managing employees


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  • See Learning Objective 1: Discuss the possible link between personal traits and leadership ability. See text page: 201
  • These leadership traits can manifest themselves in a variety of leadership styles . Every manager has a definite style, although an individual's style might vary over time and from situation to situation. Autocratic leaders make decisions without consulting others. “My way or the highway” summarizes this style, which tends to go with traditional, hierarchical organizational structures. In contrast, democratic leaders delegate authority and involve employees in decision making. Even though their approach can lead to slower decisions, soliciting input from people familiar with particular situations or issues may result in better decisions. As more companies adopt the principles of teamwork, democratic leadership continues to gain in popularity. Laissez-faire leaders take the role of consultant, encouraging employees’ ideas and offering insights or opinions when asked. The laissez-faire style may fail if workers pursue goals that do not match the organization’s. More and more businesses are adopting democratic and laissez-faire leadership as they reduce the number of management layers in their corporate hierarchies and increase the use of teamwork. However, experienced managers know that no one leadership style works every time. In fact, new research shows that leaders with the best results do not rely on only one leadership style; instead they adapt their approach to match the requirements of the particular situation. Adapting leadership style to current business circumstances is called contingency leadership.
  • Supervision Concepts and Skill Building 6 ed. By Samuel C. Certo See Learning Objective 2: Compare leadership styles that a supervisor might adopt. See text pages: 202-203
  • In the 1960s, psychologist Douglas McGregor identified two radically different sets of assumptions that underlie most management thinking. He classified these sets of assumptions as Theory X and Theory Y . According to McGregor, Theory X -oriented managers believe that employees dislike work and can be motivated only by the fear of losing their jobs or by extrinsic rewards such as money, promotions, and tenure. This management style emphasizes physiological and safety needs and tends to ignore the higher-level needs.In contrast, Theory Y -oriented managers believe that employees like work and can be motivated by working for goals that promote creativity or for causes they believe in. Thus, Theory Y-oriented managers seek to motivate employees through intrinsic rewards. The assumptions behind Theory X emphasize authority; the assumptions behind Theory Y emphasize growth and self-direction.
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  • Certainly we’d like to attain this goal of near-perfect understanding. How often does this actually happen? How can we make it happen more often?
  • A big factor is the difference between the rate of speech and the rate of thought. Typical speech is 100–200 words per minute. Our brains can process information at 300–500 words per minute. We often use that “slack time” to: daydream decide what we’re going to say next make judgements about the speaker’s message That time is better used internally summarizing the speaker’s message, so that you remember and understand.
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  • Take 10 minutes to complete the Learning Styles Inventories.
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  • managing employees

    1. 1. Managing Employees
    2. 3. Housekeeping <ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Sign In Sheet </li></ul><ul><li>Name Cards </li></ul><ul><li>Workbooks </li></ul>
    3. 4. Rules of Engagement <ul><li>Please exercise “academic freedom” </li></ul><ul><li>Things said in training stay in training </li></ul><ul><li>Please participate, this is to help you </li></ul><ul><li>Cell phones off (no blue tooth) </li></ul><ul><li>We’ll take a session break 8:30 AM </li></ul><ul><li>Take restroom break anytime you need to </li></ul>“ If two people have the same opinion, you don’t need one of them.” Mark Twain
    4. 5. Introductions <ul><li>Name </li></ul><ul><li>Department </li></ul><ul><li>Position or Title </li></ul><ul><li>Hobby or some personal interest </li></ul>
    5. 6. <ul><li>Find the other members of your team </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce yourself to your team </li></ul>TEAMS
    6. 7. <ul><li>Let's set the scene first:- One 65' custom-built motor yacht replete with 4 staterooms, state-of-the-art galley, GPS System and navigation radar, twin supercharged diesel engines, etc.   </li></ul><ul><li>Cost:........... $4,500,000.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Being prepared for maiden launch. Crane transfer from dockside to water.   </li></ul>Other costs : Crane + rigging + labor engaged for 2 hours = $2,500.00  Champagne, chocolate-covered strawberries with cream = $300.00  Music dockside for 'soon-to-be-owners' and a small group of friends = $500.00  Photographer to capture the happy moment = $350.00 ....and then......
