Islamic art and architecture


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Islamic art and architecture

  1. 1. Qubbat as-Sakhrah “Dome of the Rock”
  2. 2. Dome of the Rock•Built from 688 to 691AD by the Umayyadcaliph Abd al- Malik.•Oldest Islamicmonument that standstoday and one of themost beautiful.•Believed to be builtover a sacred stonefrom which the ProphetMuhammed ascendedinto heaven during hisnight journey.•Shown in this picture isthe sacred rock insidethe Dome of the Rock
  3. 3. Dome of the RockThe inscription you seehere around theoctagonal part of theDome of the Rock tellsthe story ofMuhammads ascension.These are actual versesfrom the Qur’an.The gold dome wasactually made of goldwhen it was first built.It has been replaced bycopper, then aluminum.As it stands now it hasbeen covered with goldleaf, a donation from thelate King Hussein ofJordan.
  4. 4. Dome of the Rock One of the most interesting things about the location of The Dome of the Rock is that it is sacred to many different religions. “To the Jewish people it is Ir Ha-Kodesh (the Holy City), the Biblical Zion, the City of David, the site of Solomons Temple, and the eternal capital of the Israelite nation. To Christians it is where the young Jesus impressed the sages at the Jewish Temple, where he spent the last days of his ministry, and where the Last Supper, the Crucifixion and the Resurrection took place. Also greatly venerated by the Muslims, it is where the prophet Muhammad ascended to heaven. “
  5. 5. Great Mosque of Cordoba
  6. 6. Great Mosque of CordobaThe Umayyads wereconquered in 750 but aremaining survivor whofled Africa to settle inSpain establishedhimself as the provincialruler, or emir, with thehelp of fellow Muslims.The Great Mosque ofCordoba was begun in785, built by Umayyadconquerors on the siteof a Christian churchbuilt by theVisigoths, the pre-Islamic rulers of Spain.
  7. 7. Great Mosque of Cordoba  Here is a picture of the front view of the Al- Hakam II’s mosque, reserved for his royal highness, and the rich mihrab of the Mosque of Cordoba. Note the elaborate double arches.
  8. 8. Samarqand: The Registan
  9. 9. The RegistanDetail of a dome Detail of a minaret
  10. 10. The Registan Registan means “sandy place” The Registan sits in the center of the Timurid city of Samarqand. It was built over a period of 230 years, beginning with the Sultan Ulugh Beg in 1417. The Registan is made up of three madrasahs:Ulugbek Madrasah (1417-1420), the Sher-Dor Madrasah (1619-1636) and the Tilya-Kori Madrasah (1646-1660). Madrasah is a medieval Moslem clergy academy. As in all Islamic architecture, take notice of the splendid attention to detail that emphasizes their creativity and dedication. I am especially fond of the blue towers in these next pictures.
  11. 11. Here is a picture of the Tillya -Kori Madrasa. This is where students were trained.
  12. 12. The RegistanThis is a picture of a mosque Here is a picture of the Sher-Dorwithin the Tillya-Kori Madrasah Madrasah, built in the 17th century.
  13. 13. The Friday Mosque at Zavareh, Iran
  14. 14. Friday mosque at Zavareh The Friday Mosque at Zavareh was built in a single campaign by the Seljuks in 1135. It is a typical Persian structure, with four iwans facing each other and a courtyard. The Seljuks got their name from Seljuk, who converted his nomadic Central Asian Turkish tribe to Islam. The courtyard in this mosque displays the fine brickwork in use in Iran during the Seljuk period.
  15. 15. Friday Mosque at ZavarehA corner squinch that makes atransitional part from the square room The shallow Mihrab of the Fridayto the round dome. Mosque, ZavarehA complicated formation of bricks More than half of the stucco decorationcarries out also a decorative role based with foliage and calligraphy has been lost.on the principle of arch.
  16. 16. Friday Mosque at ZavarehIt was under the Seljuksthat the Persianmosque with fouriwans developed itsclassic form. The Fridaymosque at Zavareh isthought to be the firstknown dated mosqueconstructed accordingto a four iwan plan.Later mosques, like thenext one I am going toshow, the FridayMosque inIsfahan, were all builtusing this design.Shown here is thewestern portal to theZavareh Mosque.
  17. 17. Friday Mosque in Isfahan
  18. 18. Friday Mosque in Isfahan The Friday Mosque at Isfahan was constructed during the end of the 11th century by Isfahani architects, who got their designs from the Seljuks of Iran. This mosque uses the four iwan style, the northern one of which has a simple pointed tunnel vault, but the other three have apses covered with muqarnas, or honeycombs. This technique grew out of the study of the resistance of brick arches carried out in Seljuk Iran.
  19. 19. Isfahan Friday MosqueElevated view of courtyard, showing southwest iwan at right and southeastiwan at left. The minaret of the Ali Mosque is visible in background
  20. 20. On the right is a detailed view of mosaic tile decoration on the right flank ofsouthwest (qibla) iwan. On the left is a view looking west of southwest dome andiwan with paired minarets.
