Directions ofCommunication1. Downward communication - flows from individuals in higher levels of the hierarchy to those in lower levels.2. Upward communication - flows from lower to higher levels in an organization.3. Horizontal communication - flows across functions in an organization. It is necessary for coordinating and integrating diverse organizational functions.4. Diagonal communication - is one that cuts across functions in an organization. This is important when members cannot communicate through upward,
Major ThreeCategories ofManagement of change1. Technological changes – include such things as new equipment and new processes.2. Environmental changes – are all the nontechnological changes that occur outside the organization.3. Internal to the organization – include such changes as budget adjustments, policy changes, diversity adjustments, and personnel changes.
Three FamiliarApproaches 1. Managing change through power The application of power to bring about change implies the use of coercion. 2. Managing change through reason The application of reason to bring about change is based on the dissemination of information prior to the intended change. 3. Managing change through reeducation This middle ground relies upon reeducation to improve the functioning of the organization.