    7. 8. <ul><li>Watching from dockside as a ($55.00) faulty turnbuckle on the hoisting rig collapses & your dream boat nosedives into the harbor with two corporate representatives [one in the bridge and the other seen 'hanging' in the stern] performing the handover routine just prior to inking the final paperwork...  PRICELESS!  </li></ul>
    8. 9. Trust
    9. 10. TRUST <ul><li>Essential for a productive work environment </li></ul><ul><li>Must be offered by leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Is a gift </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for positive outcomes to out weigh risks </li></ul><ul><li>Is required for a person to be “valued” </li></ul><ul><li>Is communicated by adapting behavioral style </li></ul>
    10. 11. Team Exercise <ul><li>Come up with a definition of “Trust” (chart) </li></ul><ul><li>Write down behaviors that you think promote trust </li></ul><ul><li>Write a second list of behaviors that you think destroy trust </li></ul>
    11. 12. Trust <ul><li>Honesty: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity, no lies, no exaggerations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Openness: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A willingness to share and receptivity to information, perceptions, ideas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Consistency: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Predictable behavior and responses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Treating people with dignity and fairness. </li></ul>
    12. 13. Key Aspects to building Trust <ul><li>Direct Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Speedy Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Closure </li></ul>
    13. 14. Improves the Quality of Collaborative Outcomes <ul><li>The norm with mutual trust is that “negative information” is explored and discussed openly instead of hidden </li></ul><ul><li>The norm with mutual trust allows members to take risks and be permitted to fail </li></ul>
    14. 15. Leads to Compensating <ul><li>One team member picks up the slack that occurs when another member falters. </li></ul><ul><li>With this dynamic, the whole team can collectively rise to new levels of performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Builds confidence…clear about goals and unified in its efforts. </li></ul>
    15. 16. Promotes Efficient Communication and Coordination <ul><li>Candid communication focuses on the problem(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Climate allows energy and time to be devoted to staying focused </li></ul><ul><li>It allows for self-correction which makes the team more effective </li></ul><ul><li>Increases the likelihood of attaining missions, goals, and objectives </li></ul>
    16. 17. VIDEO - “ DO RIGHT” – Lou Holtz
    17. 18. Building Trust Show you understand the needs of the person and/or group Establish how you’ll operate Explain the resources you’ll use in this work Keep the principles you’ve adopted Engage in constant, honest, two-way communication Reinforce through consistent behavior Taken from
    18. 19. Do Right!! <ul><li>Guiding Principles: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Do what's right. </li></ul><ul><li>Do the best you can. </li></ul><ul><li>Treat others as you like to be treated. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Answers the basics questions we all ask of one another: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Can I trust you? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you committed? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you care about me as a person? </li></ul>
    19. 20. Group Exercise <ul><li>How could you apply these principles in your areas to increase “trust” in your organization? </li></ul><ul><li>Be specific. </li></ul><ul><li>As a group, determine two things you will do starting tomorrow. (Chart) </li></ul>
    20. 21. Team Challenge #1… <ul><li>Lateral Thinking… </li></ul>
    21. 22. Leadership Styles
    22. 23. Team Exercise… <ul><li>What is the role of the ideal supervisor? </li></ul><ul><li>Name two qualities that go into being the ideal supervisor. </li></ul><ul><li>Chart your responses </li></ul>
    23. 24. Fortune Magazine “CEO’s” <ul><li>“ Above all the skills managers need in order to succeed leadership is number one” </li></ul>
    24. 25. Objectives – Leadership Styles <ul><li>Learn when different leadership styles are effective </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how to vary your leadership style to gain better results </li></ul>
    25. 26. Team Exercise <ul><li>Individually, write down your definition of “Leadership” </li></ul><ul><li>Working in your group, agree on a definition of “Leadership” </li></ul><ul><li>Chart your response </li></ul>
    26. 27. Leadership? The ability to influence people toward the attainment of goals The art of getting things done through people and them “liking it”
    27. 28. Characteristics of a Successful Leader <ul><li>Sense of responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Self-confidence </li></ul><ul><li>High energy level </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy </li></ul><ul><li>Internal locus of control </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of humor </li></ul>
    28. 29. Leadership Styles Autocratic “ My way or Highway” Laissez-Faire “ role of consultant” Democratic “ Delegate, involvement” Situational “ adapt, adapt, adapt”
    29. 30. Supervisor’s View of Employees <ul><li>Most organizations expect that their supervisors can combine some degree of task orientation with some degree of people orientation. </li></ul>
    30. 31. Supervisor’s Views of Employees Employees Employees <ul><li>Dislike work </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated by threats </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Value security </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy work </li></ul><ul><li>Committed to goals </li></ul><ul><li>Accept responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Have mental potential </li></ul>
    31. 32. Situational <ul><li>Many styles of leadership can be successful in organizations depending on the leader and the situation and the employee </li></ul>
    32. 33. The Key to Leadership is Power <ul><li>The ability to induce the beliefs or actions of others </li></ul><ul><li>Two types: Position and Personal </li></ul><ul><li>Position arises from the org’l structure </li></ul><ul><li>Personal arises from internal sources </li></ul>
    33. 34. Power <ul><li>The ability to influence others to do what we want them to do. </li></ul><ul><li>“ It’s the ability to impact with purpose. Power is the privilege to influence.” Oprah Winfrey </li></ul>
