Useful start quote?Higher education will change; the system is unstable," says Kevin Werbach, a Wharton legal studies and business ethics professor, who is teaching a MOOC [.. ] this summer. "It's an industry that will be in severe turmoil in the next decade. There are so many schools in distress, and the student loan burden is [huge]. In that environment, online platforms [...]are an interesting opportunity."
We explain who we are and how we have come to the topic of OER: SCORE programme
Information sheetsFor managers and policymakersFor those involved in teaching and learningOn creative commons licencesA contact sheet – together together interested partiesPublication This slide show is available online at http://www........
Link to clip of Steven Schwartz, VC at Macquarie University http://www.guardian.co.uk/higher-education-network/video/2012/jun/01/open-courses-uk-universitiesWhy are OER important?The international dimensionThe domestic dimensionWhy you need to think about themWhy you may want to use them
Distinction between publicness and openness; publication and making openly availableRadical openness: radical /bourgeois; 18th century radicalismSee Cadwalladr, C. (2012, 24 June). TEDGlobal 2012: 'The More You Give Away the More You Get Back' The Observer, The New Review, P.19, 24 June 2012. Available at Http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2012/jun/24/tedglobal-2012-the-more-you-give-away. Accessed on 24 June 2012.A globalised competitive context [public sphere/market place]
To adapt Richard Stallman’, ‘Free as in speech, not free as in beerDavid Wiley talks of a conference which he attended where they were trying to get this point across to the attendees but at which they also offered free beer, utterly confounding the message
JISC/HEA Open Educational Resources Programmehttp://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/elearning/oerPhase 1: http://www.teachertrainingvideos.com/William and Flora Hewlett Foundation: http://www.hewlett.org/programs/education-program/open-educational-resourcesIn the USA, Federal funding of $500 per annum in 2011-2014“The Department of Labor and the Department of Education today announced a new education fund that will grant $2 billion to create OER materials for career training programs in community colleges. According to Secretary of Labor Hilda L. Solis and Secretary of Education Arne Duncan, the Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training Grant Program (TAACCCT) will invest $2 billion over the next four years into grants that will “provide community colleges and other eligible institutions of higher education with funds to expand and improve their ability to deliver education and career training programs.” The full program announcement (PDF) states that all the resources created using these funds must be released under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license”
FlexibleRe-usableContext of use (language, meaning and vocabulary)LicenceModificationAdaptationCo-development: Sustainable open content community
Benefits: content, re-purposing, not deskilling or removing creativity; designing learning, developing learning communitiesUsage: Examples and Resources, Technology – access repository interfacesExamples e.g. iTunes U , etc ARCADE ORBEERoles academic and library
Facer and Sandford (2010) The next 25 years?: future scenarios and future directions for education and technology Journal of Computer Assisted LearningSpecial Issue: ‘CAL’– Past, Present and BeyondVolume 26, Issue 1, pages 74–93, February 2010Principles remind us of context of OER – move Tech Enhanced learning and the future. These principles remind us of mindfulness in consideration of OER Facer and Sandford state:“these principles, we feel, could be usefully appropriated by the educationaltechnology field in its discussions and representationsof the future more broadly”
“There is no point duplicating effort to create content that is already available and has been proven to work. Institutions can build on the existing open educational resources initiative to achieve economies of scale and efficiencies. In addition they can pull in the best content and openly available learning resources from around the world and adapt them for particular courses.” On-line Learning Task Force, 2011Values underpinning using and developing OER : emphasis is on designing for open use and sharing practice amongst teachers and learners – developing a collective practiceAndy Lane of the OU : useful presentation at http://www.slideshare.net/SCORE/making-education-moreopen-andy-laneThe Four Rs of OER and teaching and learning practices (Lane)Reuse – Use the work verbatim, just exactly as you found itRework – Alter or transform the work so that it better meets your needsRemix – Combine the (verbatim or altered work) with other works to better meet your needsRedistribute – Share the verbatim work, the reworked work, or the remixed work with others. Designing for openness: One way to ensure disciplinary and culturalrelevance of open educational resources is to establish an evaluation process- this is a new research area
