Fisser, P., & Strijker, A. (2005, May 27). Managing Self Regulated, Blended Learning

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Fisser, P., & Strijker, A. (2005, May 27). Managing Self Regulated, Blended Learning

  1. 1. Managing self-regulated, blended learning a process of change in education dr. Petra Fisser Supporting Sustainable e-Learning Forum (SSeLF) University of Dundee, 27 May 2005
  2. 2. This presentation <ul><li>Managing self-regulated blended learning </li></ul>
  3. 3. This presentation <ul><li>Managing self-regulated blended learning </li></ul><ul><li>Blended learning: a 'blend' of face-to-face and technology supported learning </li></ul>
  4. 4. This presentation <ul><li>Managing self-regulated blended learning </li></ul><ul><li>Blended learning: a 'blend' of face-to-face and technology supported learning </li></ul><ul><li>Self-regulated: student-centred instead of teacher-centred education </li></ul>
  5. 5. This presentation <ul><li>Managing self-regulated blended learning </li></ul><ul><li>Blended learning: a 'blend' of face-to-face and technology supported learning </li></ul><ul><li>Self-regulated: student-centred instead of teacher-centred education </li></ul><ul><li>Managing… </li></ul>
  6. 6. This presentation <ul><li>Managing self-regulated blended learning </li></ul><ul><li>Blended learning: a 'blend' of face-to-face and technology supported learning </li></ul><ul><li>Self-regulated: student-centred instead of teacher-centred education </li></ul><ul><li>Managing… the process of implementing self-regulated blended learning </li></ul>
  7. 7. The implementation process Pilot Implementation Result Result Result Result Environment End Project leader Decision maker
  8. 8. The implementation process <ul><li>The implementation process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a pilot with certain results -> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the pilot is scaled up -> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it is implemented in a broader context </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The implementation process <ul><li>An other way to describe this in “stages of change” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incidental and isolated use of ICT (pilot) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing awareness of ICT relevance for education (scaling-up) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinated and supported activities (implementation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ICT integrated in teaching and learning (integration) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Example for blended-learning <ul><li>Incidental and isolated use of ICT (pilot): -> a try-out in one course </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing awareness of ICT relevance for education (scaling-up): -> more instructors use a blended-learning approach </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinated and supported activities (implementation): -> the whole department uses a blended-learning approach </li></ul><ul><li>ICT integrated in teaching and learning (integration): -> the whole university uses a blended-learning approach </li></ul>
  11. 11. Support for implementation <ul><li>The simplified model is not enough </li></ul><ul><li>A general strategy for implementation not available </li></ul><ul><li>In higher education a need for support in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the process from piloting to implementation and integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pedagogical models in relation to ICT in education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These two issues are often combined, because of the belief that the ICT applications that are implemented need some kind of pedagogical foundation to be successful </li></ul>
  12. 12. Actors <ul><li>The support for implementation is of interest for actors responsible for the implementation process </li></ul><ul><li>But which actors are involved? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it the teacher? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or the educational manager? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or the project manager that is responsible for the implementation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or the technical support unit that has to implement the technological aspects? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or…? </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Actors <ul><li>Actors involved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>College board members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President/rector/ principal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vice president/vice chancellor/provost/policy advisor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ICT steering group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle managers/educational managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chair/head of department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty, instructors, teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members of staff development unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members of pedagogical support unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members of infrastructure and computing unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff members of the library </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ministry of education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External institutions </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. External stimulus to change External institutions Ministry of education External Supporting the implementation process <ul><li>Members of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>staff development unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pedagogical support unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>infrastructure / computing unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>library </li></ul></ul>Support Education Students Students Education and research Faculty, instructors, teachers Faculty Leadership, policy-making, stimulating faculty Middle managers / educational managers Chair / head of department Middle management Leadership, policy-making, strategy, budget/ and resource-allocation Vice president / vice chancellor / policy advisor Deans ICT steering group Higher management Leadership, vision, strategy College board members President/rector/ principal Board Role and activity of the actor Actors within the category Category
