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#NoProjects
Teams Over Projects
Allan Kelly
allan@allankelly.net
http://www.softwarestrategy.co.uk
Twitter: @allankelly.ne...
Allan Kelly…
Chapters in…
Business Analysis and Leadership, Pullan & Archer 2013
97 Things Every Programmer Should Know, H...
The problem with projects….
… and I don’t mean this in a small way
Project Model Assumptions
1. You know what you want
• And have perfect foresight
2. Value is knowable
• And is known befor...
Conflict and….
Goal displacement
– Chasing date over benefit
– Chasing time over benefit
– Chasing cost over benefit
– Cha...
End Dates damage quality
Short term thinking leads to…
Corner cutting
Known & unfixed bugs
Residual technical debt
Knowled...
Projects are big batch of work
• Project model is optimized for big
• Used on small pieces of work it inefficient
• Projec...
Software development…
• Does NOT have economies of Scale
• Development has DISECONOMIES of scale
Milk is cheapest
in BIG cartons
Software is
cheapest in
lots of small
cartons
And small cartons
of software
reduce risk
Consider a large project
Against several small
projects
Project A: Risk = 30% Value at risk = £1m
Therefore risk weighted ...
Software isn’t temporary
Projects are temporary
A project is….
Project Management Institute - http://pm4id.org/1/2/
"PMI defines a project by its two key
characteristics:...
A Project is…
“A temporary organization that is needed to
produce a unique and predefined outcome or
result at a pre-speci...
Successful software doesn’t stop
Successful software continues to change
Only dead software has an end-date
Successful
software?
Moodle
Weekly downloads: 23,239
Last update: 3 days (16 Jan)
Web Torrent
Weekly downloads: 0
Last upd...
Temporary organizations
The most destructive idea known to
software development
Temporary Organization?
• Storming
• Norming
• Forming
• Performing
• Destroying
}Takes time &
money!
Why destroy performi...
Temporary organizations
Disbanding teams destroys
– Knowledge
– Capability
– Performance
The most destructive idea known t...
Corporate Psychopathy
Process by which corporations
disband performing teams and
release staff
A Match Made in Hell
Software
Development
Project
Management
Software is forever
Projects are
TEMPORARY
So…
• Organize to do lots of small
• Optimize for small batch size
• Organize around that which is stable
• Plan for conti...
Continuous is not Temporary
Continuous flow
Continuous improvement
Continuous delivery
Continuous benefit
Waterfall 2.0
Jonathon’s Run Fall, Pennsylvania by Hubert Stoffels (http://flickr.com/photos/22195940@N00)
Creative Common...
Continuous flow
• Work in the small
• Get good at doing small things
– Deliver small increments of value
– And evaluate re...
Base work around stable teams
Teams Over Projects
Agile Manifesto
Teams over projects
Stable teams…
• Keep teams together
• Flow work to the teams
• Work in the small
• Work continually
• Demonstrate value
Organize by business
stream & team
• Aim for stable teams & continuity
• Close to business
• Manage queues within capacity...
Team is a Whole
• Testers are first class team members
– Embedded with team (always)
• Product Owners / Managers / BA are ...
MVT - Minimally Viable Team
Start with the smallest team possible
Beware Conway’s Law
Start small & grow organically as ne...
Teams – Ameba!
• Start small
– 1, prototype or research
– 2, get going: Engineer & BA
• Grow
• Split
• Focus team
– 1 prod...
Vertical teams
• Staff with all needed skills
– Coders
– Testers
– Product Analysts
– Managers
• Authority
– To do what is...
Horizontal
Teams
Business Logic
Database
Test
User Interface
Business Analysis
Vertical
Teams
Team & Duration
Prefer
– Short and Fast
Over
– Long and Thin
• Faster time to market
• Higher Rate On Investment
• Less re...
Beyond Projects
It ain’t ever over
BAU is not a dirty work
allan kelly
allan@allankelly.net
www.softwarestrategy.co.uk
Twi...
#NoProjects - Teams over Projects
#NoProjects - Teams over Projects
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#NoProjects - Teams over Projects

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Base work around teams, not projects.

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#NoProjects - Teams over Projects

