests they can pursue throughout their lives as productive members of the economy and society? the oecD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) seeks to answer these questions through its triennial surveys of key competencies of 15-year-old students in oecD member countries and partner countries/economies. together, the group of countries participating in PISA represents nearly 90% of the world economy.1 PISA assesses the extent to which students near the end of compulsory education have acquired some of the knowledge and skills that are essential for full participation in modern societies, with a focus on reading, mathematics and science. PISA has now completed its fourth round of surveys. following the detailed assessment of each of PISA’s three main subjects – reading, mathematics and science – in 2000, 2003 and 2006, the 2009 survey marks the beginning of a new round with a return to a focus on reading, but in ways that reflect the extent to which reading has changed since 2000, including the prevalence of digital texts. PISA 2009 offers the most comprehensive and rigorous international measurement of student reading skills to date. It assesses not only reading knowledge and skills, but also students’ attitudes and their learning strategies in reading. PISA 2009 updates the assessment of student performance in mathematics and science as well. the assessment focuses on young people’s ability to use their knowledge and skills to meet real-life challenges. this orientation reflects a change in the goals and objectives of curricula themselves, which are increasingly concerned with what students can do with what they learn at school and not merely with whether they have mastered specific curricular content. PISA’s unique features include its: • Policy orientation, which connects data on student learning outcomes with data on students’ characteristics and on key factors shaping their learning in and out of school in order to draw attention to differences in performance patterns and identify the characteristics of students, schools and education systems that have high performance standards. • Innovative concept of “literacy”, which refers to the capacity of students to apply knowledge and skills in key subject areas and to analyse, reason and communicate effectively as they pose, interpret and solve problems in a variety of situations. • Relevance to lifelong learning, which does not limit PISA to assessing students’ competencies in school subjects, but also asks them to report on their own motivations to learn, their beliefs about themselves and their learning strategies. • Regularity, which enables countries to monitor their progress in meeting key learning objectives. • Breadth of geographical coverage and collaborative nature, which, in PISA 2009, encompasses the 34 oecD member countries and 41 partner countries and economies.2 PISA 2009 ReSultS: WhAt MAkeS A School SucceSSful? – VoluMe IV © OECD 2010 17
  17. 17. IntroductIon to PISA the relevance of the knowledge and skills measured by PISA is confirmed by studies tracking young people in the years after they have been assessed by PISA. longitudinal studies in Australia, canada and Switzerland display a strong relationship between performance in reading on the PISA assessment at age 15 and future educational attainment and success in the labour-market (see Volume I, chapter 2).3 the frameworks for assessing reading, mathematics and science in 2009 are described in detail in PISA 2009  Assessment Framework: Key Competencies in Reading, Mathematics and Science (oecD, 2009a). Decisions about the scope and nature of the PISA assessments and the background information to be collected are made by leading experts in participating countries. Governments guide these decisions based on shared, policy- driven interests. considerable efforts and resources are devoted to achieving cultural and linguistic breadth and balance in the assessment materials. Stringent quality-assurance mechanisms are applied in designing the test, in translation, sampling and data collection. As a result, PISA findings are valid and highly reliable. Policy makers around the world use PISA findings to gauge the knowledge and skills of students in their own country in comparison with those in other countries. PISA reveals what is possible in education by showing what students in the highest performing countries can do in reading, mathematics and science. PISA is also used to gauge the pace of educational progress, by allowing policy makers to assess to what extent performance changes observed nationally are in line with performance changes observed elsewhere. In a growing number of countries, PISA is also used to set policy targets against measurable goals achieved by other systems, to initiate research and peer-learning designed to identify policy levers and to reform trajectories for improving education. While PISA cannot identify cause-and-effect relationships between inputs, processes and educational outcomes, it can highlight key features in which education systems are similar and different, sharing those findings with educators, policy makers and the general public. the fIrSt rePort from the 2009 ASSeSSment this volume is the fourth of six volumes that provide the first international report on results from the PISA 2009 assessment. It explores the relationships between student-, school- and system-level characteristics, and educational quality and equity. It explores what schools and school policies can do to raise overall student performance and, at the same time, moderate the impact of socio-economic background on student performance, with the aim of promoting a more equitable distribution of learning opportunities. the other volumes cover