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10 Tips to make Agile Adoption
more successful
                                 allan kelly
                    Twitter: @allankellynet
http://www.softwarestrategy.co.uk/allankelly
Allan Kelly
                  Director, Software Strategy Ltd
                  – Consulting & Training for Agile
                  – Custom Software Development
Author
   – Changing Software Development: Learning
     to be Agile (2008, Wiley)
   – Business Patterns for Software Developers
     (2012, Wiley - ISBN: 978-1119999249)


                                       97 Things Every Programmer Should Know
                                                                 Henney, 2010
                      Context Encapsulation in
                      Pattern Languages of Program Design
                      Volume 5, 2006

(c) Allan Kelly                      http://www.softwarestrategy.co.uk          2
The amount of significant, often
The Problem                             traumatic, change in
                                      organizations has grown
                                  tremendously over the past two
• Change fails                               decades.
  – 70% change initiatives fail
  – (Commonly cited % but from where?)

• Agile introduction fails                       Prof John P. Kotter, 1996
                                                        “Leading change”
• Agile delivery fails
  – (We even have names for it)

          Scrummer
             Fall                         Has this
                                         changed?
10 Tips for Agile Adoption
① Use a physical board       ⑦ Clear on Why?
② Collect & Use Statistics   ⑧ Don’t forget the
③ Engage                       Technical
  Coach/Consultant           ⑨ Clear requirements flow
④ Action over talking        ⑩ Structural change
⑤ Only way to know is to
  Do
⑥ Enthuse, Pull, don’t
  Push
Some advice…

             "I can't understand why
            people are frightened of
            new ideas. I'm frightened
                 of the old ones."


John Cage
#1 Use a Physical Board
    “I put the shotgun in an Adidas bag
    and padded it out with four pairs of
    tennis socks, not my style at all, but
  that was what I was aiming for: If they
    think you're crude, go technical; if
  they think you're technical, go crude.
  I'm a very technical boy. So I decided
       to get as crude as possible.”



   William Gibson, Johnny Mnemonic (in Burning Chrome, 1995)
Lightsabre




Every team must design their own board
Use the board, Luke
• Accelerates learning
• Always visible
  – Shared view
• Easy to change
#2 Collect & Use statistics
                      Basic Product Burn-Down Chart
250



200



150



100



50



  0
      1   2   3   4        5      6               7   8   9   10   11   12
                                      Iteration

                                  Work to do
Burn-Up, Burn-Down
                                      Burn-Up, Burn-Down
250



200



150



100



 50



  0
      1        2         3    4   5    6     7               8   9   10   11   12   13   14
                                                 Iteration

                                                 Series5



(c) Software Strategy Ltd.                                                               11
Burn-down with velocity
                                     Burn-Down with Velocity
250                                                                                                  40

                                                                                                     35
200
                                                                                                     30

                                                                                                     25
150

                                                                                                     20

100
                                                                                                     15

                                                                                                     10
 50
                                                                                                     5

  0                                                                                                  0
          1         2        3   4     5       6               7              8   9   10   11   12
                                                   Iteration

                                           Work to do              Velocity



(c) Software Strategy Ltd.                                                                           12
Layered burn-down
250

                                                         • By
200
                                                           release, milestone
150
                                                           , phase, etc.
100
                                                         • By epic or
50                                                         collection of
  0                                                        stories
      1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12




                                                                            13
Simple Cumulative Flow Diagram
         140

         120

         100
Points




          80

          60

          40

          20

          0
               0   1   2   3   4       5          6         7   8     9      10   11   12   13

                                                Iteration


                                   Work to do                   Total done
Do you know?
• Velocity: How fast are
  you going?
• Backlog:
   – How much work do you
     currently know about?
                                • How long does it take
                                  for work to clear board?
   – Rate of increase? (Scope
     Creep)                     • How many “bugs” do
   – Rate of decrease? (Scope     you have?
     Retreat)                   • What else is useful for
• Where you time is               you to track?
  going?
Metrics warning!
1. Avoid hours: Human’s can’t
   estimate
2. “Points” break-down with
   experience & stress
3. Goodhart’s Law      Any observed statistical
                          regularity will tend to
                        collapse once pressure is
                        placed upon it for control
                                purposes.
#3 Engage a Coach/Consultant
• You can do this yourself, but…
  – Increase risk
  – Adoption slower