Lane:For the individual learner OER can help Learn new things or enrich other studies;Share and discuss topics asynchronously or synchronously with other learners;Assess whether they wish to participate in (further) formal education; Decide which institution they want to study at; Improve their work performance;Create or revise OER themselves. However, learning cannot take place in isolation, learners need guidance, OER need mediation by Educators For the educator: OER use in creating courses – may include use of rich media resources that require advanced technical and media skills;Investigate the ways in which others have taught their subject;Create resources or courses- examples shortly;Join in communities of practice (reflection and improvement;Customise and adapt resources by translating or localising themtechnology only supports not supplants good teaching.For the InstititutionShowcase their teaching and research programmes to wider audiences eg Oxford, MITWiden the pool of applicants for coursesLower the lifetime costs of developing educational resourcesCollaborate with public and commercial organisations, including educational publishers, in new ways;Extend their outreach activitiesBut …Improved practices require supportive policies and strategiesEvidence base for OER - http://ci.olnet.org/#challenge-overviewOER research at http://oer.issuelab.org/research
Each of these are exemplars – ask audience if any use specific sitesTony Burke: Shows an example of a learning community in a subject specialismOnline Guide to OER in HEScoop it /OER Commons – good when starting as a noviceOpenScout – management educationOther resources – The googlegoogle site, peer to peer pedagogyYou Tube and I tunes, other open resources eg Khan AcademyIssue here is of time requirements to find good resources – emergence of maturer repositories organising work by institution (branding) and by popularity, following models such as I Tunes store organisation.
Existing repositories link to a plethora of useful tools. The key issue is supporting educators in learning to use these effectivelyFor publishing OER, an institutional repository is one method of organising – individuals can publish to either organised Open Education sites and /or institutions can consider developing their own repository.Successful platforms here include DrupalThe issue here is really to what extent an institution can “manage” open resources produced with the institution branding. Institutional repositories provide a safe, central control point but ease of publishing elsewhere implies this will never be 100% comprehensive. Concerns here form part of broader area of Institutional digital strategies (normal cry here: We haven’t got one!)
Role requirements for TEL – TEL expertise needs growing, TEL skills sets vary among staff.The development of technologyenhanced learning: findings from a2008 survey of UK higher educationinstitutionsMartin Jenkins , Tom BInteractive Learning EnvironmentsVol. 19, No. 5, December 2011, 447–465rowne , Richard Walker & Roger HewittKey points here on staff skills acquisition as a major barrier.Further points – staff time and formally accounting for this Developing enthusiasts
This is an opportunity not to be missedThis is about learning and how to do things togetherDownes:“it will be important to think of OERs not in isolation, but with respect to the community that accesses them and uses them.”“the development of a sustainable open content community is an integral part of the development of a network of OERs. “
Learning and Teaching Symposium: Open Educational Resources
Open Educational Resources and the Future of Higher EducationGill Ackerman*1, Rachel Lander*2 and Allan Parsons*3 *1 Academic Liaison Librarian, WBS *2 Senior Lecturer, WBS *3 Academic Liaison Librarian, MAD
The Workshop• Presentation• Information Sheets• Online Publications• Questions
Presentation• OER Background and History• OER Issues: Sustainability• OER: Learning and Teaching• Intellectual Property and Copyright• University of Westminster and OER
OER: Definitions―OER are teaching, learning and research resourcesthat reside in the public domain or have beenreleased under an intellectual property license thatpermits their free use or re-purposing by others‖William and Flora Hewlett Foundation―…technology-enabled, open provision of educationresources for consultation, use and adaptation by acommunity of users for non-commercial purposes‖UNESCO
UNESCO meeting October 2002, first used theterm OER and defined them functionally as the―technology-enabled, open provision of educationresources for consultation, use and adaptation by acommunity of users for non-commercial purposes‖ (Wiley, 2007)
President Barack Obama, July 14th, 2009 publiclybacked the global OER movement‗Online educational software has the potential to helpstudents learn more in less time than they would withtraditional classroom instruction alone.‘Later in the same speech he said,‗[Online courses] will be developed by teams ofexperts in content knowledge, pedagogy, andtechnology and made available for modification,adaptation and sharing‘.