the following issues: • Volume I, What Students Know and can Do: Student Performance in Reading, Mathematics and Science, summarises the performance of students in PISA 2009. It provides the results for reading in the context of how performance is defined, measured and reported, and then examines what students are able to do in reading. After a summary of reading performance, it examines the ways in which this performance varies on subscales representing three aspects of reading. It then breaks down results by different formats of reading texts and considers gender differences in reading, both generally and for different reading aspects and text formats. Any comparison of the outcomes of education systems needs to take into consideration countries’ social and economic circumstances and the resources they devote to education. to address this, the volume also interprets the results within countries’ economic and social contexts. the volume concludes with a description of student results in mathematics and science. • Volume II, Overcoming  Social  Background:  Equity  in  Learning  Opportunities  and  Outcomes, starts by closely examining the performance variation shown in Volume I, particularly the extent to which the overall variation in student performance relates to differences in results achieved by different schools. the volume then looks at how factors such as socio-economic background and immigrant status affect student and school performance, and the role that education policy can play in moderating the impact of these factors. • Volume III, Learning to Learn: Student Engagement, Strategies and Practices, explores information gathered on students’ levels of engagement in reading activities and attitudes towards reading and learning. It describes 15-year-olds’ motivations, engagement and strategies to learn. • Volume V, Learning  Trends:  Changes  in  Student  Performance  Since  2000, provides an overview of trends in student performance in reading, mathematics and science from PISA 2000 to PISA 2009. It shows educational outcomes over time and tracks changes in factors related to student and school performance, such as student background and school characteristics and practices. • Volume VI, Students On Line: Reading and Using Digital Information, explains how PISA measures and reports student performance in digital reading, and analyses what students in the 20 countries participating in this assessment are able to do. 18 © OECD 2010 PISA 2009 ReSultS: WhAt MAkeS A School SucceSSful? – VoluMe IV
  18. 18. InTroducTIon To PISA Box IV.A Key features of PISA 2009 Content • the main focus of PISA 2009 was reading. the survey also updated performance assessments in mathematics and science. PISA considers students’ knowledge in these areas not in isolation, but in relation to their ability to reflect on their knowledge and experience and to apply them to real-world issues. the emphasis is on mastering processes, understanding concepts and functioning in various contexts within each assessment area. • for the first time, the PISA 2009 survey also assessed 15-year-old students’ ability to read, understand and apply digital texts. Methods • Around 470 000 students completed the assessment in 2009, representing about 26 million 15-year-olds in the schools of the 65 participating countries and economies. Some 50 000 students took part in a second round of this assessment in 2010, representing about 2 million 15-year-olds from 10 additional partner countries and economies. • each participating student spent two hours carrying out pencil-and-paper tasks in reading, mathematics and science. In 20 countries, students were given additional questions via computer to assess their capacity to read digital texts. • the assessment included tasks requiring students to construct their own answers as well as multiple-choice questions. the latter were typically organised in units based on a written passage or graphic, much like the kind of texts or figures that students might encounter in real life. • Students also answered a questionnaire that took about 30 minutes to complete. this questionnaire focused on their background, learning habits, attitudes towards reading, and their involvement and motivation. • School principals completed a questionnaire about their school that included demographic characteristics and an assessment of the quality of the learning environment at school. Outcomes PISA 2009 results provide: • a profile of knowledge and skills among 15-year-olds in 2009, consisting of a detailed profile for reading and an update for mathematics and science; • contextual indicators relating performance results to student and school characteristics; • an assessment of students’ engagement in reading activities, and their knowledge and use of different learning strategies; • a knowledge base for policy research and analysis; and • trend data on changes in student knowledge and skills in reading, mathematics, science, changes in student attitudes and socio-economic indicators, and in the impact of some indicators on performance results. Future assessments • the PISA 2012 survey will return to mathematics as the major assessment area, PISA 2015 will focus on science. thereafter, PISA will turn to another cycle beginning with reading again. • future tests will place greater emphasis on assessing students’ capacity to read and understand digital texts and solve problems presented in a digital format, reflecting the importance of information and computer technologies in modern societies. All data tables referred to in the analysis are included at the end of the respective volume. A Reader’s Guide is also provided in each volume to aid in interpreting the tables and figures accompanying the report. technical annexes that describe the construction of the questionnaire indices, sampling issues, quality-assurance procedures, the process followed for developing the assessment instruments, and information about reliability of coding are posted on the oecD PISA website (www.pisa.oecd.org). Many of the issues covered in the technical annexes are elaborated in greater detail in the PISA 2009 Technical Report (oecD, forthcoming). PISA 2009 ReSultS: WhAt MAkeS A School SucceSSful? – VoluMe IV © OECD 2010 19
