A Practical Look at LTE Backhaul Requirements

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A Practical Look at LTE Backhaul Requirements

  1. 1. BROADBAND WIRELESS INTELLIGENCE www.maravedis-bwa.com © Copyright All Rights Reserved 2010 Maravedis Inc. A Practical Look at LTE Backhaul Capacity Requirements Esteban Monturus Backhaul Market Analyst esteban@maravedis-bwa.com January 13th, 2011
  2. 2. BROADBAND WIRELESS INTELLIGENCE www.maravedis-bwa.com © Copyright All Rights Reserved 2011 Maravedis Inc. Agenda !  Backhaul Capacity Requirements of LTE !  Backhaul Capacity Discussion !  How Microwave meets Backhaul Capacity Needs of LTE !  Backhaul Trends among LTE Operators !  Q&A
  3. 3. BROADBAND WIRELESS INTELLIGENCE www.maravedis-bwa.com © Copyright All Rights Reserved 2011 Maravedis Inc. Backhaul Capacity Requirements
  4. 4. BROADBAND WIRELESS INTELLIGENCE www.maravedis-bwa.com © Copyright All Rights Reserved 2011 Maravedis Inc. Mobile Data Trends Operator Country Traffic/User TeliaSonera (LTE) Sweden and Norway 14 GB Yota (WiMAX) Russia 13 GB Packet One Networks (WiMAX) Malaysia 10 GB Clearwire (WiMAX) US 7 GB SK Telecom (HSPA) Korea 7 GB CSL (HSPA) Hong Kong 6 GB Average Monthly Data Consumption Source: 4GCounts Service Mobile broadband subscriber baseMonthly data consumption Princing plans Network capacity, new deployments Source: 4GCounts Service
  5. 5. BROADBAND WIRELESS INTELLIGENCE www.maravedis-bwa.com © Copyright All Rights Reserved 2011 Maravedis Inc. Deployment Trends !  147 LTE committed operators at the end of 2010 !  Long Term HSPA Evolution as alternative !  Currently 11 LTE networks in commercial operation !  Main uses of LTE !  High capacity overlay !  Rural Internet access Operator Country Commercial Launch Channel bandwidth TeliaSonera Sweden 12/2009 2 x 20 MHz TeliaSonera Norway 12/2009 2 x 20 MHz TeliaSonera Finland 11/2010 2 x 20 MHz TeliaSonera Denmark 12/2010 2 x 20 MHz Telenor and Tele2 Sweden 11/2010 2 x 20 MHz Vodafone Germany 12/2010 2 x 10 MHz MetroPCS USA 09/2010 From 2 x 1.4 MHz to 2 x 10 MHz Verizon USA 12/2010 2 x 10 MHz Telekom Austria Austria 10/2010 2 x 20 MHz NTT DoCoMo Japan 12/2010 2 x 20 MHz CSL Hong Kong 11/2010 2 x 10 MHz Source: 4GCounts Service
  6. 6. BROADBAND WIRELESS INTELLIGENCE www.maravedis-bwa.com © Copyright All Rights Reserved 2011 Maravedis Inc. LTE Site Capacity Requirements !  Operators are currently deploying 3GPP Rel. 8 !  10 or 20 MHz (2x2 downlink MIMO) !  3-sector cell sites !  Peak rates never achieved due to !  Interference !  Network load !  Final objective: IMT-Advanced (LTE-A) Direction Peak efficiency Peak 10 MHz Peak 20 MHz Average efficiency Average 10 MHz Average 20 MHz Rel. 8 Downlink 5 bps/Hz 50 Mbps 100 Mbps 1.73 bps/ Hz/cell 17.3 Mbps 35.6 Mbps Rel. 8 Uplink 2.5 bps/Hz 25 Mbps 50 Mbps 1.52 bps/ Hz/cell 15.2 Mbps 30.4 Mbps LTE-A Downlink* 15 bps/Hz 150 Mbps 300 Mbps 3 bps/Hz/ cell 30 Mbps 60 Mbps LTE-A Uplink* 6.75 bps/ Hz 67.5 Mbps 135 Mbps 2.25 bps/ Hz/cell 22.5 Mbps 45 Mbps * Spectral efficiency for indoor coverage, the most demanding situation Mbps