  15. 15. Actors and roles
  16. 16. Middle management <ul><li>Crucial actor: middle management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational management / director </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Head of department </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role: influence the implementation process (success or failure) </li></ul><ul><li>Many responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership! </li></ul>
  17. 17. Leadership <ul><li>Needed in all stages of the implementation process </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating a shared vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support of the implementation process </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Management & Leadership <ul><li>The middle management is involved in all the stages of the implementation process </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership is an important role and activity in the implementation process </li></ul><ul><li>It is assumed that these two are connected to each other </li></ul><ul><li>The middle manager plays a key role in the implementation process </li></ul><ul><li>He or she should be involved in all steps </li></ul>
  19. 19. Are we expecting too much? <ul><li>Many expectations from the middle manager </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projectmanagement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Background related to content of study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… .. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How does he/she do it? </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Top-down or bottom-up? </li></ul><ul><li>Top-down: the managment decides </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom-up: initiative from the teacher </li></ul>Strategies Management: You have to use Blackboard! Ok…..  /  Teacher: I would like to use Blackboard! Ok…..  /  Personal Organisational
  21. 21. Top-down and bottom-up! Oh no.. I have to puzzle… Teacher Idea! Manager That is nice… Maybe you like? Look what my teacher did! All of the university should do this! That is nice! Oh no.. Now I have to show everybody Board This is nice! Look at colleague! Show! I want this too! I give you support and money I will use it Me too Me too Me too Me too Me too Me too
  22. 22. Other strategies <ul><li>Concerns-based Adoption Model </li></ul><ul><li>The Colour Theory </li></ul>
  23. 23. Concerns-based Adoption Model <ul><li>This model applies to anyone experiencing change (policy makers, teachers, parents, students) </li></ul><ul><li>The model holds that people considering and experiencing change evolve in the kinds of questions they ask and in their use of whatever the change is </li></ul>
  24. 24. Concerns-based Adoption Model <ul><li>In general, early questions are more self-oriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is it? and How will it affect me? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When these questions are resolved, questions emerge that are more task-oriented: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do I do it? How can I organize myself? and Why is it taking so much time? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Finally, when self- and task concerns are largely resolved, the individual can focus on impact. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is this change working for students? and Is there something that will work even better? </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. The Colour Theory <ul><li>Based on change theories </li></ul><ul><li>5 strategies with different colours </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. The Colour Theory: Yellow <ul><li>Yellow = power! </li></ul><ul><li>Discover collective interests </li></ul><ul><li>Play a power game </li></ul><ul><li>Reach a win-win situation </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: change beliefs and policy </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Colour Theory: Blue <ul><li>Blue = blueprint </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking and planning </li></ul><ul><li>Rational / logical process </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing the outcome </li></ul><ul><li>Result: guaranteed success! </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Colour Theory: Red <ul><li>Red = passion and temptation </li></ul><ul><li>Bring together organisational & individual goals </li></ul><ul><li>Give people a stimulus and motivate them </li></ul><ul><li>Human resource management important </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Colour Theory: Green <ul><li>Green = growing and nature </li></ul><ul><li>Bring people in a learning situation </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate the learning process </li></ul><ul><li>Find the solution together </li></ul><ul><li>Keyword: the learning organisation </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Colour Theory: White <ul><li>White = the colour of light and openness </li></ul><ul><li>Offer freedom for spontaneous revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking through existing patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic and self-regulated process </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome: unpredictable! </li></ul>
  31. 31. The Colour Theory <ul><li>Always: yellow (commitment) and red (combination of people and organisation) </li></ul><ul><li>Choice: Blue, Green or White </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue (result-based): routine problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green (project-based): non-routine problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White (creativity-based): vague problems </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Assignment <ul><li>Fill in the form: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which actor are you? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which actor is next to you? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where is the educational manager? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What strategy does he/she use? </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Strategies for implementation of Self-Regulated Blended Learning and Reuse of Learning Objects Strijker, A. (2005, May 27). Strategies for implementation of Self Regulated Blended Learning and Reuse of Learning Objects . Dundee, UK.
