"Sex" refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women. "Gender" refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women. Female & Male = sex categories Feminine (and women) and masculine (and man) = gender categories. institutional power: men as a class have it, women as a class don’t. Obviously the power dynamics do shift around depending on the culture and the time period (not to mention the individual, the other privileges that the person does/does not have, etc etc), but ultimately the scales remain tipped in favor of men in general (if you disagree with that statement, please go read the Why do we still need feminism? FAQ entry first before proceeding). What this imbalance of power translates to on an individual level is a difference in the impact of a man being prejudiced towards a woman and a woman being prejudiced towards a man. While both parties are human, and therefore have the same capacity to be hurt by the prejudice, whether they like it or not, the men have a whole system of history, traditions, assumptions, and in some cases legal systems and “scientific” evidence giving their words a weight that the women don’t have access to.
Gender Role: set of social and behavioral norms that are generally considered appropriate for either a man or a woman –vary widely across nations/regions Roles are learned through socialization – the process of directly and indirectly teaching women & men how to “behave” and even think like a woman or man – two dichotomous categories. Socialization involves MODELING – showing which behaviors are “feminine” or “masculine And REINFORCEMENT -- sanctioning behavior that strays from the idealized femininity or masculinity and positively reinforcing behavior – and even thought – that reflects the “appropriate” gender category.
If you enjoy fixing things, working with your hands and developing an important trade, then you might want to consider becoming an aircraft mechanic. Aircraft mechanics enjoy good job prospects and wages, but must be prepared to work in harsh weather conditions, noisy environments and precarious positions on ladders and scaffolds. Here are some pros and cons associated with becoming an aircraft mechanic to help you decide if this is the career for you. PROS of Being a Aircraft Mechanic Above average median hourly wage (around $26.00 an hour in 2011)*Advancement opportunities*Opportunity to provide an important service to commuters*Good job prospects for certified technicians* CONS of Being a Aircraft MechanicWorking in all weather conditions*Working in a noisy and uncomfortable environment*Higher than average rate of occupational injury*Working under pressure* Source: *U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. WHAT IS THIS JOB LIKE? Back to Top Secretaries make appointments. They put files in order. They also write letters and answer the phone. Some make travel plans. Secretaries use computers, fax machines, and copiers. Secretaries make sure that the information that leaves the office is right. Other people in the office rely on secretaries to keep things going well. Some secretaries are called executive secretaries or administrative assistants. These secretaries often have more duties. Some make reports and train others. Some secretaries work in one field, such as medicine or law. Medical secretaries help doctors keep track of patients. Legal secretaries work with lawyers. Most work in offices. These offices can be in companies small or large. They work in hospitals, schools, or banks. Secretaries often must sit for a long time, usually in front of a computer. Sometimes this causes eye strain or wrist problems. Some companies allow them to work at different times of the day. They also might do some of their work at home. Most secretaries work 40 hours a week, but some work part time. HOW DO YOU GET READY? Back to Top Secretaries and administrative assistants should be good at using a computer. This means they should be able to type fast and be familiar with a variety of software programs. They also should have good grammar and be well-spoken. Secretaries must operate different office equipment. Employers want their secretaries to get along well with others. They should also be well organized. A high school diploma is needed for most full-time jobs. Once they have a job, secretaries often must take courses to update their skills. Medical and legal secretaries need special training.
Note: Median income shows smaller pay gap – other income gap measures include bonuses and income from small businesses, which favor men more.