  7. 7. BROADBAND WIRELESS INTELLIGENCE www.maravedis-bwa.com © Copyright All Rights Reserved 2011 Maravedis Inc. Microwave for Aggregation !  Current microwave technology allows aggregation !  Statistical multiplexing increases aggregation capability in practice !  Bringing rings closer to last mile enhances multiplexing !  Service-aware routing doubles capacity METROAGGREGATIONLAST MILE TDM+packet packet Source: Maravedis’ Wireless Backhaul from an All-IP Perspective Report – October 2010
  8. 8. BROADBAND WIRELESS INTELLIGENCE www.maravedis-bwa.com © Copyright All Rights Reserved 2011 Maravedis Inc. Backhaul Capacity Discussion
  9. 9. BROADBAND WIRELESS INTELLIGENCE www.maravedis-bwa.com © Copyright All Rights Reserved 2011 Maravedis Inc. LTE Backhaul Trends
  10. 10. BROADBAND WIRELESS INTELLIGENCE www.maravedis-bwa.com © Copyright All Rights Reserved 2011 Maravedis Inc. Commercial LTE in Europe !  Europe: traditional microwave domain. !  TeliaSonera group !  LTE in urban areas, fiber available. !  New LTE markets depend on backhaul availability. !  100-150 Mbps capacity per site. !  Microwave not discarded. !  Vodafone Germany !  Only rural deployment so far. !  49,800 kilometer of fiber optic cable. !  Partnership with utility company RWE to use its fiber deployment. !  Telekom Austria !  500 million euros investment to connect 4,000 BSs by fiber (AirToFiber marketing campaign). Operator Country Backhaul type TeliaSonera Sweden Fiber TeliaSonera Norway Fiber TeliaSonera Finland Fiber Telenor and Tele2 Sweden Fiber Vodafone Germany Fiber Telekom Austria Austria Fiber Source: 4GCounts Service
  11. 11. BROADBAND WIRELESS INTELLIGENCE www.maravedis-bwa.com © Copyright All Rights Reserved 2011 Maravedis Inc. Commercial LTE in North America Operator Country Backhaul type MetroPCS USA Fiber + microwave Verizon USA Fiber + microwave !  North America: traditional copper and fiber domain. !  Verizon !  Verizon Global Wholesale provides fiber links for +3,500 cell sites (25 states). !  +100 Mbps fiber + microwave links from alternative carriers (CenturyLink, Conterra Broadband, Duke Net, FiberTower, PalmettoNet, Paradigm Telecom, Qwest, Telecom Transport Management and USCarrier). !  Seeking tower and backhaul owners for rural deployment. !  MetroPCS !  Ethernet services to cell sites from FiberTower Corp. FiberTower transport network Source: 4GCounts Service
