Beyond projects

1,600 views

Published on

Why projects are the wrong model for software development and what to do instead

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,600
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
86
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Beyond projects

  1. 1. Beyond Projects Or The End of Projects and what happens next Allan Kelly allan@softwarestrategy.co.uk http://www.softwarestrategy.co.uk Twitter: @allankelly.net Skills Matter, London, March 2014
  2. 2. Allan Kelly… Chapters in… • Business Analysis and Leadership, Pullan & Archer 2013 • 97 Things Every Programmer Should Know, Henney, 2010 • Context Encapsulation in Pattern Languages of Program Design, vol#5, 2006  Consulting on software development & strategy  Training for Agile Author – Changing Software Development: Learning to be Agile (2008, Wiley) – Business Patterns for Software Developers (2012, Wiley - ISBN: 978-1119999249) – Xanpan: Reflections on agile (work in progress) https://leanpub.com/xanpan
  3. 3. Audience participation How many of you … • Adequately identify & quantify project benefits? • Know someone who overstates the benefits of a project to obtain funding? • Think project review & evaluation is adequate?
  4. 4. • 70% believe they are failing to identify and quantify the benefits adequately • 38% openly admit they overstate the benefits in order to obtain funding • 80% report that the review and evaluation of completed projects is also inadequate • due to the focus on whether the project achieved cost, time and quality objectives and not on whether the intended benefits were realized. Delivering value from IS and IT investments, John Ward, Cranfield School of Management, 2006 http://www.som.cranfield.ac.uk/som/dinamic- content/research/documents/deliveringvaluereport.pdf Survey of 100 IT/IS & Business managers in UK and Benelux, 2006
  5. 5. Successful software doesn’t stop • Successful software continues to change • Only dead software has an end-date
  6. 6. Successful software? Moodle Weekly downloads: 23,239 Last update: 3 days (16 Jan) Web Torrent Weekly downloads: 0 Last update: 17 April 2013 PerlLORD Weekly downloads: 0 Last update: 25 May 2013 1) If they use it, it will change 2) Only Dead Software Stops changing Data from SourceForge search for “WebBrowser” 19 Jan 2014
  7. 7. A Project is… “A temporary organization that is needed to produce a unique and predefined outcome or result at a pre-specified time using predetermined resources.” PRINCE2 definition of project
  8. 8. Temporary Organization? • Storming • Norming • Forming • Performing • Destroying }Takes time & money! Yes! Why destroy performing teams? Why spend that money? Why loose knowledge?
  9. 9. • Stop killing performing teams • Keep the team together • Flow the work to the team • The Team is the Capability Corporate Psychopathy Process by which corporations disband performing teams and release staff
  10. 10. Pre-determined resources? • In the ideal world… – You get the resources you ask for? – They are dedicated to your project? And stay? • Back in the real world… – Resourcing allocation is politics ‘Nuff said
  11. 11. Pre-defined outcome? • Requirements change • The world changes Compound to ~27% per annum The observed rate of change in the US is about 2% per calendar month Capers Jones, 2008
  12. 12. Pre-specified time? • Pre-specified time is not chosen rationally • When does it start? • When does it end? – Last bug fixed? – Last CR done? – Thrown over last wall? In the US more than half of the large projects … predetermined end date is selected, and it is forced on the project by arbitrary decree. Among the most difficult … measurement of project & task schedules. The initial difficulty… is… identifying the start point of any given project! Capers Jones, 2008
  13. 13. End Date considered harmful • Late requirements considered inferior • Quality cut to meet date – Harder to maintain – Harder to fix bugs – Harder to enhance – Harder to live • Goal deferment – The End When will it be done?
  14. 14. The End of Projects • Projects are accounting codes • Finished Software is Dead Software – Living software changes – Dead software doesn’t – Living software doesn’t end • Project thinking kills software
  15. 15. Wait a minute…. Project Manager Not fair! You misrepresent us! We don’t - Break up teams - Stick doggedly to requirements We do - Allow change - We do work continually So what is “A project”? Why does P2 contain this definition? And what does a “Project Manager” actually Manage? This is confusing! Confusion causes problems People have different expectations