    34. 35. Group Exercise <ul><li>List the “negative” traits associated with POWER - chart </li></ul><ul><li>List the “positive” traits associated with POWER - chart </li></ul>
    35. 36. Power <ul><li>Negative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manipulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corruption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coercion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul></ul>
    36. 37. Five Sources of Leader Influence (Social Power) <ul><li>Coercive </li></ul><ul><li>Reward </li></ul><ul><li>Expert </li></ul><ul><li>Referent </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimate </li></ul>
    37. 38. Bases of Social Power <ul><li>Coercive </li></ul>
    38. 39. Bases of Social Power <ul><li>Coercive </li></ul><ul><li>Reward </li></ul>
    39. 40. Bases of Social Power <ul><li>Coercive </li></ul><ul><li>Reward </li></ul><ul><li>Expert </li></ul>
    40. 41. Bases of Social Power <ul><li>Coercive </li></ul><ul><li>Reward </li></ul><ul><li>Expert </li></ul><ul><li>Referent </li></ul>
    41. 42. Bases of Social Power <ul><li>Coercive </li></ul><ul><li>Reward </li></ul><ul><li>Expert </li></ul><ul><li>Referent </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimate </li></ul>
    42. 43. The Use of Power <ul><li>Leaders use power to affect the behavior and performance of followers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce Resistance </li></ul></ul>
    43. 44. Structure and Internal Power <ul><li>Position? </li></ul><ul><li>Coercive </li></ul><ul><li>Reward </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimate </li></ul><ul><li>Personal? </li></ul><ul><li>Expert </li></ul><ul><li>Referent </li></ul>
    44. 45. <ul><li>“ People who are truly effective have the humility and reverence to recognize their own perceptual limitations and to appreciate the rich resources available through interaction with the hearts and minds of other human beings.” </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen R. Covey </li></ul>
    45. 46. Leadership Style vs. Effectiveness <ul><li>You must consciously work at adapting your Leadership Style </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t let your preferred style get in the way of doing what will be most effective in the situation </li></ul><ul><li>What style of leadership is best? </li></ul>
    46. 47. Situational Leadership Blanchard’s Model
    47. 48. Situational Leadership <ul><li>Keep in mind – There is no “one best way” to influence others </li></ul><ul><li>Our leadership style is dependent upon the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation </li></ul></ul>
    48. 50. Task Behavior <ul><li>The extent to which the leader engages in defining roles, telling what, how, when, where, and if more than one person, who’s to do what in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing Time Lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling </li></ul></ul>
    49. 51. Relationship Behavior <ul><li>The extent to which a leader engages in two-way (or multi-way) communication, listening, facilitating behaviors, socio-emotional support. </li></ul><ul><li>This entails: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitating Interactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active Listening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing Feedback </li></ul></ul>
    50. 52. Direction (Task Behavior) <ul><li>Direction refers to providing information about the task, assigning responsibilities, indicating deadlines, instructions about how to do the task, etc. </li></ul>
    51. 53. Support (Relationship Behavior) <ul><li>Support refers to things such as encouraging, expressing confidence, dealing with conflict within the group, expressing appreciation, maintaining a positive spirit in the team and so forth. </li></ul>
    52. 54. Follower Readiness <ul><li>Ability: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>has the necessary knowledge, experience, and skill </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Willingness: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>has the necessary confidence, commitment, and motivation </li></ul></ul>
    53. 55. Followers <ul><li>R1: Unable or unwilling or insecure </li></ul><ul><li>R2: Unable but willing or confident </li></ul><ul><li>R3: Able but unwilling or insecure </li></ul><ul><li>R4: Able and willing or confident </li></ul><ul><li>Ability: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>has the necessary knowledge, experience, and skill </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Willingness: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>has the necessary confidence, commitment, and motivation </li></ul></ul>
    54. 56. The Situational Leadership Model Participating Low Direction High Support Share ideas, guide the process, and facilitate in decision making Selling High Direction High Support Explain your decisions and provide opportunity for clarification Delegating Low Direction Low Support Turn over responsibilities for both implementation and decision making Telling High Direction Low Support Provide specific instructions and closely monitor
    55. 57. The leader should evaluate subordinates and the situation and adopt the appropriate style. When the best leader’s work is done the people say, “We did it ourselves”… Mao Tse-Tung
    56. 58. If the Followers Are Inexperienced, not confident (insecure) - Do? <ul><li>Be very specific </li></ul><ul><li>Tell them what to do </li></ul><ul><li>Tell them how to do it </li></ul><ul><li>Tell them when to do it. </li></ul>
    57. 59. If the Followers Are High in Experience (able) and willing - Do? <ul><li>Provide a general goal(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Delegate sufficient authority to do the task </li></ul><ul><li>Expect followers to complete the task as they see fit. </li></ul>
    58. 60. Leadership Objectives <ul><li>To motivate/influence followers toward the attainment of goals </li></ul><ul><li>To avoid “Seagull Management” </li></ul><ul><li>To develop people to the readiness level of “delegation” </li></ul>
    59. 61. Teams – Scenario The New Supervisor <ul><li>Read the scenario </li></ul><ul><li>Answer the discussion questions </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a spokesperson </li></ul>
    60. 62. The New Supervisor <ul><li>What is the READINESS LEVEL of the employees? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the READINESS LEVEL of the supervisor? </li></ul><ul><li>How did that make a difference? </li></ul>Copyright 2005 by Performance and Process Improvement Associates, Inc.