  1. 1. #NoProjects Teams Over Projects Allan Kelly allan@allankelly.net http://www.softwarestrategy.co.uk Twitter: @allankelly.net Agile on the Beach September 2015 #BeyondProjects
  2. 2. Allan Kelly… Chapters in… Business Analysis and Leadership, Pullan & Archer 2013 97 Things Every Programmer Should Know, Henney, 2010 Context Encapsulation in Pattern Languages of Program Design, vol #5, 2006  Consulting on software development & strategy  Training for Agile Author – Xanpan: Team Centric Agile Software Development https://leanpub.com/xanpan (2014-2015) – Business Patterns for Software Developers (2012) – Changing Software Development: Learning to be Agile (2008)
  3. 3. The problem with projects…. … and I don’t mean this in a small way
  4. 4. Project Model Assumptions 1. You know what you want • And have perfect foresight 2. Value is knowable • And is known before start 3. There is no value in flexibility i.e. Options are valueless These assumptions do not hold in software development
  5. 5. Conflict and…. Goal displacement – Chasing date over benefit – Chasing time over benefit – Chasing cost over benefit – Chasing features over benefit The Project model leads to…
  6. 6. End Dates damage quality Short term thinking leads to… Corner cutting Known & unfixed bugs Residual technical debt Knowledge lost
  7. 7. Projects are big batch of work • Project model is optimized for big • Used on small pieces of work it inefficient • Projects push big decisions up… to big men with big cheque books top-down authority
  8. 8. Software development… • Does NOT have economies of Scale • Development has DISECONOMIES of scale
  9. 9. Milk is cheapest in BIG cartons Software is cheapest in lots of small cartons And small cartons of software reduce risk
  10. 10. Consider a large project Against several small projects Project A: Risk = 30% Value at risk = £1m Therefore risk weighted value = £300,000 Prj B: Risk = 15% Value @ risk = £½m Therefore … = £75,000 Prj C: Risk = 15% Value @risk = £½m Therefore … = £75,000 E: Risk = 6% @risk = £200k Therefore = £12k F: Risk = 6% @risk = £200k Therefore = £12k G: Risk = 6% @risk = £200k Therefore = £12k H: Risk = 6% @risk = £200k Therefore = £12k I: Risk = 6% @risk = £200k Therefore = £12k
  11. 11. Software isn’t temporary Projects are temporary
  12. 12. A project is…. Project Management Institute - http://pm4id.org/1/2/ "PMI defines a project by its two key characteristics: • it is temporary and • undertaken to create a product, service, or result that is unique."
  13. 13. A Project is… “A temporary organization that is needed to produce a unique and predefined outcome or result at a pre-specified time using predetermined resources.” PRINCE2 definition of project
  14. 14. Successful software doesn’t stop Successful software continues to change Only dead software has an end-date
  15. 15. Successful software? Moodle Weekly downloads: 23,239 Last update: 3 days (16 Jan) Web Torrent Weekly downloads: 0 Last update: 17 April 2013 (9mths) PerlLORD Weekly downloads: 0 Last update: 25 Feb 2013 (11mths) 1) If they use it, it will change 2) Only Dead Software Stops changing Data from SourceForge search for “WebBrowser” 19 Jan 2014
  16. 16. Temporary organizations The most destructive idea known to software development
  17. 17. Temporary Organization? • Storming • Norming • Forming • Performing • Destroying }Takes time & money! Why destroy performing teams? Why spend that money? Why loose knowledge?
  18. 18. Temporary organizations Disbanding teams destroys – Knowledge – Capability – Performance The most destructive idea known to software development
  19. 19. Corporate Psychopathy Process by which corporations disband performing teams and release staff
  20. 20. A Match Made in Hell Software Development Project Management Software is forever Projects are TEMPORARY
  21. 21. So… • Organize to do lots of small • Optimize for small batch size • Organize around that which is stable • Plan for continuity
  22. 22. Continuous is not Temporary Continuous flow Continuous improvement Continuous delivery Continuous benefit
  23. 23. Waterfall 2.0 Jonathon’s Run Fall, Pennsylvania by Hubert Stoffels (http://flickr.com/photos/22195940@N00) Creative Commons License Continuous Flow
  24. 24. Continuous flow • Work in the small • Get good at doing small things – Deliver small increments of value – And evaluate results • Go fast • Value seeking • Repeat, don’t stop
  25. 25. Base work around stable teams Teams Over Projects
  26. 26. Agile Manifesto Teams over projects
  27. 27. Stable teams… • Keep teams together • Flow work to the teams • Work in the small • Work continually • Demonstrate value
  28. 28. Organize by business stream & team • Aim for stable teams & continuity • Close to business • Manage queues within capacity Stream #1 Dev Team
  29. 29. Team is a Whole • Testers are first class team members – Embedded with team (always) • Product Owners / Managers / BA are team members too Dev Team – Coders, Testers, etc. … Requirements go In Working Software comes out
  30. 30. MVT - Minimally Viable Team Start with the smallest team possible Beware Conway’s Law Start small & grow organically as needed
  31. 31. Teams – Ameba! • Start small – 1, prototype or research – 2, get going: Engineer & BA • Grow • Split • Focus team – 1 product/area • Contains all skills
  32. 32. Vertical teams • Staff with all needed skills – Coders – Testers – Product Analysts – Managers • Authority – To do what is needed • Responsible for delivery
  33. 33. Horizontal Teams Business Logic Database Test User Interface Business Analysis
  34. 34. Vertical Teams
  35. 35. Team & Duration Prefer – Short and Fast Over – Long and Thin • Faster time to market • Higher Rate On Investment • Less resource contention • Requires clear prioritization & project closure
  36. 36. Beyond Projects It ain’t ever over BAU is not a dirty work allan kelly allan@allankelly.net www.softwarestrategy.co.uk Twitter: @allankellynet

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