Alley, Andrea , Kathleen , Ryan, Gisselle , Jeffrey Team 4
• Developed after the influence of Behaviorism.• “Cognition: literally means ‘knowing’, and is the mental act or process to which knowledge is acquired (Mcleod,S.A.).”• Cognitive Theory compared our thoughts and recollections to our behavior: • Both are tendencies of the individual, and therefore should be analyzed as such. (Gary, Shelly B. Pg 371).• The human mind and the present day computer have a synergistic function: • Input, store and retrieve information. • As humans, we hear/see/do certain things which are placed into our memory for us to use this acquired knowledge in the future.
Dual Coding Theory (Allvan Palvio) : proposes that information is processed through either visual images or interpreting language. How verbal/ nonverbal information is displayed will effect the influence on the individual. How the verbal and nonverbal systems are activated in presence of one another How text with images can trigger us to store the information (Gary, Shelly B, Pg. 372) 9 events of Instruction (Gagne) : belief that learning depends on verbal, information, intellectual skills, attitudes, and cognitive strategies. Grabbing the learners attention, displaying the objectives for the learner, activating human recall (PREVIEW information- then REVIEW information), introducing new information with guidance and direction, participation followed by feedback, evaluate their new level of understanding, and continue to increase level of retaining information View on Intelligence (Gardner): each individual holds the ability to learn and demonstrate through a variety of multiple intelligences. Cognitive Domain (Bloom): how we use what we know to form ideas and thoughts. Psychomotor Domain: motor skills and physical abilities. Bloom’s Taxonomy: is a hierarchy of learning to stimulate student comprehension Master Learning: Bloom’s model for learning, where students continue to retain more knowledge, only once previous knowledge is mastered.
Merrill -Component Display Theory (CDT) Reigeluth (Elaboration Theory) Gagne Briggs Wager PowerPoint Clip Art Bruner (moving toward cognitive constructivism), Schank (scripts) Scandura (structural learning) Richard Mayer- Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning John Sweller- Cognitive Load Theory
With Technology: The multimedia principle: states that “people learn more deeply from words and pictures than from words alone” (Mayer, p. 47). Teachers use technology to help students retain information. The principle states that these elements (pictures and visuals) are selected and organized dynamically to produce logical mental constructs. PowerPoint Clip Art
Without Technology: Teachers in the classroom will teach students with repetition for the students to input the information. Information comes in, is processed, and leads to certain outcomes. Using assessments to see these outcomes is how the teacher implements this theory. PowerPoint Clip Art
With Technology: Students see what the teacher presents as a visual They will then start to process and input the information into their memory Then they will recall that information when tested on that particular visual presentation
Without Technology: Students will use the thought process to successfully perform the problem by recalling information that the instructor lectured about prior to an assessment. They use problem solving, analysis, and then they explain the result. PowerPoint Clip Art
Using a vocabulary curriculum to allow the students to input new information into their brains. Giving students formulas to know if in a mathematics- based classroom. Showing the students different videos (implementing technology) and then testing them on what they learned. Constantly adding new information for the students to input into their memory, then reviewing what they have learned by assessments.
"Cognitive Theories." Learning Theories. Web. 20 Nov. 2011. <http://www.learning- theories.com/category/cognitive-theories>. Gary, Shelly B. Boston (2010). 6th Edition. Teacher’s Discovering Computers; Integrating Technology and Digital media in the Classroom. Mayer, R. E.; R. Moreno (1998). “A Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning: Implications for Design Principles”. http://www.unm.edu/~moreno/PDFS/chi.pdf. Mcleod, S. A. (2007). Simply Psychology; Cognitive Approach in Psychology. Retrieved 20 November 2011, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/cognitive.html