World Open Educational Resources (OER) Congress UNESCO, Paris, June 20-22, 2012– Foster awareness and use of OER– Reinforce the development of strategies and policies on OER.– Support capacity building for the sustainability of quality learning materials.– Foster strategic alliances for OER.– Encourage the open licensing of educational materials produced with public funds.– www.unesco.org
Public, Open…[From the Public Sphere in a liberal international (political-)economy…• Public - National - Print – Broadcast• Open - Global - Digital – Networked …to the Digital Commons in a neo-liberal globalisation]
Seed Funding• JISC/HEA OER programme• William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
Sustainability • Financial • Technological • Human • Cultural
Cultural Sustainability • Flexible • Re-usable • Context of use • Licence • Modifiable • Adaptable • Co-development • Reliable • Trustworthy • Authoritative
Trustworthy, Authoritative……in part, initially, becomes a question of brandscape:
Learning and teaching • Guiding Principles • Benefits • Usage and Examples • Technology - sources • Roles and relationships
Guiding Principles• Principle 1: educational futures work should aim to challenge assumptions rather than present definitive predictions• Principle 2: the future is not determined by its technologies• Principle 3: thinking about the future always involves values and politics• Principle 4: education has a range of responsibilities that need to be reflected in any inquiry into or visions of its future (Facer and Sandford, 2010)
Benefits for Staff – key points from Leeds Met • Designing learning not creating content; • Get recognition for your own materials by sharing them as OER and engage in a global community of sharing and using educational resources; • Encourage your students to search for OER materials to support their own learning; • Embed the use of OER as part of your module/course review process; • Get recognition for your work by being attributed by others through OER release.
OER Benefits• For the individual learner• For the Educators• For the Educational InstitutionsOER is one component of T & LOER are not always appropriate
OER Examples and Repositories• SABE: Building Adaption and Conservation course• Online Guide to OER in HE• Scoop.it!• OER Commons• Open Scout
Technology• Technology for producing OER: Tools widely available • Supporting staff development• Developing Institutional Repositories of OER
Roles and Relationships• TEL and HE• Roles – TEL expert advisors/collaborators to work with staff• HEI need to reconsider roles and structure here• Role of Academic librarians
Role of Academic Liaison LibrariansBellison (2009) identified the following opportunitiesfor librarians to develop their roles in thedevelopment of OER:• Librarians can help by contributing their own OERs to the commons;• screening for indexing, and archiving quality OERs;• using OERs in their own teaching; and• participating in discussions leading toward responsible intellectual property policies and useful standards.
Creative Commons‗Creative Commons is a non profit organization thatworks to increase the amount of creativity (cultural,educational, and scientific content) available in ―thecommons‖ — the body of work that is available to thepublic for free and legal sharing, use, repurposing,and remixing.‘Taken from http://creativecommons.org AccessedMay 22nd, 2012
Creative Commons – Brief Explanation • Creative Commons is a non-profit organisation founded in 2001 in the US with the dedicated aim of making it easier for people to share and build upon the work of others, consistent with the rules of copyright. • With a Creative Commons licence, you keep your copyright but allow people to copy and distribute your work provided they give you credit – and only on the conditions you specify.
Analysis of Institutional Issues • The University • Finding and using • Publishing and repositories • Shifting roles • Flexible and lifelong learning
In our end is our beginning…From a provider/user paradigm to a community model of collaborative development Utopia: Charles Vest (2006) sees the Open Movement as the emergence of a meta-university ―a transcendent, accessible, empowering, dynamic, communally constructed framework of open materials and platforms of which much of higher education can be constructed or enhanced‖ Community: Co-development; Co-design; Co-construct; Collaborate Conventional: Producer/Consumer Hierarchical Model
Resources: On line Publication• Tour our Google site on OER: address in the Symposium abstract • Current Awareness section• Slide share link for this presentation – we will email all on the contact sheet• Handouts to take away