  12. 12. BROADBAND WIRELESS INTELLIGENCE www.maravedis-bwa.com © Copyright All Rights Reserved 2011 Maravedis Inc. Commercial LTE in APAC !  Japan, China, Korea and Hong Kong: traditional fiber domains. !  NTT DoCoMo !  Using fiber-connected Remote Radio Heads for improved indoor coverage (all outdoor and indoor versions). !  Hong Kong CSL !  One of the few operators currently using microwave for LTE backhaul. !  100-170 Mbps capacity per site. Operator Country Backhaul type NTT DoCoMo Japan Fiber CSL Hong Kong Microwave WiMAX WiMAX RRH Indoor rack RRH RRH LTE Delay difference 40 km max. Source: 4GGear Service LTE LTE Source: 4GCounts Service
  13. 13. BROADBAND WIRELESS INTELLIGENCE www.maravedis-bwa.com © Copyright All Rights Reserved 2011 Maravedis Inc. Why not Microwave for LTE backhaul? !  LTE footprint still too small, so operators are finding fiber available within the initial coverage area. !  Other backhaul means will be necessary to achieve the required quality of experience: !  Macrocell backhaul !  Microwave links (including millimeter wave) !  Free Space Optics !  Small cell backhaul !  Non-line of sight wireless backhaul !  Strand-mount (DOCSIS backhaul) !  Remote Radio Heads (RRH)
  14. 14. 1 LTE BACKHAUL REQUIREMENTS A REALITY CHECK PETER CROY, SENIOR NETWORK ARCHITECT, AVIAT NETWORKS
  15. 15. LTE Cell: Single User Throughput Estimates •  IP packet throughput rates vary with RF channel bandwidth and user distance from cell center •  Majority of handsets in a cell/sector are located within medium & far distance from the cell center (>90% of cell coverage area) !"#"$%"#&$!'()*+,$-./,01$203$!40#")5&$67'8$9&::$9&)#&7$ 9;"))&:$<")=(4=#;$ 9:'0&$ .&=4>8$ ?"7$ @.;A$ BC$*$@3D$ BB$*$E3C$ @3D$*$B3F$ $G?!!$#H,45":I$BJ.KA$ LE$*$BL3L$ MF$*$N3@$ BL$*$L3F$ MJ.KA$ F@$*$MF$ @D$*$BF$ MF$*$N3@$ K4O;$PQR$="#"$0,&&=0$7&S>47&$&T5:>042&$>0&$'6$7"=4'$5&::U$ VWX+W%Y$BEQKZ$MJBB$M$ W[WQ$XRQ]^%_`$$$$$a$
  16. 16. Estimating LTE Cell Backhaul Capacity •  Typical macro cell tower hosts 3 LTE radio sectors •  Site backhaul capacity with overbooking factor (OBF) between 3 and 5 •  Capacity includes 15% dynamic range margin for QoS •  Figures are already LTE high-end estimates, higher capacities through reducing overbooking factor to 1 from 3 VWX+W%Y$BEQKZ$MJBB$E$ W[WQ$XRQ]^%_`$$$$$a$ 9&::$/"5b;">:$5","54#H$-./,01$203$=&,:'H8&)#$"7&"$ 9;"))&:$ <")=(4=#;$ !&)0&$+7/")$ G5:'0&$7")O&$#;7'>O;,>#I$ `>/c>7/")$ G8&=4>8$7")O&$#;7'>O;,>#I$ %>7":$ G8&=4>8$7")O&$#;7'>O;,>#I$ @.;A$ MJ$G^<?$EI$ BE$G^<?$EI$ F$G^<?$@I$ $G?!!$#H,45":I$$BJ.KA$ @J$G^<?$EI$$ EE$G^<?$EI$ MJ$G^<?$@I$ MJ.KA$ BJJ$G^<?$EI$ D@$G^<?$EI$ LJ$G^<?@I$ PQR$/"5b;">:$7&":40d5"::H$BJe0Z$)'#$BJJe0$'6$./,0$
  17. 17. Backhaul Capacity Trend: 10MHz LTE Channel 9","54#H$ -./,01$ BJJ$ C@$ @J$ !"!#$%$&'#(!)*$# +"+#$%$&'#(!)*$## ,-#$%$&'#(!)*$# ./0#123-435678#97":#47;<-# 124-=>2?=1#@.7A34#BC# PQR$:">)5;$ `&7245&$>,#"b&Z$ X&($="#"$,:")0$ X&($MTM$;")=c$ 0&#0Z$8'7&$04#&0$ LTL$>,O7"=&Z$ `&7245&$>,#"b&$ EJ$ LJ$ DJ$ J$ PQR$04)O:&$0&5#'7$/"5b;">:$ 5","54#H$7&S>47&8&)#$ Q48&$ VWX+W%Y$BEQKZ$MJBB$L$ W[WQ$XRQ]^%_`$$$$$a$