  34. 34. Reuse of Learning Objects <ul><li>Learning Objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assignments, Videofragments, Animations, Lectures, Articles, Pictures </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Learning Objects <ul><li>Learning objects are defined as digital entities, available for use or reuse in different learning settings. </li></ul><ul><li>These objects themselves may or may not have been originally created as learning objects; it is their use for learning purposes that makes them learning objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Definition used in the research: A learning object is any digital entity that may be used for learning, education, or training. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Contexts <ul><li>The research describes issues related to the reuse of learning objects and the implementation of learning technology standards for reuse of these learning objects in different contexts and the human and technical aspects involved: </li></ul><ul><li>University, </li></ul><ul><li>Military, </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate Learning. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Human aspects <ul><li>Human perspective – What human aspects are important to support reuse of learning material? </li></ul><ul><li>Human aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why takes reuse place, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is involved. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Technical Aspects <ul><li>Technical perspective - What tools and technologies are important to support reuse of learning material </li></ul><ul><li>Technical aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What's reused, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is reuse supported, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where are learning objects stored. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. Overall Research Question <ul><li>Combining human and technical perspectives - What are key dimensions to guide the selection of tools, technologies, and human procedures to support reuse of learning material for users in different usage contexts, particularly university, corporate learning, and military training? </li></ul>
  40. 41. Context Orientations <ul><li>Personal oriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal orientation is related to human interaction, personal needs, personal incentives, and personal values. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systems oriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Systems orientation focuses on technical specifications, rules, policy, and procedures. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. Dimensions for Reuse <ul><li>The research identified dimensions related to use of learning technology standards for reuse such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultures within the context, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning scenarios, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentives for reuse, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work processes, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How learning objects are stored. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 43. Dimensions for Reuse Locally Repository How learning objects are stored Personal Organizational Work processes Personal habits Formal workflow Incentives for reuse Participation Acquisition Learning scenarios The world of inspiration The Merchant world The world of Opinion The Civic world The Domestic world The industrial world Cultures within the context Personal Oriented Systems Oriented
  43. 44. Results <ul><li>The results of the research show that reuse in practice may not so much be focused on a wide exchange of all available material but rather on local level sharing within departments and even primarily on the reuse of one’s own course material. </li></ul>
  44. 45. Results <ul><li>The use of specifications for learning technology may not have the expected impact on adaptive learning and building courses based on learning objects from large repositories as expected by many. </li></ul>
  45. 46. Results <ul><li>Instead, new developments for specifications may focus on support for more-personal reuse strategies. </li></ul>
  46. 47. Assignment <ul><li>Dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Try to map your current context (the environment you work in) on the dimensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the focus is on the left side (Systems), you are in a context that provides different aspects for reuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the emphasis on the right side (Personal), the implementation of a reuse strategy in your context is problematic </li></ul></ul>
  47. 48. Example Implementing self-regulated blended learning with reuse possibilities
  48. 49. Implementation process <ul><li>Actors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 chair (prof. Betty Collis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management master programme </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students with different backgrounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students on- and off campus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students not self-reliant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers wnat to offer better guidance </li></ul></ul>
  49. 50. Implementation process <ul><li>Solution: Task-based learning </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of top-down and bottom-up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At first a white strategy… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now more and more yellow and red </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green also important: learning from each other </li></ul></ul>
  50. 51. Task-based learning <ul><li>Self-reliant learning </li></ul><ul><li>Active learning </li></ul><ul><li>Guidance and support </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher extensive education </li></ul><ul><li>Blended learning and Distance learning </li></ul>
  51. 52. Kind of tasks <ul><li>Kinds of tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application task </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But also </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem solving task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative learning tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taks-based learning does not rule out other pedagogcial approaches! </li></ul>