  19. 19. InTroducTIon To PISA The PISA STudenT PoPulATIon In order to ensure the comparability of results across countries, PISA devoted a great deal of attention to assessing comparable target populations. Differences between countries in the nature and extent of pre-primary education and care, in the age of entry to formal schooling, and in the structure of the education system do not allow school grade levels to be defined so that they are internationally comparable. Valid international comparisons of educational performance, therefore, need to define their populations with reference to a target age. PISA covers students who are aged between 15 years 3 months and 16 years 2 months at the time of the assessment and who have completed at least 6 years of formal schooling, regardless of the type of institution in which they are enrolled, whether they are in full-time or part-time education, whether they attend academic or vocational programmes, and whether they attend public or private schools or foreign schools within the country. (for an operational definition of this target population, see the PISA 2009 Technical Report [oecD, forthcoming].) the use of this age in PISA, across countries and over time, allows the performance of students to be compared in a consistent manner before they complete compulsory education. As a result, this report can make statements about the knowledge and skills of individuals born in the same year who are still at school at 15 years of age, despite having had different educational experiences, both in and outside school. Stringent technical standards were established to define the national target populations and to identify permissible exclusions from this definition (for more information, see the PISA website www.pisa.oecd.org). the overall exclusion rate within a country was required to be below 5% to ensure that, under reasonable assumptions, any distortions in national mean scores would remain within plus or minus 5 score points, i.e. typically within the order of magnitude of two standard errors of sampling (see Annex A2). exclusion could take place either through schools that participated or students who participated within schools. there are several reasons why a school or a student could be excluded from PISA. • figure IV.A • A map of PISA countries and economies OECD countries Partner countries and economies in PISA 2009 Partners countries in previous PISA surveys Australia Japan Albania Mauritius Dominican Republic Austria korea Argentina Miranda-Venezuela* Macedonia Belgium luxembourg Azerbaijan Montenegro Moldova canada Mexico Brazil Netherlands-Antilles* chile Netherlands Bulgaria Panama czech Republic New Zealand colombia Peru Denmark Norway costa Rica* Qatar estonia Poland croatia Romania finland Portugal Georgia* Russian federation france Slovak Republic himachal Pradesh-India* Serbia Germany Slovenia hong kong-china Shanghai-china Greece Spain Indonesia Singapore hungary Sweden Jordan tamil Nadu-India* Iceland Switzerland kazakhstan chinese taipei Ireland turkey kyrgyzstan thailand Israel united kingdom latvia trinidad and tobago Italy united States liechtenstein tunisia lithuania uruguay Macao-china united Arab emirates* Malaysia* Viet Nam* * these partner countries and economies carried out Malta* the assessment in 2010 instead of 2009. 20 © OECD 2010 PISA 2009 ReSultS: WhAt MAkeS A School SucceSSful? – VoluMe IV
  20. 20. InTroducTIon To PISA Schools might be excluded because they are situated in remote regions and are inaccessible or because they are very small, or because of organisational or operational factors that precluded participation. Students might be excluded because of intellectual disability or limited proficiency in the language of the test. In 29 out of 65 countries participating in PISA 2009, the percentage of school-level exclusions amounted to less than 1%; it was less than 5% in all countries. When the exclusion of students who met internationally established exclusion criteria is also taken into account, the exclusion rates increase slightly. however, the overall exclusion rate remains below 2% in 32 participating countries, below 5% in 60 participating countries, and below 7% in all countries except luxembourg (7.2%) and Denmark (8.6%). In 15 out of 34 oecD countries, the percentage of school-level exclusions amounted to less than 1% and was less than 5% in all countries. When student exclusions within schools are also taken into account, there were 9 oecD countries below 2% and 25 countries below 5%. Restrictions on the level of exclusions in PISA 2009 are described in Annex A2. the specific sample design and size for each country aimed to maximise sampling efficiency for student-level estimates. In oecD countries, sample sizes ranged from 4 410 students in Iceland to 38 250 students in Mexico. countries with large samples have often implemented PISA both at national and regional/state levels (e.g. Australia, Belgium, canada, Italy, Mexico, Spain, Switzerland and the united kingdom). this selection of samples was monitored internationally and adhered to rigorous standards for the participation rate, both among schools selected by the international contractor and among students within these schools, to ensure that PISA results reflect the skills of 15-year-old students in participating countries. countries were also required to administer the test to students in identical ways to ensure that students receive the same information prior to and during the test (for details, see Annex A4). Notes 1. the GDP of countries that participated in PISA 2009 represents 87% of the 2007 world GDP. Some of the entities represented in this report are referred to as partner economies. this is because they are not strictly national entities. 