    61. 63. The New Supervisor <ul><li>We as supervisors are not always right. </li></ul><ul><li>We don’t lose face by refusing to back down; but we do gain stature when we are willing to apologize. And just to clarify, in this instance Jim would apologize for his approach, not because employees should not be asked to work until the end of their workday. </li></ul><ul><li>New supervisors must be wary of acting rashly. If supervisors have a history of doing what they are about to ask others not to do, they had better take some time to develop a rationale for their changed behavior (had never realized the cost to the company, for example, to leave early time after time) </li></ul>
    62. 64. The New Supervisor <ul><li>Aggressive behavior rarely wins the day for us. </li></ul><ul><li>A calm approach without arrogance will serve us far better in the long run. </li></ul><ul><li>New supervisors should NEVER speak disparagingly of their predecessor. </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t build yourself up by tearing others down. This is actually a good rule at any time. </li></ul>
    63. 65.   Ineffective Training   Think of a trainer in the past that was ineffective for you as a trainee. Jot down the ineffective elements in the left column below. Then, try to associate the ineffective elements you identified with the 8 adult learning principles just discussed. Use the right column below to list the number of the principle that you think was being ignored .   Ineffective Elements   Principles Ignored 1.     1. 2.     2. 3.     3.   Effective Training   Think of a trainer in the past that was effective for you as a trainee. Jot down the effective elements in the left column below. Then, try to associate the effective elements you identified with the 8 adult learning principles just discussed. Use the right column below to list the number of the principle that you think was being followed . Effective Elements   Principles Followed 1.     1. 2.     2. 3.     3. Leadership and Effective Training
    64. 66. Effective Training <ul><li>Employees know what their job involves and what they can learn from the training session. </li></ul><ul><li>Have (realistic) expectations from the training. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure training materials and equipment are available for employees to use during/after training session. Practice is essential. </li></ul><ul><li>Train at the optimal time whenever possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the buddy system. </li></ul>
    65. 67. Verbalizing Expectations <ul><li>Let employees know what their role is to be and what results are expected. </li></ul><ul><li>What are their responsibilities? </li></ul><ul><li>What rewards, if any, can be expected from their contribution and participation? </li></ul><ul><li>What is likely to happen in the event of failure? </li></ul>
    66. 68. What is their starting point? <ul><li>What is their experience level? </li></ul><ul><li>At what speed do you expect they will learn this skill? </li></ul><ul><li>Are they going to be receptive? </li></ul><ul><li>(Remember their behavioral style, learning styles and motivation is a big part of this.) </li></ul>
    67. 69. Effective Listening Good Leaders are Good Listeners
    68. 70. Listening… <ul><li>According to research, listening occupies about 80percent of our waking hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies confirm that good listeners make good managers. </li></ul><ul><li>Members of the Academy of Certified Administrative Managers selected active listening as the most crucial management skill. </li></ul>Copyright 2005 by Performance and Process Improvement Associates, Inc.
    69. 71. Four Attention Behaviors 1) Facing the participants. 2) Maintaining appropriate eye contact. 3) Moving toward the participants. 4) Avoiding behaviors that distract the participants.
    70. 72. 3 Steps in Using Observation Skills 1) Look at the person’s face, body position, and body movements . 2) Try to determine the person’s feelings, based on what you observed. 3) Take appropriate action based on the inferences made.
    71. 73. Non-Verbal Behaviors Potential Inferences? Smiling Nodding Leaning forward Making eye contact Interested/Enthusiastic/ Understanding Yawning Vacant stare Shuffling feet Leaning back in chair Looking at watch or clock Bored/Tired/Frustrated Frowning Scratching head Pursing lips Vacant stare Avoiding eye contact Confused/Disagreeing/ Frustrated Participants’ Non-Verbal Behaviors & Potential Inferences
    72. 74. Effective Listening: A Definition <ul><li>“ Effective listening occurs when there is a high degree of correspondence between the sender’s original message and the listener’s recreation of that message” </li></ul><ul><li>— Castleberry & Shepherd, 1993 </li></ul>
    73. 75. Why Is Staying Focused So Difficult? 100–200 WPM 300–500 WPM slack time Daydream Think – say next Judgments @ message
    74. 76. Teams – Scenario The Friendly Supervisor <ul><li>Read the scenario </li></ul><ul><li>Answer the discussion questions </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a spokesperson </li></ul>
    75. 77. The Friendly Supervisor <ul><li>Ann was naïve to assume she could remain friends with all her employees without any discussion of the change that had taken place. </li></ul><ul><li>Ann needed to talk with the employees about her expectations and their expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>She had a new role with new responsibilities and that should have been addressed up front. </li></ul><ul><li>George has a role to play here as well. He is shirking his duty by not talking with Ann; preferably earlier before damage was done to the department. </li></ul>
    76. 78. Learning Styles
    77. 79. So why should I care about learning styles? <ul><li>Understanding learning styles helps you to communicate in a way that helps others “learn” what you are trying to explain to them </li></ul><ul><li>Presenting materials in multiple ways improves comprehension and retention of all participants </li></ul><ul><li>Realizing that others may learn differently than you do helps you stretch your appreciation of the diversity in the group </li></ul><ul><li>People who understand that others learn differently than they do tend to be less frustrated when someone doesn’t “get” what they say the first time </li></ul>