  52. 53. Designing tasks: a checklist <ul><li>Title </li></ul><ul><li>Short description </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives of the course related to the Assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Previous knowledge and skills needed for this task </li></ul><ul><li>Objective of the Assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations from the student </li></ul><ul><li>Way of testing </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria for grading </li></ul><ul><li>Possibilities for extra help </li></ul><ul><li>Example of the task </li></ul>
  53. 54. Example of task-based learning <ul><li>Course: Pedagogies for flexible learning supported by technology (Master course) </li></ul><ul><li>13 students with different backgrounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 different countries and languages, some with work experience, some other study (not related to Educational Design) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 DE-students, 10 blended learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different learning styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different interests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And only 1 course!! </li></ul>
  54. 55. Example of task-based learning
  55. 56. Interactive task Develop a strategy for self-regulated blended learning with reuse possibilities
  56. 57. Blended learning scenarios Organisation-regulated Learner-regulated Face-to-face E-learning Scenario A: Classroom teaching Lecture, room, teacher–student, fixed times Scenario B: Study landscape Collaboration, facilities, tutor-student, self-management within boundaries Scenario C: Communities of Practice Meetings, collaboration, students as members, self-reliant, responsible Scenario D: Workplace learning Online resources, learning to learn, work-related, self-reliant, responsible
  57. 58. Knowing in the Classroom Teacher/ expert learner learner learner learner source
  58. 59. Scenario characteristics <ul><li>Participants: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>teacher/expert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowing, building knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flexibility low: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed meetings at specific locations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predetermined rosters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Passive learners: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>low interaction, pre-cooked one-way communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High level of structure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher-led scenario of lesson </li></ul></ul>
  59. 60. Knowing how in the study landscape l e a r n e r l e a r n e r Learner l e a r n e r learner Teacher/ expert source source source source
  60. 61. Scenario characteristics <ul><li>Participants: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher/expert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External sources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowing, building knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flexibility medium-low: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less need for large rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller groups  easier time planning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semi-passive learners: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>teacher provides sources but promotes active knowledge management from learners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semi-structured: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>structure made by teacher in collaboration with learners </li></ul></ul>
  61. 62. Applying in a community of practice learner learner learner learner learner source source source source
  62. 63. Scenario characteristics <ul><li>Participants: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External sources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowing, building knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flexibility medium high: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunities for virtual collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No teacher  less need for formal meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active learners: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learners build knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semi-structured: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learners determine workflow and knowledge framework </li></ul></ul>
  63. 64. Integrating in the workplace learner source source source source source source
  64. 65. Scenario characteristics <ul><li>Participants: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External sources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>integration of knowledge in the workplace activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flexibility high: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time schedules to be determined by the learner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learner can learn at any place at any time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active learners: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the learner builds a knowledge framework based on individual interpretation of information from external sources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individually structured: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the individual learner as decision maker in the learning process </li></ul></ul>
  65. 66. Interactive task <ul><li>Choose a scenario </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine that you are the educational manager </li></ul><ul><li>Two missions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make the scenario self-regulated and blended </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assure that reuse is possible </li></ul></ul>
  66. 67. Interactive task <ul><li>Decide upon actors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is involved? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who should be involved? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is your role as manager? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decide upon strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top-down or bottom-up? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colours? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dimensions? </li></ul></ul>