                                      Warning:
                                   Consultant talking
Agile Coach
•    Notice
•    Feedback                The art of Agile coaching
                                is understanding the
•    Educate                    situation, the values
                                   underlying Agile
•    Facilitate                       software
                              development, and how
•    Support                   the two can combine.
                                                         Agile Coaching
                                                         Davies & Sedley, 2009




(c) Software Strategy Ltd.                                                  18
Agile Coach
•    Advisor – consultant?
•    Process expert
•    Someone with War Stories & Scars
•    Commonly
       – Occasional visitor who advises on Agile
         adoption, problems
       – Suggests, mentors, trains


(c) Software Strategy Ltd.                         19
4D Coaching                          What is the company making?
                                     How is the company organized?
    Company: Strategy                Advice for senior managers


                                     What processes are followed?
                                     Are you delivering?
     Product: Process                Advice for teams

                                     What is the architecture? Is the
                                     code tested?
      Code: Technical                Are you finding bugs?
                                     Advice for programmers

           Time….                    Don’t expect everything at once


  Use different coaches in different dimensions
What's the best way                    Both ends at once
                           to take a bridge?
Brigadier General Gavin




                                                                                                    Major Julian Cook
                           Quote: A Bridge Too Far
                           • Cornelius Ryan (Book)         Image: Nijmegen bridge from
                                                           FaceMePLS, Creative Commons License on
                           • Richard Attenborough (Film)   Flickr
Our bridges have 3 ends!                                        Technical
Management

                                                                   Process &
                                                                   Products


 Tridge, Midland, Michigan - Image from © Gary Teall, Fenton Low Altitude
 FLAP @ http://www.panoramio.com/photo/15573763
Should we use
#4 Action over talking         Scrum or XP?

• You could…
  – Ask lots of legitimate     Should we be
    questions                  Agile or Lean?
  – Make lots of plans
                              How do we get
            We need to plan   the business to
             our adoption         buy in?
               carefully
         Our Project           Where is the
         Office won’t          evidence it
             like it             works?
#4 Action over talking
Or
• You could just start doing what you can and
  see what happens
• Just Do It
#5 Only way To Know is To Do
• Just do it!
• Until you try doing Agile you can’t answer the
  questions
• Agile is Empirical
  – Try it and see what happens
• Agile is Learning
  – Learning -> Change -> Learning
#6 Enthuse, Pull, don’t Push
• Agile is a change initiative
• Why would agile be any different?
Don’t push change - Let them pull!
• Lay out your stall   • Support interest
  – And wait
                       • Fan the flames
The Change from Above Myth
• Might work for a dictator, but..
   – Communication, Motivation, Ap
     plicability, Local differences, Self-
     Interest




                                                          Push from top
   – (Dictators typically carry a big
     stick, IT Mangers don’t)




                           (c) Allan Kelly - April 2006
Just Do It! ™
                                  “Nobody gives
Stop being led by your
                                   you power,
leaders…
                                 You just take it”
   And start leading them




                      Rossanne Barr
                      quoted by Tom Peters in Re-Imagine!
#7 Be clear: Why?
    • What are you trying to achieve?
    • How do you know what tools to
      choose?
    • What are you trying to optimize?
      – Elapsed time: idea to product
      – Efficiency of delivery
      – Maximize revenue
      – Minimize costs
      – Speed to completing some “Backlog”
#8 Don’t forget TECHNICAL
                                             It’s the
• Poor technology…                         code, stup
  – Lots of bugs – is the story done?            id
  – Can you close a iteration? - can you
    deliver at the end of iteration?
• Developers morale 
  – “Technical debt…
  – Technical debt….
  – Technical debt…”
The Technical side
• Increase quality
• Eliminate….
Invest in Technical
                      Software Craftsmanship
                      – Take quality seriously




                          Images from WikiCommons under Creative Commons license
                          Alegro - Charles01, Rolls Royce & VW - Thomas doerfer
TDD works!
                               IBM             Microsoft       Microsoft        Microsoft
                              drivers          Windows           MSN             Visual
                                                                                 Studio

Defect density                   W                  X               Y                Z
(non-TDD)
Defect density              61% of W           38% of X         24% of Y         9% of Z
(with TDD)
Increased time                15-20%            25-25%             15%           25-20%
(with TDD)

Nagappan, Maximilien, Bhat and Williams (Microsoft Research, IBM Research, North Carolina
State University). Empirical Software Engineering journal 2008
           http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/projects/esm/nagappan_tdd.pdf
Bugs
• How much time do you spend finding
  bugs?
• How many testers do you need?
• How many bugs do you have logged?
• How many bugs do you fix before
  shipping?
• How much time do you spend in
  meetings discussing bugs?
  How would your life change if there
          were no bugs?
Without technical side…
• Bugs overwhelm
  – Can’t deliver working software
• Code becomes difficult to change
  – Velocity slows
• So we test…
  – Test is slow & expensive
• And we avoid change…
  – Avoiding change is avoiding Agile
Agile without quality?
       • How do you know you are done?
       • How do you time box?
         – How do you eliminate Test-Fix cycle?