Year White Black Hispanic White Black Hispanic Men Men Men Women Women Women 2008 100 75 68 79 68 61 2009 100 74 67 79 69 60
Gender inequality slid es_12(1)-1
Saudi king: Women given right to vote for first time in 2015 nationwide local elections (Associated Press, 9/25/11) 1
Gender in the Newshttp://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/fast-fix---woman-problem-for-obama-administrahttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W0tzDtt6phY[print story]http://newsfeed.time.com/2011/09/13/forever-21-pulls-allergic-to-algebra-t-shirt-after-critics-cry-foul/Which sociological perspective is best reflected inA.The news item about women voting rights in Saudi Arabia?B.The news item about women in the administration/Washington?C.The controversy over shirts? 1. Conflict 2. Structure-functionalism 3. Symbolic-interactionismWhat was missing from these news items? [think about gender as a relation] 3
Gender InequalityDefinitions• Sex:• Gender:Prejudice (attitudes)Gender stratification: spheresGender inequality (discrimination):Sexism (prejudice & discrimination):Patriarchy: (pater=father)Institutional power: men as a class have it, women as a class don’tFeminism: quest for gender equality. Period.Does “Ivy” the feminist dislike men? No. She simply wants equal institutional power for herself, mother, daughter and other women – e.g., to be paid equally, to not be at most risk of domestic violence, and so forth. It is as simple as that. 4
Genderized traits:• What traits are associated with masculine vs. feminine?• What do labels tell us? “Dumb blondes” “Bullies” “Jocks” “Sluts vs. Studs” “Tough Guise” Other examples?Sex roles vary across cultures and times – social in nature 5
Gender InequalityThe Social Construction of Gender 1. Gender Roles: 2. Socialization: 3. Gender role socialization:Gender roles & socialization constructed & reinforced through – Institutions (discuss in more detail) – Everyday interactions Young children learn how to act as “boys” or “girls” by: 1. Imitation/Modeling 2. Reinforcement internalize social expectations for behavior & appearance 6
Construction of Gender Begins Earlyhttp://www.babybangsbabywigs.com/home.html“Baby Bangs say ‘I’m not a boy.’”Restoration HW Baby Catalogue…and continues into adulthood:Can we “pick” the gender of the Mad Men character?http://www.amctv.com/originals/madmen/whichmadman
: Example of early gender socialization: Gendering ofToys 1. Parent’s select toys based on gender a. Characteristics of "Boy" Toys and “Girl Toys are established b. Which toys? c. Degrees of gendering of boys and girls toys 2. Toy Advertising a. Toys are gender segregated by “gender appropriateness” b. How? Space, Gendered Colors 9
: What’s the problem with constructing gender? • Creates and exaggerates artificial differences • Differences discrimination Other ways gender “differences” constructed insocial institutions (Macionis, p. 88) 1. Family 2. Education 3. Mass Media 4. Religion 5. Politics 6. Economy/work 10
Consequences of Constructing Gender: Social ProblemsWhat social problems are related to gender discrimination? 1. Family 2. Education 3. Politics 4. Economy/work“Head of the household”“Household division of labor”Spheres/segregation 11
Married women with more than three kids did an average of about 28 hours of housework a week.Married men with more than three kids, by comparison, logged only about 10 hours of housework a week. Data Source: Stafford, Frank. 2008. Time diaries used to gather data. http://www.ns.umich.edu/podcast/audio.php?id=80 12
Social problems related to gender bias & sexismConsequences of Constructing GenderWhat social problems are related to dividing genders into two clear-cut categories? For women? For men? 1. Family 2. Education 3. Politics 4. Economy/work 13
• Sports in School: Title IX – “Playing Unfair” – Case Study of change? Wrestling: • http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/17/nyregion/17wrestle.html?_r=1&oref=slogi • http://video.on.nytimes.com/? fr_story=ae242927fed432de33fc52f1d3e530b00286fdc3 (2nd link is permanent)http://video.on.nytimes.com/? fr_story=87219ec06d954c48a374feea8b3738cdae382c38Florida Girl’s weightlifting –only state that sanctionsLiving up to coach’s expectations• Tracking: What’s a girl or a boy to do?• Attention/validation: educational outcomes (Sadker) 14
Consequences of Constructing Gender: Social ProblemsWhat social problems are related to gender discrimination? 1. Family 2. Education 3. Politics 4. Economy/work 15
: Example of construction: Gendering of Politics Who is/was the first viable woman candidate for president of theU.S.? • Victoria Woodhull, in 1872 (ratified)– support of Cornelius Vanderbilt • Women could not vote until 1920, but held public office • First woman stockbroker on the NYSE (Woodhull, Claflin, & Co.) Erika Falk evaluated press coverage of candidates • “novelty frame” (anomaly)—effect….? • Portray women = “naturals” in domestic sphere, men=public • When woman enters public life, seen as norm violation • Male candidates: 2X # articles than women -- & 7% longer • 27% of articles on men=issues; 16% for women • Women: 3X # of comments on attire or physical traits than men • Age mentioned much more often for women than men. 16