  18. 18. Backhaul Topology Comparison for LTE PQR$<"5b;">:$Q',':'OH$ ?&"#>7&$ !"40H$5;"4)$ K>/$f$ `,'b&$ Q7&&*$ Q4&7&=$ $.&0;*$ $%4)O$ 9","54#H$=40#74/>d')$ W5;4&2&$7&S>47&=$ )&#('7b$"2"4:"/4:4#H$ g7'24=&$PQR$5&::c#'c5&::$ 5'))&5d24#H$GhMI$ X&#('7b$5'0#$6"5#'7$ ?>#>7&$,7''6$6"5#'7$ .&0;$'7$%4)O$#',':'OH$/&0#$6'7$PQR$/"5b;">:$)&#('7b$$ VWX+W%Y$BEQKZ$MJBB$@$ W[WQ$XRQ]^%_`$$$$$a$
  19. 19. Backhaul Capacity Example: Ring Architecture •  Six cell backhaul in dense urban area @50Mbps •  Multiple site packet capacity not simply sum of cell capacities •  Network recovers from any single link failure To/from core network 50Mbps 50Mbps 70Mbps 50Mbps 70Mbps 100Mbps 150Mbps W==4d')":$74)O$04#&0$'):H$"==$4)57&8&)#":$5","54#HU$ VWX+W%Y$BEQKZ$MJBB$D$ W[WQ$XRQ]^%_`$$$$$a$
  20. 20. The LTE Hype Cycle VWX+W%Y$BEQKZ$MJBB$C$ W[WQ$XRQ]^%_`$$$$$a$ !"#$ Y^+$W%R$ KR%RU$ i"7#)&7$KH,&$9H5:&Z$BNN@$ %&$
  21. 21. LTE Capacity Conclusions • LTE backhaul capacity needs are regularly over-stated • Capacity is fixed per site and only determined by base station technology • The backhaul limit for a site will likely be ~150 Mbit/s for a 10MHz LTE radio channel • Only way to add more network capacity: - Add more cell sites, upgrade to MIMO or increase the LTE channel bandwidth • Ring/Mesh topologies are best suited to cope with the high capacity requirements VWX+W%Y$BEQKZ$MJBB$F$ W[WQ$XRQ]^%_`$$$$$a$
  22. 22. 9 STUART LITTLE, DIRECTOR OF MARKETING, AVIAT NETWORKS HOW LICENSED MICROWAVE MEETS THE BACKHAUL CAPACITY NEEDS OF LTE
  23. 23. Uncertainty can lead to bad backhaul choices • Backhaul discussion often in terms of hundreds of megabits or even gigabits of capacity • Just one in four mobile operators have said that they understood the requirements for LTE backhaul • This uncertainty could drive over- investment for backhaul capacity that is not needed within the foreseeable future VWX+W%Y$BEQKZ$MJBB$BJ$ W[WQ$XRQ]^%_`$$$$$a$
  24. 24. LTE Cell-Site Capacity VWX+W%Y$BEQKZ$MJBB$BB$ W[WQ$XRQ]^%_`$$$$$a$ Q48&$ 9","54#H$ '()*$(+$,-.-/012$&3(415$ 6-70898$,*::;<01*$,-.-/012$ 6-70898$,*::;<01*$,-.-/012$ =>??;@??6A01B<C$ 6-70898$60/3(4-D*$,-.-/012$$ E((8$+(3$ +9193*$ /-.-/012$ F3(415$ Y'>$5")e#$'>#0#74,$.]$5","54#H$#'$"$5&::c04#&$c$,;H0450$(')e#$"::'($4#U$ 9&::c04#&$ 9","54#H$$ 9>72&$ B$i/4#*0$
  25. 25. Why pay for capacity you may never need? • The total cost of building or leasing fiber to the cell- site far exceeds that of a typical microwave connection • Over-building capacity with fiber will waste an enormous amount of network investments VWX+W%Y$BEQKZ$MJBB$BM$ W[WQ$XRQ]^%_`$$$$$a$
  26. 26. The 3 Most Important Backhaul Decision Factors VWX+W%Y$BEQKZ$MJBB$BE$ W[WQ$XRQ]^%_`$$$$$a$ $<64-D7E3#<F# 6237?34#127G#HI34# @<G#G3748A#788#67F3FC# $<64-D7E3#J74# 3"633;F#./0#6388# F<13#67?76<1A# ;397G;F# #-/5$:0)G$)**H<$1($A*$ *D-:9-1*H$1($9)H*3<1-)H$ 80/3(4-D*$-)H$IA*3$ /(<1<$-)H$/-.-/0J*<K$ LE$ EMNO$ $<64-D7E3#6-GG3613;# 6388#F<13F#-K3G#27E3# >437134#=?593#127G# HI34#F<13F# ,PQP,M"R$ ,LN"$ E#!MPSM!M"R$