  21. 21. Sultan Hasan Madrasa-Mausoleum-Mosque Complex
  22. 22. Sultan Hasan Madrasa-Mausoleum-Mosque Complex This mosque was commisioned by the young sultan Hasan during a three year period (1356- 1359) “without even a single day of idleness” . It is known for its grandeur and innovative architectural components, but money was no object: the project was financed by the estates of victims of the bubonic plague that had devastated Cairo from 1348-1350. The mosque was designed to include schools for all four of the Sunni schools of thought: Shafi’I, Maliki, Hanafi, and Hanbali.
  23. 23. Here is a picture of the mihrab in the prayer hall
  24. 24. The main iwan- notice the Mamluk glass oil lamps. There werehundreds of these placed throughout the complex and cast abrilliant light.
  25. 25. Sultan Hassan Madrasa-Mausoluem- Mosque complexInterior detail of the mausoleum, showing stalactite Entrance portal, Hanafi madrasa. This entrancewooden pendentives with gilt and painted decorations. showcases ablaq masonry, which is interlockingNotice the Quranic inscriptions written in Kufic style. pieces of marble block.
  26. 26. Mamluk Glass Oil Lamps
  27. 27. Mamluk LampsMosque lamps were created for practical use as well as for decoration. Lamps had Qur’anic inscriptions on them. The Arabic inscription on the neck of the lamp on the previous slide quotes from a very famous verse in the Quran (xxiv.35), in which the light of God is likened to the light from an oil lamp.The Mamluks were prodigious patrons of the arts who created lamps such as the one on the previous slide.According to the inscriptions on the lower part of the lamp, it was commissioned "By order of the most noble authority, the Exalted, the Lordly, the Masterful, holder of the sword, Shaykhu al-Nasiri,"
  28. 28. Mosque Lamps God is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The Parable of His Light is as if there were a Niche and within it a Lamp theGod is the Light of the heavens and the earth; Lamp enclosed in Glass: the glass as it were a brilliant star Litthe likeness of His Light is as a niche wherein is a lamp from a blessed Tree, an Olive, neither of the east nor of the West, whose oil is well-nigh luminous, though fire scarce(the lamp in a glass, touched it Light upon Light! God doth guide whom He will tothe glass as it were a glittering star) His Light God doth set forth Parables for men: and God dothkindled from a Blessed Tree, know all olive that is neither of the East nor of the Westwhose oil wellnigh would shine, even if no fire touched it(Arberry, 1955, pp. 50-51)
  29. 29. MiriArab Madrassah in Bukhara
  30. 30. Miri Arab Madrassah in Bukhara This madrassah was constructed in the time of the Shaybanids in the 16th century. The tombs of Ubdaidallah-Khan and Miri-Arab are in one corner of the building; the other three corners house classrooms. There are particularly beautiful arrangements of tile mosaics on surfaces surrounding the iwans.
  31. 31. Detail of tile mosaics on walls of Miri Arab Madrassah.
  32. 32. Miri- Arab MadrassahThe pishtaq of theNadir Divan BeghiMadrasa in Bukharadisplays confrontedimages of thesimurgh, the mythicalPersian bird thatsymbolizes eternal life.The tile mosaics hereare among themasterworks ofpolychrome faience.
  33. 33. Sultanahmet Mosque
  34. 34. Sultanahmet MosqueBetter known as theBlue Mosque. I love thisparticular structurebecause it is so vast andit seems to reach outand speak to you withits sweeping majesty.Notice the six minaretsit has, very fewmosques have thatunique feature.
  35. 35. Blue MosqueOne thing about thisstructure that is soappealing is thecascade of domes thatspill down from thegreat central dome.
  36. 36. Blue MosqueThe name “BlueMosque” does notcome from anythingyou can see on theexterior. It comes fromthe beautiful blue tilesinside…
  37. 37. Detail of blue tile work in theinterior
  38. 38. Here is another shot of the inside of the domes. See how they also used thehanging lanterns that you seen previously in the show?
  39. 39. Lutfullah Mosque
  40. 40. I want to showcase some of the exquisite geometric tile work that can befound the the Lutfullah Mosque. Here is a picture of one of the outer wallpanels of the Shaikh Lutfollah Mosque. Faience ceramic tiles make anarabesque of foliage and branches based on blue color. Beautiful, yes?
  41. 41. Lutfullah Mosque.Here is an image thattruly took my breathaway. This is thepassageway in themosque . Three turningsof the narrow passagelead suddenly into theenormous worship hall.To be quite honest, Ithink I would get a littledizzy!
  42. 42. Works Cited 1. 2. 3. Henri Stierlin. Islamic Art and Architecture. United Kingdom.Thames and Hudson Ltd.,2002. 4.”Masterpieces of Islamic Architecture”. November 18,2011. 5.”Sacred Places”. D ecember 1,2011. 6. “Legs of the Silk Road”. December 5,2011.