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Single Host Docker Networking

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An overview of Single-Host Network features of Docker. Used at Docker-Barcelona on February 17th, 2015.

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Single Host Docker Networking

  1. 1. Single-Host Networking @ Docker Barcelona By Jeff Nickoloff
  2. 2. Who Am I?  Jeff Nickoloff, author of Docker in Action  On Twitter and Medium: @allingeek  Engineer and a manager  Formerly with Amazon.com  Loves micro-services, API contracts, distributed systems, and thinking about failure modes.
  3. 3. Our Topic in Brief  Network Container Archetypes, Devices, and Topology  Closed  Bridged  Joined  Open  NET Namespace and ICC  Service Discovery  DNS  Container Linking
  4. 4. Network Container Archetypes Controlled by the --net flag
  5. 5. Closed Containers  --net none  No Virtual Ethernet Interface  No inbound network communication  No outbound network communication  Virtual Loopback Interface  All processes in the same closed container can communicate with each other.
  6. 6. Bridged Containers  [default] --net bridge  Virtual Loopback Interface  All processes in the same closed container can communicate with each other.  Virtual Ethernet Interface!  (really two interfaces)  Bound to the bridge network (docker0)  Bidirectional network access  Customize:  DNS, MAC
  7. 7. An Aside: docker0  Creates a network where all bridged containers are bound  Bridges the container network with the host’s network  What can you change about the bridge?  --bip  -b
  8. 8. Joined Containers  --net container:<container name|id>  Create a new container reusing the devices and namespace of an existing container.  A container could join a closed or bridged container.  Each container maintains other isolation mechanisms.  Uses:  IP(C)C on loopback  Kernel Tuning  Monitoring
  9. 9. Open Containers  --net host  No private devices  No read only copy of network related /proc and /sys  Direct access to host network resources  This includes virtual network devices for other containers  Access to modify network related Kernel settings  It is as though you are not running in a container at all
  10. 10. Routing Inbound Traffic  Containers with a virtual Ethernet device (bridged) can bind to ports on that interface.  Forwarding rules created at container creation time  -p=[], --publish=[]  ip:hostPort:containerPort  ip::containerPort  hostPort:containerPort  containerPort  -P, --publish-all  Rules based on the “exposed” ports (image metadata and --expose)
  11. 11. NET Namespace
  12. 12. NET Namespace  Closed and Bridged containers each have their own kernel network namespace  Joined containers reuse an existing namespace  Open containers have no network namespace (or operate in the host’s namespace)  This is important to remember if you wanted to tune your Kernel from a container (container only deployments)
  13. 13. Inter-Container Communication  By default inter-container network communication is wide open on the bridge network.  Any bridged container can reach any port on any container. Unless...  You can disable ICC on the command line when you start the docker daemon with “--icc=false”  It will create a DENY rule for all container to container traffic  See also: https://medium.com/on-docker  Exploring Local Docker Bridge Networks  Safer Local Docker Networks  What if I want to communicate between containers?
  14. 14. Container Linking  --link <container name|id>:<link alias>  Links describe one-way dependencies  Enable two-way communication if ICC is disabled  ALLOW rules on dependency for exposed ports (--expose)  Weave address information in on named environment variables and hosts  Created at container creation time  Not updated with dependency termination / restarts (yet)
  15. 15. DNS  Links create hosts entries  Add one or more hosts entries at container creation time  --add-host=[]  Set DNS servers per container or as a default  --dns=[]  Set DNS Search Domains per container or as a default  --dns-search=[]
  16. 16. Questions and Follow Up  My articles on Docker – https://medium.com/on-docker  Docker in Action – http://manning.com/nickoloff

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