  27. 27. Microwave Capacity Expansion Options • Native Ethernet transport • Adaptive Modulation • Adaptive Coding • Ethernet Frame suppression and compression • Capacity-doubling through co-channel operation with XPIC VWX+W%Y$BEQKZ$MJBB$BL$ W[WQ$XRQ]^%_`$$$$$a$
  28. 28. Microwave techniques for high capacity EJJ$ ./4#*0$ E@J$ ./4#*0$ LJJ$ ./4#*0$ L@J$ ./4#*0$ @JJ$ ./4#*0$ @@J$ ./4#*0$ DJJ$ ./4#*0$ %>>$./4#*0$ %T?$./4#*0$ %U?$./4#*0$ VW?$./4#*0$ XX?$./4#*0$ LB(M# L(M# L+!M# LBNM# MT^9E*`Q.B$ X"d2&$R#;&7)&#$ Q;7'>O;,>#$ W==$P4O;#$ 9'=4)O$ W==$?i$f$ g7&"8/:&$ `>,,7&004')$ W==$.W9$ K&"=&7$ 9'8,7&004')$ VWX+W%Y$BEQKZ$MJBB$B@$ W[WQ$XRQ]^%_`$$$$$a$ jQ;7'>O;,>#$kO>7&0$"7&$/"0&=$ >,')$8"T48>8$8'=>:"d')$4)$"$ @D*FJ$.KA$5;"))&:$6'7$DL$/H#&$ 67"8&$04A&03$9","54#H$(4::$/&$:&00$ 6'7$08"::&7$5;"))&:0$")=*'7$ :"7O&7$67"8&$04A&03$
  29. 29. Co-Channel link capacity doubling EJJ$ ./4#*0$ LJJ$ ./4#*0$ @JJ$ ./4#*0$ DJJ$ ./4#*0$ CJJ$ ./4#*0$ FJJ$ ./4#*0$ NJJ$ ./4#*0$ >>??$./4#*0$ BJJJ$ ./4#*0$ BBJJ$ ./4#*0$ BMJJ$ ./4#*0$ LBOOM# W==$9'c9;"))&:$ ^,&7"d')$(4#;$hg9$ VWX+W%Y$BEQKZ$MJBB$BD$ W[WQ$XRQ]^%_`$$$$$a$
  30. 30. Getting even more wireless capacity • Diverse path network topologies (rings/mesh) • Lightly licensed and license free 60-90 GHz Millimeter wave bands • Payload compression • Higher order modulation schemes >256QAM • Multi-carrier operation • Multiple-in/Multiple-out (MIMO) techniques VWX+W%Y$BEQKZ$MJBB$BC$ W[WQ$XRQ]^%_`$$$$$a$
  31. 31. Don’t let fiber break the bank! VWX+W%Y$BEQKZ$MJBB$BF$ W[WQ$XRQ]^%_`$$$$$a$ • Fiber is not the only answer for operators deploying HSPA+ & LTE • Operators need to balance realistic capacity expectations with total cost • Microwave transport meets the foreseeable capacity needs for mobile backhaul for several years to come
  32. 32. WWW.AVIATNETWORKS.COM
  33. 33. BROADBAND WIRELESS INTELLIGENCE www.maravedis-bwa.com © Copyright All Rights Reserved 2011 Maravedis Inc. Audience Poll #1 How realistic are the current LTE user throughput expectations? %
  34. 34. BROADBAND WIRELESS INTELLIGENCE www.maravedis-bwa.com © Copyright All Rights Reserved 2011 Maravedis Inc. Audience Poll #2 In the next 5 years, what proportion of new HSPA + and LTE cellsites will be connected by fiber? % % % %
  35. 35. BROADBAND WIRELESS INTELLIGENCE www.maravedis-bwa.com © Copyright All Rights Reserved 2011 Maravedis Inc. About 4Ggear: The 4G Equipment Analysis Service
  36. 36. BROADBAND WIRELESS INTELLIGENCE www.maravedis-bwa.com © Copyright All Rights Reserved 2011 Maravedis Inc. Contact Information 410 rue des Recollets, Suite 301 Montreal, QC, H2Y 1W2 CANADA info@maravedis-bwa.com www.maravedis-bwa.com (305) 992-3196 (514) 313-5465

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