  67. 68. More information? Allard Strijker, [email_address] Petra Fisser, [email_address]
  68. 69. Cultures within the context Competences, responsibility, professional qualifications, effort, discipline, obedience, seriousness, energy, dedication Progress, future, functionality, efficiency, optimality, performance, productivity, professionality, reliability, far-sightedness, system To master, to integrate, to organise, to control, to stabilise, to foresee, to implement, to detect, to adapt, to analyse, to measure, to formalise, to standardise, to solve, to optimise, to schedule, to sequence, to anticipate. The Industrial World Attractive, appealing, respectfulness to the customers, open-minded, obliging, willing to help, thoughtful, careful, reactive, opportunist Wealth, money, luxury; business, fair deals, good deals, bargain; interest, attentions to others; contract; competition, rivalry, opportunism, freedom, To desire, to possess, to bet, to win and to loose, to gamble and to play, to buy, to sell, to negotiate, to deal, to pay, to rival, to conclude, to accumulate, to keep one's distance. The Merchant World Concerned with the general will, altruism, giving collective interest a higher rank than personnel Interests. The general will, the common interest, generosity, self-abnegation, sacrifice, pride, the group, collective action, collective entities (ideas, values, symbols and institutions). To debate, to voice, to mobilise, to gather, to adhere, to exclude, to inform, to codify, to delegate, to represent and to be represented, to show solidarity, to share. The Civic World Being an actor, contributive, communicative, participative, personality, celebrity Image, reputation, fame, success, honour, acknowledgement, visibility, audience, credibility, Identification. To influence, to convince, to persuade, to seduce, to promote, to advertise, to orientate, to catch the attention, to compare. The World of Opinion Honest, decent, respectful, common sense, savoir-vivre, repetitive, reproductive, cautious, reliable Confidence, responsibility, merit, respectability, convention, dignity, tradition, hierarchy, rank; parents, children, generation; rules and confidence, principles; harmony; the &quot;natural&quot;; the duty To behave, to give, receive and give back; to respect; to keep the convenient distance; to be polite (with both inferiors & superiors); to interact. The Domestic World Spontaneous, passionate, risk taking, open-minded, independent, intuitive Singularity, difference, innovation, originality, irrationality, imaginary, spirituality, unconscious, chance To create, to discover, to research, to share, to imagine, to dream, to explode, to be amazed, to perceive, to harness. The World of Inspiration Attitudes Value features Verbs
  69. 70. Cultures within the context : Attitudes <ul><li>The World of Inspiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spontaneous, passionate, risk taking, open-minded, independent, intuitive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Domestic World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Honest, decent, respectful, common sense, savoir-vivre, repetitive, reproductive, cautious, reliable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The World of Opinion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being an actor, contributive, communicative, participative, personality, celebrity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Civic World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerned with the general will, altruism, giving collective interest a higher rank than personnel Interests. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Merchant World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attractive, appealing, respectfulness to the customers, open-minded, obliging, willing to help, thoughtful, careful, reactive, opportunist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Industrial World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competences, responsibility, professional qualifications, effort, discipline, obedience, seriousness, energy, dedication </li></ul></ul>
  70. 71. Cultures within the context : Value features <ul><li>The World of Inspiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Singularity, difference, innovation, originality, irrationality, imaginary, spirituality, unconscious, chance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Domestic World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confidence, responsibility, merit, respectability, convention, dignity, tradition, hierarchy, rank; parents, children, generation; rules and confidence, principles; harmony; the &quot;natural&quot;; the duty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The World of Opinion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Image, reputation, fame, success, honour, acknowledgement, visibility, audience, credibility, Identification. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Civic World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The general will, the common interest, generosity, self-abnegation, sacrifice, pride, the group, collective action, collective entities (ideas, values, symbols and institutions). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Merchant World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealth, money, luxury; business, fair deals, good deals, bargain; interest, attentions to others; contract; competition, rivalry, opportunism, freedom, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Industrial World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Progress, future, functionality, efficiency, optimality, performance, productivity, professionality, reliability, far-sightedness, system </li></ul></ul>