Former Arizona Gov. Nancy Neapolitano’s “fitness” for Dir. Of Homeland Security• http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/12/02 /campbell.brown.rendell/index.html
Political Representation by Gender, 2004 90 87 86 82 80 77 70 US Senate 60 House of 50 Representatives 40 Governors 30 23 State 20 18 13 14 Legislatures 10 0 Women Men Statistical Abstract of the United States: Tables 408,413,415; National Governors’ Association, 2004, Election Results 18
Social problems related to gender bias & sexismConsequences of Constructing GenderWhat social problems are related to dividing genders into two clear- cut categories? For women? For men? 1. Family 2. Education 3. Politics 4. Economy/work a. Gender Wage Gap b. Work conditionsGENDER WAGE GAP1. Occupational sex segregation2. Denial of equal pay & promotions for equal worth (discrim)3. Human capital differences: keeping women out of the labor force, learning job-related skills (or not) as part of gender role/norm 19
Wage Gap Traditional Jobs for Women—” Women’s Work”Occupation % Female Hourly WagesSecretary 98.6 $14.19Receptionist 95.5 $10.52Hairdressers/Cosmetologists 90.8 $10.17Nursing aids 89.9 $8.60Waitress 77.4 $6.55Cashiers 77.0 $8.16 Average: $9.60 22
Wage Gap Pay in Non-Traditional jobs for Women – “Men’s Work”Occupation % Female Hourly WagesMachinist 5.6 $16.90Truck drivers 4.9 $17.50Aircraft engine mechanics 4.2 $24.78Construction trades 2.5 $30.99Automobile mechanics 1.4 $17.31 Average: $ 21.19• $21.19-$9.60=$11.59; pay gap between M & W work• “Men’s work” pays~ 2.2X more than women’s work• $11.59*2000 (hours/year)$23,000 MORE for M than W• $23,000*30 (working years)$695,400; X 40 yrs. =$920,000• Plus, insurance, paid sick & annual leave, pension 23
Minnesota DOL Study Data Job Job Evaluation Rating SalaryDelivery Van Driver 117 points $1900 per month(mostly men)Clerk Typist 117 points $1400 per month(mostly women) 24
Generally, Better Educated Workers Have HigherIncomes but the payoff is greater for men than women Full-Time Workers Ratio of Female Males Females aged 25+ to Male income Not high school $24,364 $18,096 0.74 graduate high school $34,723 $25,302 0.73 graduate Some college, no $ 41,045 $30,418 0.74 degree Associates degree $42,776 $32,152 0.75 28
Generally, Better Educated Workers Have HigherIncomes but the payoff is greater for men than women Full-Time Ratio of Female Males Females Workers 25+ to Male income Bachelor’s $55,929 $40,994 0.73 degree Master’s degree $70,898 $50,668 0.71 Professional 0.62 $100,000 $61,747 degree Doctorate $86,965 $62,122 0.71 degree 29
Percent of Physicians at Each Income Level for Women & Men. Male Census 2000. 100% Female 88% 90% 80% 80% 76% 72% 71% 67%Percent In Income Category 70% 65% 61% 59% 60% 50% 39% 41% 40% 35% 33% 28% 29% 30% 24% 20% 20% 12% 10% 0% $40- $ 55- $70- $85- $100- $125- $150- <$40K 55K 70K 85K 100K 125K 150K 200K $200K+ Income Category 30
Hartmann, 2005Economic Policy Institute Report 31
“The Myth of Male Decline” by Stephanie Coontz, New York Times,” October 2012http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/30/opinion/sunday/the-myth-of-male-decline.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0Is education the great equalizer or is it a path to gender segregation in the labor force?“…most women, despite earning higher grades, seem to be educating themselves foroccupations that systematically pay less.” (Coontz)How have men’s lives changed as women have entered the labor force?“Among dual-earner couples, husbands with the least education do as much or morehousework than their more educated counterparts. Men who have made theseadjustments report happier marriages — and better sex lives.” (Coontz) 32
Median Weekly Earnings of Full-Time, Year-Round Workers as a Percentage of White Mens Earnings, 2009100 90 100 80 70 79 74 60 67 69 50 60 40 30 20 10 0 Men Men Men Women Women Women White Black Hispanic White Black HispanicSource : U.S. Bur. of Labor Statistics,Employment and Earnings Online, 2010
Social problems related to gender bias & sexism(Consequences of Constructing Gender ) 1. Family 2. Education 3. Politics 4. Economy/work a. Gender Wage Gap b. Work conditionsWork Conditions1. Physical Health: Injury, Illness and Death2. Mental Health: repetition, lack of authority 37
Transgender or no gender at all?• http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/trans gender-at- five/2012/05/19/gIQABfFkbU_story_4.html 41
Social problems related to gender bias & sexismNOT REQUIRED VIEWING2.5 minute BBC clip What Are We Fighting For? http://news.bbc.co.uk/panorama/hi/front_page/newsi d_8200000/8200511.stmhttp://www.nytimes.com/slideshow/2009/01/13/wo rld/20090113AFGHAN_index.htmlJean Kilbourne on construction of femininity via adshttp://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=- 1993368502337678412# 42
Class Activity1. You are the parent of a 10 year-old who asks: “What does it mean to be a man?”2. MEN ONLY: Answer this: • “When you are in an all-male space such as a locker room, what do you say to one another about what it means to be a man? I.e., how do you define masculinity when no women are present?1. Meaning of the lists: • Of culturally endorsed traits of men, how many are unique to men? Are women ever strong?1. Why are we so committed to the ideal that sex differences in intelligence, competence, emotions, and morals are biological or “essential” to women or men?