    78. 80. Adult Learning Styles <ul><li>Adults </li></ul><ul><li>Demand to learn differently than children </li></ul><ul><li>Are usually process oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Learn most effectively in a collaborative environment </li></ul>
    79. 81. Team Exercise <ul><li>2 Reasons why adults want to learn? (Chart) </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you want to learn? </li></ul>
    80. 82. Why do adults want to learn? <ul><li>Get a job or get a better job </li></ul><ul><li>Make or maintain social relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Meet external expectations (boss says I have to know this) </li></ul><ul><li>To better serve others (learning first aid to be able to help fellow employees) </li></ul><ul><li>Work Advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Escape or stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Pure interest </li></ul>
    81. 83. Adult Learning… <ul><li>Adults tend to be highly motivated when they are solving immediate personal or work related problems. </li></ul><ul><li>They want to apply what they have learned, and they are concerned with details. </li></ul><ul><li>Expect frequent questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Adults have acquired a wealth of information from their own life experiences. </li></ul>
    82. 84. Take the Perceptual Learning Styles Inventory
    83. 85. Classification of Learning Styles <ul><li>Communication Style : Way we like information delivered (tone of voice, body language, speed of delivery) and time we like to have to process information </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual Modality : Way we take in information </li></ul><ul><li>Information Processing : Way we sense, think, solve problems and remember information </li></ul>
    84. 86. Perceptual Modality <ul><li>Auditory </li></ul><ul><li>Visual </li></ul><ul><li>Kinesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Tactile </li></ul>Most people have a dominant and a secondary learning modality.
    85. 87. Perceptual Modality <ul><li>Auditory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprise about 30% of population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate most effectively to spoken word </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Listen to lecture (make notes later or not at all) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Written information has little meaning until it is heard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different categories of auditory learners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prefer spoken messages (most prevalent)– Listeners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need to hear their own voice saying the information – Talkers (Interactives) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clues in their speech, “I hear what you are saying.” </li></ul></ul>
    86. 88. Perceptual Modality <ul><li>Visual Learners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprise about 65% of population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate most effectively to written information, notes, diagrams and pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will be unhappy with a presentation if they are unable to take detailed notes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information does not exist for the visual learner unless it can been seen or written down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clues in speech, “I can see that.” </li></ul></ul>
    87. 89. Reading Learners <ul><li>Classified as Visual by some and Auditory by others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See words but most people process by hearing themselves say the words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Print oriented” – visual but depend more on words and numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No matter what classification is correct, some people primarily learn by reading </li></ul></ul>
    88. 90. Perceptual Modality <ul><li>Kinesthetic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprise about 5% of population (combined with Tactile) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to sense position and movement of what they are working on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn by working through scenarios and labs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceive information through movement of muscles, tendons, and joints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clues in speech – “I feel we are moving in the right direction.” </li></ul></ul>
    89. 91. Rotation and Revolution <ul><li>Revolution is the movement of the earth in an elliptical orbit around the sun whose average distance is 93 million miles away. </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation is the movement of the earth around an imaginary axis (north and south pole). </li></ul>
    90. 92. Perceptual Modality <ul><li>Tactile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprise about 5% of population (combined with Kinesthetic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Want to touch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Let’s get our hands dirty and work with this stuff.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning by working through scenarios and labs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceive information through nerve ending in skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clues in speech – “I feel we are moving in the right direction.” </li></ul></ul>
    91. 93. Team Exercise <ul><li>You are teaching someone how to brew coffee in an electric drip coffeemaker </li></ul><ul><li>What are the steps in this process? </li></ul>
    92. 94. Team Challenge #2 <ul><li>Lateral Thinking </li></ul>
    93. 95. <ul><li>“ The ability to recognize, change, and adapt is… </li></ul><ul><li>Genius” </li></ul><ul><li>Sun Tsu </li></ul>
    94. 96. SMART Goals Cheshire Cat said to Alice… “ If you don’t know where you are going, then any road will take you there.”
