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  1. 1. Representations The Gaze
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Technical term originally used in film theory in the 1970s to refer to the ways viewers look at images of people in any visual medium. </li></ul><ul><li>`The male gaze’ can be described as feminist reference to the voyeuristic way in which men look at women. </li></ul><ul><li>Jonathan Schroeder (1998), “to gaze implies more than to look at – it signifies a psychological relationship of power, in which the gazer is superior to the object of the gaze.” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Forms of gaze <ul><li>The spectator’s gaze </li></ul><ul><li>The intra-diegetic gaze </li></ul><ul><li>The direct address (or extra-diegetic) to the viewer </li></ul><ul><li>The look of the camera </li></ul><ul><li>The gaze of a bystander </li></ul><ul><li>The gaze of an audience within a text </li></ul>
  4. 4. Direction of gaze <ul><li>Trevor Millum distinguished between these forms of attention in his study of women in magazine advertisements. </li></ul><ul><li>Attention directed towards others </li></ul><ul><li>Attention directed towards an object </li></ul><ul><li>Attention directed to oneself </li></ul><ul><li>Attention directed to the reader/camera </li></ul><ul><li>Attention directed into middle distance </li></ul>
  5. 5. Direction of gaze (continued) <ul><li>Paul Messaris (1997) notes that traditionally, men do not look directly into the camera, although “during the past two decades…there has been a notable countertrend in male-oriented advertising, featuring men whose poses contain some of the same elements…traditionally associated with women. This seems likely to indicate an explicit concern about how men look in the eyes of women.” </li></ul>
  6. 6. The gaze in advertising <ul><li>Paul Messaris (1997) notes that female models in ads addressed to women, “treat the lens as a substitute for the eye of an imaginary male onlooker…it could be argued that when women look at these ads, they are actually seeing themselves as a man might see them…implying a male point of view, even though the intended viewer is a woman. So the women who look at these ads are being invited to identify both with the person being viewed and with an implicit, opposite-sex viewer.” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Laura Mulvey – The male gaze <ul><li>“ Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema” (1975) </li></ul><ul><li>Active male/passive female </li></ul><ul><li>`Woman as image’/man as `bearer of the look’ </li></ul><ul><li>Voyeuristic </li></ul><ul><li>Fetishistic </li></ul>
  8. 8. Criticisms with Mulvey’s theory <ul><li>A failure to account for a female spectator. </li></ul><ul><li>Looks only at the spectator as being a heterosexual male. </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1980s there has been an increasing display and sexualisation of the male body in mainstream cinema and television and in advertising. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Categorising facial expressions <ul><li>Women : </li></ul><ul><li>Chocolate box </li></ul><ul><li>Invitational </li></ul><ul><li>Super-smiler </li></ul><ul><li>Romantic or sexual </li></ul><ul><li>Marjorie Ferguson (1980) </li></ul><ul><li>Men : </li></ul><ul><li>Carefree </li></ul><ul><li>Practical </li></ul><ul><li>Seductive </li></ul><ul><li>Comic </li></ul><ul><li>Catalogue </li></ul><ul><li>Trevor Millum (1975) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Analyse one of the images below using Laura Mulvey’s ‘male gaze’ theory as well as Trevor Millum’s and Marjorie Furguson’s analysis of facial expressions.