  16. 16. What next? • Putting the jigsaw together
  17. 17. Work with no end • Work to short term goal & deadline – Human’s are good with deadlines – (Very bad with estimation) • Work to deliver value • Work as if this is your last goal – But: Work be ready for another round • Do work you will be proud of
  18. 18. What to do about it… • Keep teams together • Flow work to the teams • Work in the small • Work continually • Demonstrate value
  19. 19. Focus on Value not The End Ask not, “When will the software be done?” But ask: “When will the software deliver value next?” Think: Stream of Value (which might stop one day) Not: An end date
  20. 20. Software development… • Does NOT have economies of Scale • Development has DISECONOMIES of scale Therefore • Stop thinking BIG • Start thinking SMALL
  21. 21. Batch Size Build this! Make lots of this!Deliver this! Wait Wait
  22. 22. Feature Yes, Projects No • Project = Set of Features – Some features are very valuable, some less so – Some risky, some not • Project -> All of this – Or nothing • Organize yourselves to do lots of small features
  23. 23. Consider a large project Against several small projects Project A: Risk = 30% Value at risk = £1m Therefore risk weighted value = £300,000 Prj B: Risk = 15% Value @ risk = £½m Therefore … = £75,000 Prj C: Risk = 15% Value @risk = £½m Therefore … = £75,000 E: Risk = 6% @risk = £200k Therefore = £12k F: Risk = 6% @risk = £200k Therefore = £12k G: Risk = 6% @risk = £200k Therefore = £12k H: Risk = 6% @risk = £200k Therefore = £12k I: Risk = 6% @risk = £200k Therefore = £12k J: Risk = 6% @risk = £200k Therefore = £12k
  24. 24. Ask not, “What is the end date?” But ask: “When is the next delivery?”
  25. 25. We have the Technology
  26. 26. Waterfall 2.0 Jonathon’s Run Fall, Pennsylvania by Hubert Stoffels (http://flickr.com/photos/22195940@N00) Creative Commons License Continuous Flow
  27. 27. Continuous flow • Work in the small • Get good at doing small things – Deliver small increments of value – And evaluate results • Go fast • Don’t stop • Value seeking
  28. 28. Think Product • Products go on – and on – and on…. • Think multiple releases • Think continuity
  29. 29. Constraints 31 Features Resources (People) Time Cost = Resources x Time Quality = free Time boxedAll the action Fixed over short run (Brooks Law)
  30. 30. Functionality, the only flex • Negotiate features – Deliver, Evaluate – Repeat (every 2 weeks or less) • Keep quality high – Cutting quality slows work – Cutting quality increase cost – Cutting quality upsets customers Time fixed
  31. 31. Change Governance • Base Governance on actual delivered benefits – Not milestones completed – Not documents – Not budgets • Align work with strategy Picture from Picasa - Creative Commons License http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:House_of_Parliment_6_201 2-07-08.jpg What have you delivered for me lately?
  32. 32. Change the Start • Start small • Overlap discovery & development – From Day-1 • Fail fast, Fail cheap • Grow the successful
  33. 33. Active Portfolio Management • Start, Stop, Shrink, Grow work teams/streams • Balance risk/reward • Sustaining/Innovative • CLOSE UNDER PERFORMING WORK
  34. 34. Could this ever work? • Governance by results? • Fail fast, fail cheap Seems to work well for Sand Hill Road Venture Capitalists….
  35. 35. The End of Project Management? • Projects are for accountants • Organize work by – Work streams and/or – Products – Manage queues • Aim for stable teams, continuity – Occasional personnel changes – Living, changing code bases
  36. 36. Management work to do • “Manager” -> More authority to fix • Dealing with fuzzy world • Keep team running effectively • Supplier / Client relationships – Contracts to discuss & police – Role shoot out • Stuff – Admin, reporting, Line Management “they have an B manager so we need an B manager”
  37. 37. John Smith Project Manager (Aries Project) Big Corporation John.smith@bigcorp.com Tel: +123 456 7890 Payments Manager • “Project Manager” becomes: – First Line Manager, Junior Manager, Development Manager, Team Manager, Team Leader, or or or • You have continuity – Projects end; Products don’t
  38. 38. http://leanpub.com/xanpan Or half price till end of March@ http://leanpub.com/xanpan/c/SkillsMar2014 Remember • It ain’t ever over • BAU is not a dirty work allan kelly www.softwarestrategy.co.uk www.allankelly.net allan@allankelly.net Twitter: @allankellynet

×