         Agile without Quality
           is like Starbucks
            without Coffee

                         Starbucks image © Louis Abate, Creative Commons License, c/o Flickr
#9 Clear Requirements Flow
                           Every 2 weeks….




                  Development Team         Working
                                           software

• Keep arteries clear – keep feeding team
  – Keep work flowing – little and often
Please
                                OK, here’s
A story…   help… we
                                what you
           want to be
                                  do….
             Agile!

                                 Umm… but I
                                don’t think they
                               really know what
                               they are building


                                    Or why….


            Gee… we took     In fact, they don’t
                                 even have a
             the medicine    business strategy
Dev Team
            and things are   that makes sense
             much better
Supply and Demand
Quantity of
Software / IT                    Demand also needs fixing
                                    (but fix it second)


                                             Supply
                                             (Development)
                                           Demand
                                           (Business
                                           Case/Requirem
                                           ents)
          0                             Price of Software / IT
                  Initial focus on      development
                 improving supply
The Real Problem                               Demand is rampant
Quantity of                                      and inelastic
Software / IT



                               Mind the gap
                                                    Supply
                                                    (Development)




          0                                   Price of Software / IT
                 Supply is severely           development
              constrained and inelastic
Worse?                            Demand - More
Quantity of                        technology we
Software / IT                    have, the more we
                                        want


                Mind the gap

                                     Supply
                                     constrained by
                                     Brooks Law


          0                    Price of Software / IT
                               development
#10 Structural change
• Process will take you so far…
• Technical (alone) will buy you lots…
• But…
Vertical teams
                                       • Staffed to delivery
    languages), Requirements, Manage     business value
          ment, Testing, etc. etc.     • Responsible for delivering
                                         business value
                                       • All skills needed
                 Code (all




                                       • Keep together
                                         – Grow, shrink
                                         – Add new people, let folk
                                           leave
Forget projects
• Form around Products
• Project thinking is an obstacle
• Good systems never die          The initial difficulty with
   – They just evolve                 schedule measurement is
                                       a basic one: Identifying
• Bad systems die                       the start point of any
• “Done”                                   given project!
   – Empty backlog is a sign of failure
• Leave “Project” for accountants
                                            Capers Jones, 2008
①   Use a physical board
②   Collect & Use Statistics
③   Engage Coach/Consultant
④   Action over talking
⑤   Only way to know is to Do
⑥   Enthuse, Pull, don’t Push
⑦   Clear on Why?
⑧   Don’t forget the Technical   allan kelly
⑨   Clear requirements flow      Software Strategy Ltd.
⑩   Structural change            www.softwarestrategy.co.uk/
                                    allankelly
                                 allan@allankelly.net
                                 Twitter: @allankellynet