    95. 97. SMART Goals <ul><li>Know what you want to accomplish </li></ul><ul><li>Know what resources (time, $, materials, etc.) are available </li></ul><ul><li>Know who will carry out the implementation </li></ul>
    96. 98. SMART Goals S M A R T P P P
    97. 99. Setting Goals – Not Enough <ul><li>“ Lose 25 lbs before the end of the month” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Walk 5 miles every morning before breakfast” </li></ul><ul><li>How successful are you? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you reach the goals you set for yourself? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? Or Why not? </li></ul>
    98. 100. SMART Goals <ul><li>S-SPECIFIC </li></ul><ul><li>M-MEASURABLE </li></ul><ul><li>A-ATTAINABLE </li></ul><ul><li>R-RELEVANT </li></ul><ul><li>T-TIMED </li></ul>
    99. 101. <ul><li>S-SPECIFIC </li></ul><ul><li>When we make our goals too general we aren’t able to visualize them, and if we can’t see them, we have a hard time devoting our efforts toward reaching them. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>M-MEASURABLE </li></ul><ul><li>If we can’t measure a goal, we have no idea how close we are getting to reaching it, and that can be de-motivating. </li></ul>
    100. 102. <ul><li>A-ATTAINABLE </li></ul><ul><li>We sometimes think that we should set high targets or goals for ourselves, in order to grow and stretch. Well, we do want to grow and stretch, but if we set goals that aren’t doable, we soon get discouraged and we stop trying. The really high achievers in the world know this. They set goals that they know they can reach, with a little stretching, and when they get there, they set another goal they know they can reach. They climb the mountain one foot at a time. </li></ul>
    101. 103. <ul><li>R-RELEVANT </li></ul><ul><li>Goals have to make sense, and have some importance, or they will soon be discarded. Set goals that make sense to you. (Another word that is often used for the R in this acronym is Realistic.) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>T-TIMED </li></ul><ul><li>Put a deadline on your goals. Deadlines are great for getting things done. </li></ul>
    102. 104. <ul><li>You will also want to make sure that your goals have the three P’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal: There has to be a buy-in. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive: You won't want to work towards if it isn't. </li></ul><ul><li>Put in writing: Remember and can refer back to for all of the above. </li></ul>
    103. 105. Balloon Activity - Groups <ul><li>What did you learn from this activity? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it enough just to know the overall goal? </li></ul><ul><li>What could be done to make this activity successful time after time? </li></ul>
    104. 106. Individual Exercise <ul><li>Using the SMART goal pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attainable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Set a goal for your next training that will help to ensure the safety of a new hire </li></ul>
    105. 107. Coaching – A Leadership Skill
    106. 108. Coaching A Leadership Skill <ul><li>Being a coach involves being a role model, sometimes a counsellor or supporter, and always a guide. </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching is based on a partnership that involves giving both support and challenging opportunities to employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing how and when to coach is an essential skill. </li></ul>
    107. 109. Objectives <ul><li>Define “Coaching” </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how coaching can be used to develop your team. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop the coaching skills that help improve individual performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate the behaviours and practices of an effective coach. </li></ul>
    108. 110. Coaching - Definition                 It is that day-to-day, hands-on process of helping employees recognize their opportunities and strengths to reinforce and improve in their performance and their capabilities
    109. 111. Coaching - Definition <ul><li>Like OJT but more in depth… </li></ul><ul><li>Skills: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze ways to improve performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan mutually acceptable actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a supportive and helpful climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence employees to change behavior in positive ways </li></ul></ul>
    110. 112. Communication Skills                 <ul><li>The results if employees feel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valued? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listened to? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cared about? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a sense of shared responsibility? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Success is influenced by the quality of your relationship with your co-workers </li></ul>
    111. 113. Characteristics Important in Relationships…                 <ul><li>The ability to praise sincerely </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to understand what another's job entails </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to be trusted </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to be warm and friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Honesty </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom to disagree </li></ul>
    112. 114. Criticism <ul><li>Think of a time you received criticism. </li></ul><ul><li>What was your reaction? </li></ul><ul><li>Did it make the situation worse or better? </li></ul><ul><li>Example? </li></ul>
    113. 115. Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>Don’t criticize to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prove your right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blame someone else </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate your authority </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do criticize to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fix a problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make a positive change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help someone do better </li></ul></ul>
    114. 116. Feedback                 <ul><li>Be descriptive </li></ul><ul><li>Don't use labels </li></ul><ul><li>Don't exaggerate </li></ul><ul><li>Don't be judgmental </li></ul><ul><li>Speak for yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Talk first about yourself, not the other person </li></ul><ul><li>Limit your feedback to things you know for certain/have observed </li></ul><ul><li>Help people hear and accept your positive feedback </li></ul>Use Feedback to move through the Situational Leadership Continuum…
    115. 117. Feedback – Four Types                 <ul><li>The Traditional Sandwich </li></ul><ul><li>The Open-Face Sandwich </li></ul><ul><li>Praise </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour to Change </li></ul>
    116. 118. Traditional Sandwich                 When you give this type of feedback you begin with a positive statement about the employee’s performance. Then you give them a specific behaviour you would like to see changed. Your last statement is an affirmation of their worth.
    117. 119. Traditional Sandwich                 <ul><li>James, you handle your people well. Just yesterday I noticed how patient you were with that new person who was asking you so many questions. </li></ul><ul><li>However, you often forget to write up your production reports. I’d like you to try harder to get that report done in a timely fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>However, I do value all the work you put into building relationships. I just need that paperwork. </li></ul>
    118. 120. The Open Sandwich                 When you give this type of feedback you tell the employee what behaviour you want to see changed and then you affirm their value as an employee. James, I’d like you to try harder to get that production report in on time. You are a good employee and you do a great job of building relationships. However, I do need that paperwork.
    119. 121. Praise                 At other times, just give the employee some praise that is sincere. James, you are a good employee and you do a great job of building relationships. I saw how well you handled that new person who had all the questions yesterday.