2. thirty-one partner countries and economies originally participated in the PISA 2009 assessment and ten additional partner countries and economies took part in a second round of the assessment. 3. Marks, G.N (2007); Bertschy, k., M.A cattaneo and S.c. Wolter (2009); oecD (2010a). PISA 2009 ReSultS: WhAt MAkeS A School SucceSSful? – VoluMe IV © OECD 2010 21
  21. 21. Reader’s Guide Data underlying the figures the data referred to in this volume are presented in Annex B and, in greater detail, on the PISA website (www.pisa.oecd.org). five symbols are used to denote missing data: a the category does not apply in the country concerned. Data are therefore missing. c there are too few observations or no observation to provide reliable estimates (i.e. there are fewer than 30 students or less than five schools with valid data). m Data are not available. these data were not submitted by the country or were collected but subsequently removed from the publication for technical reasons. w Data have been withdrawn or have not been collected at the request of the country concerned. x Data are included in another category or column of the table. Country coverage this publication features data on 65 countries and economies, including all 34 oecD countries and 31 partner countries and economies (see figure IV.A). the data from another ten partner countries were collected one year later and will be published in 2011. the statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. the use of such data by the oecD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan heights, east Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law. Calculating international averages An oecD average was calculated for most indicators presented in this report. the oecD average corresponds to the arithmetic mean of the respective country estimates. Readers should, therefore, keep in mind that the term “oecD average” refers to the oecD countries included in the respective comparisons. Rounding figures Because of rounding, some figures in tables may not exactly add up to the totals. totals, differences and averages are always calculated on the basis of exact numbers and are rounded only after calculation. All standard errors in this publication have been rounded to one or two decimal places. Where the value 0.00 is shown, this does not imply that the standard error is zero, but that it is smaller than 0.005. Reporting student data the report uses “15-year-olds” as shorthand for the PISA target population. PISA covers students who are aged between 15 years 3 months and 16 years 2 months at the time of assessment and who have completed at least 6 years of formal schooling, regardless of the type of institution in which they are enrolled and of whether they are in full-time or part-time education, of whether they attend academic or vocational programmes, and of whether they attend public or private schools or foreign schools within the country. Reporting school data the principals of the schools in which students were assessed provided information on their schools’ characteristics by completing a school questionnaire. Where responses from school principals are presented in this publication, they are weighted so that they are proportionate to the number of 15-year-olds enrolled in the school. PISA 2009 ReSultS: WhAt MAkeS A School SucceSSful? – VoluMe IV © OECD 2010 23
  22. 22. ReadeR’s Guide Focusing on statistically significant differences this volume discusses only statistically significant differences or changes. these are denoted in darker colours in figures and in bold font in tables. See Annex A3 for further information. Abbreviations used in this report eScS PISA index of economic, social and cultural status GDP Gross domestic product ISceD International Standard classification of education PPP Purchasing power parity S.D. Standard deviation S.e. Standard error Further documentation for further information on the PISA assessment instruments and the methods used in PISA, see the PISA 2009 Technical Report (oecD, forthcoming) and the PISA website (www.pisa.oecd.org). this report uses the oecD’s Statlinks service. Below each table and chart is a url leading to a corresponding excel workbook containing the underlying data. these urls are stable and will remain unchanged over time. In addition, readers of the e-books will be able to click directly on these links and the workbook will open in a separate window, if their Internet browser is open and running. 24 © OECD 2010 PISA 2009 ReSultS: WhAt MAkeS A School SucceSSful? – VoluMe IV
  23. 23. 1 Some Features Shared by High-Performing School Systems How do resources for education, and education policies and practices relate to reading performance? And what is their relationship with the socio-economic background of countries, schools and students? This chapter presents a summary of selected features shared by “successful” school systems, defined by relatively high-achieving students and greater equity in learning outcomes, because socio-economic background has only a moderate impact on performance. PISA 2009 ReSultS: WhAt MAkeS A School SucceSSful? – VoluMe IV © OECD 2010 25

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