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10 Tips for Agile Adoption

  • 1. 10 Tips to make Agile Adoption more successful allan kelly Twitter: @allankellynet http://www.softwarestrategy.co.uk/allankelly
  • 2. Allan Kelly Director, Software Strategy Ltd – Consulting & Training for Agile – Custom Software Development Author – Changing Software Development: Learning to be Agile (2008, Wiley) – Business Patterns for Software Developers (2012, Wiley - ISBN: 978-1119999249) 97 Things Every Programmer Should Know Henney, 2010 Context Encapsulation in Pattern Languages of Program Design Volume 5, 2006 (c) Allan Kelly http://www.softwarestrategy.co.uk 2
  • 3. The amount of significant, often The Problem traumatic, change in organizations has grown tremendously over the past two • Change fails decades. – 70% change initiatives fail – (Commonly cited % but from where?) • Agile introduction fails Prof John P. Kotter, 1996 “Leading change” • Agile delivery fails – (We even have names for it) Scrummer Fall Has this changed?
  • 4. 10 Tips for Agile Adoption ① Use a physical board ⑦ Clear on Why? ② Collect & Use Statistics ⑧ Don’t forget the ③ Engage Technical Coach/Consultant ⑨ Clear requirements flow ④ Action over talking ⑩ Structural change ⑤ Only way to know is to Do ⑥ Enthuse, Pull, don’t Push
  • 5. Some advice… "I can't understand why people are frightened of new ideas. I'm frightened of the old ones." John Cage
  • 6. #1 Use a Physical Board “I put the shotgun in an Adidas bag and padded it out with four pairs of tennis socks, not my style at all, but that was what I was aiming for: If they think you're crude, go technical; if they think you're technical, go crude. I'm a very technical boy. So I decided to get as crude as possible.” William Gibson, Johnny Mnemonic (in Burning Chrome, 1995)
  • 7.
  • 8. Lightsabre Every team must design their own board
  • 9. Use the board, Luke • Accelerates learning • Always visible – Shared view • Easy to change
  • 10. #2 Collect & Use statistics Basic Product Burn-Down Chart 250 200 150 100 50 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Iteration Work to do
  • 11. Burn-Up, Burn-Down Burn-Up, Burn-Down 250 200 150 100 50 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Iteration Series5 (c) Software Strategy Ltd. 11
  • 12. Burn-down with velocity Burn-Down with Velocity 250 40 35 200 30 25 150 20 100 15 10 50 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Iteration Work to do Velocity (c) Software Strategy Ltd. 12
  • 13. Layered burn-down 250 • By 200 release, milestone 150 , phase, etc. 100 • By epic or 50 collection of 0 stories 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
  • 14. Simple Cumulative Flow Diagram 140 120 100 Points 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Iteration Work to do Total done
  • 15. Do you know? • Velocity: How fast are you going? • Backlog: – How much work do you currently know about? • How long does it take for work to clear board? – Rate of increase? (Scope Creep) • How many “bugs” do – Rate of decrease? (Scope you have? Retreat) • What else is useful for • Where you time is you to track? going?
  • 16. Metrics warning! 1. Avoid hours: Human’s can’t estimate 2. “Points” break-down with experience & stress 3. Goodhart’s Law Any observed statistical regularity will tend to collapse once pressure is placed upon it for control purposes.
  • 17. #3 Engage a Coach/Consultant • You can do this yourself, but… – Increase risk – Adoption slower Warning: Consultant talking
  • 18. Agile Coach • Notice • Feedback The art of Agile coaching is understanding the • Educate situation, the values underlying Agile • Facilitate software development, and how • Support the two can combine. Agile Coaching Davies & Sedley, 2009 (c) Software Strategy Ltd. 18
  • 19. Agile Coach • Advisor – consultant? • Process expert • Someone with War Stories & Scars • Commonly – Occasional visitor who advises on Agile adoption, problems – Suggests, mentors, trains (c) Software Strategy Ltd. 19
  • 20. 4D Coaching What is the company making? How is the company organized? Company: Strategy Advice for senior managers What processes are followed? Are you delivering? Product: Process Advice for teams What is the architecture? Is the code tested? Code: Technical Are you finding bugs? Advice for programmers Time…. Don’t expect everything at once Use different coaches in different dimensions
  • 21. What's the best way Both ends at once to take a bridge? Brigadier General Gavin Major Julian Cook Quote: A Bridge Too Far • Cornelius Ryan (Book) Image: Nijmegen bridge from FaceMePLS, Creative Commons License on • Richard Attenborough (Film) Flickr
  • 22. Our bridges have 3 ends! Technical Management Process & Products Tridge, Midland, Michigan - Image from © Gary Teall, Fenton Low Altitude FLAP @ http://www.panoramio.com/photo/15573763
  • 23. Should we use #4 Action over talking Scrum or XP? • You could… – Ask lots of legitimate Should we be questions Agile or Lean? – Make lots of plans How do we get We need to plan the business to our adoption buy in? carefully Our Project Where is the Office won’t evidence it like it works?