    120. 122. Behavior to Change                 Very rarely, you just tell the employee the behaviour to be changed. You are courteous and respectful but there is something they must do differently. “ James, you often forget to write up your production reports and we need those reports on a timely basis. I’d like you to try harder to get that paperwork completed on time.”
    121. 123. Scenario - Coaching <ul><li>How do you effectively “coach” these individuals? </li></ul><ul><li>Role play: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisor </li></ul></ul>
    122. 124. Motivation
    123. 125. Team Exercise <ul><li>Individually, write down your definition of “Motivation” </li></ul><ul><li>Working in your group, agree on a definition of “Motivation” </li></ul><ul><li>Chart your response </li></ul>
    124. 126. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Identify what motivation is </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how trust relates to motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about common motivational theories and how to apply them </li></ul><ul><li>Learn when to use the carrot, the whip, and the plant </li></ul><ul><li>Discover how fear and desire affect employee motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Explore ways to create a motivational climate and design a motivating job </li></ul>
    125. 127. Supervising and Motivation
    126. 128. The Only Real Way To Motivate <ul><li>The only way to get a person to do something is to make the person want to do it, in order to get something they want or avoid something they don't want. </li></ul>
    127. 129. What is Motivation? <ul><li>Motivation is a force that leads people to attempt to satisfy their important needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation is a drive from within that prompts or incites an action. </li></ul>
    128. 130. What Can We Do… <ul><li>Create a climate in which our employees internal motivation will activate performance </li></ul><ul><li>Managers need to know their people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What motivates them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to create a motivating climate </li></ul></ul>
    129. 131. Different Views of How to Motivate Carrot Whip Plant
    130. 132. Carrot Whip Plant Describe what motivation each object represents When is each type of motivation required Give an example of each type of motivation Group Exercise
    131. 133. Carrot This represents incentives and rewards. This could be time off, pay bonuses, or promotional gifts.
    132. 134. Whip This represents threats and consequences. Although such techniques are often perceived negatively, they do have their place in the workplace, for short-term motivation. Employees should be aware of the consequences of poor performance or behavior. Consequences may include suspension and termination of course, but these are big clubs and sometimes we just need a little stick. These might include no recognition, no plum assignments, or disciplinary interviews.
    133. 135. Plant This represents a positive environment. It includes all of the items an manager should strive for: employees knowing their work is important, an open atmosphere, fair dealings with all, training, good lines of communication, a feeling of support by the supervisor, and a feeling of self-esteem.
    134. 136. Top 10 Things I Can Do To Motivate My Employees On A Daily Basis <ul><li>Be visible </li></ul><ul><li>Know everybody’s name </li></ul><ul><li>Spend time building relationships, one-on-one </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge individual and group contributions </li></ul><ul><li>Say thank you when it is deserved </li></ul><ul><li>Share as much information as I can (good and bad) </li></ul><ul><li>Hold informal meetings to keep information flowing both ways </li></ul><ul><li>Develop employee skills </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrate successes </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted from The Greatest Management Principle in the World by Michael Leboeuf </li></ul>
    135. 137. Fear and Desire <ul><li>What are your biggest fears? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they motivate you? </li></ul><ul><li>What are your greatest desires? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they motivate you? </li></ul>
    136. 138. The Role of Values <ul><li>What are some things you do, or could do, to keep yourself motivated? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think any of these things would also be effective for motivating your employees? </li></ul>
    137. 139. Team Challenge #3… <ul><li>Lateral Thinking… </li></ul>
    138. 140. How to handle conflicts .                                                 
    139. 141. Understanding and Managing Conflict in the Work Environment
    140. 142. Introductions <ul><li>Name </li></ul><ul><li>Role in the Organization </li></ul>
    141. 143. Participant “Core Competencies” Upon Completion : <ul><li>The ability to identify the root causes of Conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to identify the personal and organizational impacts of unwanted conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Manage conflict constructively with positive personal and organizational outcomes . </li></ul>
    142. 144. What is conflict anyway? <ul><li>Conflict (Noun) is a natural phenomenon, (neither inherently good or bad) when two or more people disagree… </li></ul>
    143. 145. What is conflict anyway? <ul><li>Conflict (Verb) is a behavioral response , based upon the perceived impact that the “disagreement” has upon the two basic physiological paradigms - ACCEPTANCE and SIGNIFICANCE. </li></ul>
    144. 146. Let’s look at an example of some conflict ….. &quot;The Bathroom Fight&quot; – from Everybody Loves Raymond Courtesy / You Tube link1
    145. 147. Conflict is often only seen form a negative perspective… <ul><li>Anger </li></ul><ul><li>Disagreement </li></ul><ul><li>Hostility </li></ul><ul><li>Threat </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Tension </li></ul><ul><li>Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Pain </li></ul><ul><li>War </li></ul>
    146. 148. Potential Productive Outcomes of Conflict: <ul><li>Clarifying </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulating </li></ul><ul><li>Intimate </li></ul><ul><li>Courageous </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthening </li></ul><ul><li>Creative </li></ul><ul><li>Helpful </li></ul><ul><li>Enriching </li></ul><ul><li>Caring </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusive </li></ul>