  71. 72. Cultures within the context : Verbs <ul><li>The World of Inspiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To create, to discover, to research, to share, to imagine, to dream, to explode, to be amazed, to perceive, to harness. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Domestic World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To behave, to give, receive and give back; to respect; to keep the convenient distance; to be polite (with both inferiors & superiors); to interact. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The World of Opinion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To influence, to convince, to persuade, to seduce, to promote, to advertise, to orientate, to catch the attention, to compare. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Civic World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To debate, to voice, to mobilise, to gather, to adhere, to exclude, to inform, to codify, to delegate, to represent and to be represented, to show solidarity, to share. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Merchant World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To desire, to possess, to bet, to win and to loose, to gamble and to play, to buy, to sell, to negotiate, to deal, to pay, to rival, to conclude, to accumulate, to keep one's distance. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Industrial World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To master, to integrate, to organise, to control, to stabilise, to foresee, to implement, to detect, to adapt, to analyse, to measure, to formalise, to standardise, to solve, to optimise, to schedule, to sequence, to anticipate. </li></ul></ul>
  72. 73. Learning scenarios <ul><li>Acquisition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drill and practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CBT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authoring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ELO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentoring </li></ul></ul>
  73. 74. Acquisition vs Participation Belonging, participating, communicating Having, possessing Nature of knowing Facilitator, mentor, &quot;Expert participant, preserver of practice/discourse&quot; (p. 7) Delivering, conveying, facilitating, clarifying Role of instructor Mutuality; community building Individualized learning Ideal &quot;The evolving bonds between the individual and others&quot; (p. 6); &quot;the dialectic nature of the learning interaction: The whole and the parts affect and inform each other&quot; (p. 6) &quot;The individual mind and what goes into it&quot; (Sfard, p. 6); the &quot;inward movement of knowledge&quot; (p. 6) Stress on… Apprenticeship, situatedness, contextuality, cultural embeddedness, discourse, communication, social constructivism, cooperative learning Knowledge, concept, misconception, meaning, fact, contents; acquisition, construction, internalization, transmission, attainment, accumulation; Key words: Learning as participation,  the process of  becoming a member of a community, &quot;the ability to communicate in the language of this community and act according to its norms&quot; (Sfard, p. 6); &quot;the permanence of having gives way to the constant flux of doing &quot; (p. 6) Learning as knowledge acquisition and concept development; having obtained knowledge and made it one's own; individualised Key definition of learning: Participation Acquisition  
  74. 75. Learning objectives (Bloom, 1956) assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare, summarize - compare and discriminate between ideas - assess value of theories, presentations - make choices based on reasoned argument - verify value of evidence - recognize subjectivity Evaluation combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, what if?, compose, formulate, prepare, generalize, rewrite - use old ideas to create new ones - generalize from given facts - relate knowledge from several areas - predict, draw conclusions Synthesis analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, explain, infer - seeing patterns - organisation of parts - recognition of hidden meanings - identification of components Analysis apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment, discover - use information - use methods, concepts, theories in new situations - solve problems using required skills or knowledge Application summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend - understanding information - grasp meaning - translate knowledge into new context - interpret facts, compare, contrast - order, group, infer causes - predict consequences Comprehension list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where, etc. - observation and recall of information - knowledge of dates, events, places - knowledge of major ideas - mastery of subject matter Knowledge Question Cues Skills Demonstrated Competence
  75. 76. Incentives for reuse <ul><li>Organizational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human resource management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saving money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational capital </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helping Colleagues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saving time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communities of practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Networks of excelence </li></ul></ul>
  76. 77. Work processes <ul><li>Formal workflow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Versioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ownership </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personal habits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One person all roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher in control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyrights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent </li></ul></ul>
  77. 78. How objects are stored <ul><li>Repositories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Knowledge management systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Learning) Content Management Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic Learning Environments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Locally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard disks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal websites </li></ul></ul>
  78. 79. Context Orientations <ul><li>Personal oriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal orientation is related to human interaction, personal needs, personal incentives, and personal values. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systems oriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Systems orientation focuses on technical specifications, rules, policy, and procedures. </li></ul></ul>

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