  • 24. #4 Action over talking Or • You could just start doing what you can and see what happens • Just Do It
  • 25. #5 Only way To Know is To Do • Just do it! • Until you try doing Agile you can’t answer the questions • Agile is Empirical – Try it and see what happens • Agile is Learning – Learning -> Change -> Learning
  • 26. #6 Enthuse, Pull, don’t Push • Agile is a change initiative • Why would agile be any different?
  • 27. Don’t push change - Let them pull! • Lay out your stall • Support interest – And wait • Fan the flames
  • 28. The Change from Above Myth • Might work for a dictator, but.. – Communication, Motivation, Ap plicability, Local differences, Self- Interest Push from top – (Dictators typically carry a big stick, IT Mangers don’t) (c) Allan Kelly - April 2006
  • 29. Just Do It! ™ “Nobody gives Stop being led by your you power, leaders… You just take it” And start leading them Rossanne Barr quoted by Tom Peters in Re-Imagine!
  • 30. #7 Be clear: Why? • What are you trying to achieve? • How do you know what tools to choose? • What are you trying to optimize? – Elapsed time: idea to product – Efficiency of delivery – Maximize revenue – Minimize costs – Speed to completing some “Backlog”
  • 31. #8 Don’t forget TECHNICAL It’s the • Poor technology… code, stup – Lots of bugs – is the story done? id – Can you close a iteration? - can you deliver at the end of iteration? • Developers morale  – “Technical debt… – Technical debt…. – Technical debt…”
  • 32. The Technical side • Increase quality • Eliminate….
  • 33. Invest in Technical Software Craftsmanship – Take quality seriously Images from WikiCommons under Creative Commons license Alegro - Charles01, Rolls Royce & VW - Thomas doerfer
  • 34. TDD works! IBM Microsoft Microsoft Microsoft drivers Windows MSN Visual Studio Defect density W X Y Z (non-TDD) Defect density 61% of W 38% of X 24% of Y 9% of Z (with TDD) Increased time 15-20% 25-25% 15% 25-20% (with TDD) Nagappan, Maximilien, Bhat and Williams (Microsoft Research, IBM Research, North Carolina State University). Empirical Software Engineering journal 2008 http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/projects/esm/nagappan_tdd.pdf
  • 35. Bugs • How much time do you spend finding bugs? • How many testers do you need? • How many bugs do you have logged? • How many bugs do you fix before shipping? • How much time do you spend in meetings discussing bugs? How would your life change if there were no bugs?
  • 36. Without technical side… • Bugs overwhelm – Can’t deliver working software • Code becomes difficult to change – Velocity slows • So we test… – Test is slow & expensive • And we avoid change… – Avoiding change is avoiding Agile
  • 37. Agile without quality? • How do you know you are done? • How do you time box? – How do you eliminate Test-Fix cycle? Agile without Quality is like Starbucks without Coffee Starbucks image © Louis Abate, Creative Commons License, c/o Flickr
  • 38. #9 Clear Requirements Flow Every 2 weeks…. Development Team Working software • Keep arteries clear – keep feeding team – Keep work flowing – little and often
  • 39. Please OK, here’s A story… help… we what you want to be do…. Agile! Umm… but I don’t think they really know what they are building Or why…. Gee… we took In fact, they don’t even have a the medicine business strategy Dev Team and things are that makes sense much better
  • 40. Supply and Demand Quantity of Software / IT Demand also needs fixing (but fix it second) Supply (Development) Demand (Business Case/Requirem ents) 0 Price of Software / IT Initial focus on development improving supply
  • 41. The Real Problem Demand is rampant Quantity of and inelastic Software / IT Mind the gap Supply (Development) 0 Price of Software / IT Supply is severely development constrained and inelastic
  • 42. Worse? Demand - More Quantity of technology we Software / IT have, the more we want Mind the gap Supply constrained by Brooks Law 0 Price of Software / IT development
  • 43. #10 Structural change • Process will take you so far… • Technical (alone) will buy you lots… • But…
  • 44. Vertical teams • Staffed to delivery languages), Requirements, Manage business value ment, Testing, etc. etc. • Responsible for delivering business value • All skills needed Code (all • Keep together – Grow, shrink – Add new people, let folk leave
  • 45. Forget projects • Form around Products • Project thinking is an obstacle • Good systems never die The initial difficulty with – They just evolve schedule measurement is a basic one: Identifying • Bad systems die the start point of any • “Done” given project! – Empty backlog is a sign of failure • Leave “Project” for accountants Capers Jones, 2008
  • 46. Use a physical board ② Collect & Use Statistics ③ Engage Coach/Consultant ④ Action over talking ⑤ Only way to know is to Do ⑥ Enthuse, Pull, don’t Push ⑦ Clear on Why? ⑧ Don’t forget the Technical allan kelly ⑨ Clear requirements flow Software Strategy Ltd. ⑩ Structural change www.softwarestrategy.co.uk/ allankelly allan@allankelly.net Twitter: @allankellynet