    147. 149. What is the genesis of conflict? <ul><li>Repressed or unmet needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Marginal or misguided perceptions of the actual “Facts”. </li></ul><ul><li>A perception of “Threat” </li></ul><ul><li>A perception of “Isolation” (acceptance/significance) </li></ul><ul><li>All of these elements center around our ability to communicate effectively with the people we interact with daily…. </li></ul>
    148. 150. Conflict Processing Modes <ul><li>Avoiding </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodating </li></ul><ul><li>Competing </li></ul><ul><li>Compromising </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborating </li></ul>
    149. 151. Avoiding - <ul><li>Flight instead of Fight </li></ul><ul><li>Prefers the “pain” of the status quo over the “pain” required to initiate a change. (lose-lose) </li></ul><ul><li>This behavior can have significant and deep psycho-social roots. </li></ul>
    150. 152. Accommodating - <ul><li>Easy and self-defeating approach </li></ul><ul><li>Prefers to get along (at most any cost) rather than challenge the situation. (lose-win) </li></ul><ul><li>Looks for a third party to solve the problems ( Cinderella syndrome). </li></ul>
    151. 153. Competing - <ul><li>My way or the highway! </li></ul><ul><li>Life is a series of challenges that requires me to win… for me to win someone must loose. (win-lose) </li></ul><ul><li>Score keeping is everything … </li></ul>
    152. 154. Compromising - <ul><li>Give a little to get a little…. </li></ul><ul><li>Giving in on a few points is better than all out war. </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately, this just another form of lose-lose. I don’t get what I want (totally) and neither do you! </li></ul>
    153. 155. Collaboration - <ul><li>Highest form of conflict (verb) resolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires effort, action, risk, communication and trust. </li></ul><ul><li>Truly seeks solutions rather than accommodations. (win-win) </li></ul><ul><li>Requires diagnosis before prescribing. </li></ul>
    154. 156. You already have a ‘style’ of Conflict Management - <ul><li>How do/did we learn our own styles of conflict management? </li></ul><ul><li>Role Models? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family role models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Celebrity role models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers/mentors/coaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media examples/role models </li></ul></ul>
    155. 157. If Conflict is Unavoidable … <ul><li>We should learn how to manage our response to it – </li></ul><ul><li>We should gain skills in our communication styles to reduce the incidents of conflict - </li></ul><ul><li>We should learn how to turn the negative aspects of conflict in to positive win-win opportunities - </li></ul>
    156. 158. Stages of Conflict Development <ul><li>Tension Development </li></ul><ul><li>Role Dilemma </li></ul><ul><li>Injustice Collection </li></ul><ul><li>Confrontation </li></ul><ul><li>Adjustments </li></ul>
    157. 159. Our Response to Conflict <ul><li>Regardless of the situation or provocation… we are in control of our response to it. </li></ul><ul><li>We control the “space “ between the stimulus and our response to it… we need to be proactive… to “Chose” </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Steven Covey - The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People </li></ul><ul><li>LINK 2 </li></ul>
    158. 160. Our Response to Conflict <ul><li>What do you choose ? </li></ul><ul><li>The 90 / 10 Principle </li></ul><ul><li>LINK 3 </li></ul>
    159. 161. Communication is the Key <ul><li>The Tool of Empathic Listening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non- judgmental and non autobiographical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide the “space” for true exchange of ideas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflective of the emotion and intent of the other person. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek first to understand… then to be understood. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “Talking Stick” by Dr. Steven Covey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Link 4 </li></ul></ul>
    160. 162. Working on Empathic Listening <ul><li>Three Scenarios - </li></ul><ul><li>Watch for the root of the conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Note how each person works with stating the other persons point of view. </li></ul><ul><li>What would you Do? Say? Feel? </li></ul>
    161. 163. Lemons to Lemonade – Diffusing Conflict and Creating Positive Outcomes <ul><li>Listen </li></ul><ul><li>Understand then be Understood. </li></ul><ul><li>Create trust and understanding by using a set of “ I “ statements. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I feel… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I think… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I need… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OK – lets try this… </li></ul></ul>
    162. 164. Creating Positive Outcomes <ul><li>Once we understand the problem we can – </li></ul><ul><li>Defining the problem in terms of needs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I” statements are helpful…. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generating possible solutions (brainstorming). </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate (test) the various scenarios and decide on mutually acceptable solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Implementing the solution. (Try it out!) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the solution… change as needed. </li></ul>
    163. 165. Conflict in a new Light <ul><li>Choose two of your most difficult relationships, conflicts, or issues and write them down. </li></ul><ul><li>Create an action plan to address the conflict situation… what will you do, say, feel… </li></ul><ul><li>What will change as a result of your actions? </li></ul>
    164. 166. Summary <ul><li>Conflict is unavoidable but highly manageable with the right toolset. </li></ul><ul><li>Our own perceptions and “space” are our greatest assets. </li></ul><ul><li>Needs based problem solving key to long term relationship building and trust. </li></ul><ul><li>- Questions over what we’ve covered? </li></ul>