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5G Standardization Resource Guide


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3GPP Status Update & Review

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5G Standardization Resource Guide

  1. 1. 5G Standardization Resource Guide: 3GPP Status Update & Overview Nikhil Kundargi, Ph.D. Senior Wireless Platform Architect Email:
  2. 2. 3GPP Is 3rd Generation Partnership Project
  3. 3. Member companies collaborate in 3GPP to create 5G Standards
  4. 4. Overview of 3GPP Standards Structure Figure from RAN1 defines PHY L1 RAN2 defines MAC and other L2 RAN4 defines PHY Test
  5. 5. NI and 3GPP  Strong team of experienced standards engineers  Attending 3GPP since 2010  2016 highlights  Active contribution to RAN1  14 Unique Contributions  Presented industry’s first paper on 5G New Radio  Presented two papers on MIMO and Phase Noise (<10% are treated)  10 Way Forwards co-signed  1 contribution to RAN2  Tracking RAN4
  6. 6. Introducing 5G
  7. 7. ITU Vision for IMT-2020 and Beyond > 10 Gbps Peak rates > 1M / km2 Connections < 1 ms Latency
  8. 8. New ITU Report on IMT-2020 Minimum Requirements Metric Requirement Comments Peak Data Rate DL: 20 Gbps UL: 10 Gbps Single eMBB mobile in ideal scenarios assuming all resources utilized Peak Spectral Efficiency DL: 30 bps/Hz (assuming 8 streams) UL: 15 bps/Hz (assuming 4 streams) Single eMBB mobile in ideal scenarios assuming all resources utilized User Experienced Data Rate DL: 100 Mbps UL: 50 Mbps 5% CDF of the eMBB user throughput Area Traffic Capacity Indoor hotspot DL: 10 Mbps/m2 eMBB User plane latency eMBB: 4ms URLLC: 1ms Single user for small IP packets, for both DL and UL (eMBB and URLLC) Control plane latency 20ms (encouraged to consider 10ms) Transition from Idle to Active (eMBB and URLLC) Connection Density 1M devices per km2 For mMTC Reliability 99.9999% success prob. 32 L2 bytes within 1ms at cell edge Bandwidth >100 MHz; up to 1 GHz in > 6 GHz Carrier aggregation allowed DRAFT NEW REPORT ITU-R M.[IMT-2020.TECH PERF REQ], “Minimum requirements related to technical performance for IMT-2020 radio interface(s),” Document 5/40-E, 22 February 2017
  9. 9. How will 5G be standardized? Phase based approach Each Phase will comprise of • (One or more) Study Item • (One or more) Work Item Phase 1 will be standardized in Release 15 • Initial 5G Deployments will be Phase 1 compliant Pipelined standardization • Phase 2 Study Item(s) will begin at same time as Phase 1 moves to Work Item(s)
  10. 10. Mar-15 Jun-15 Sep-15 Dec-15 Mar-16 Jun-16 Sep-16 Dec-16 Mar-17 Jun-17 Sep-17 Dec-17 Mar-18 Jun-18 Sep-18 Dec-18 Mar-19 Jun-19 Sep-19 Dec-19 Apr-16 - Apr-17 Rel-13 Apr-16 - Jul-16 Rel-15 Apr-16 - Jul-16 Rel-16 Jan-17 - Jul-18 Rel-14 Aug-16 - Aug-17 Rel-15 Jun-16 - Sep-17 Rel-16 3GPP release timeline: Path from 4G to 5G LTE-A Pro New Radio Phase I Phase II  New radio track:  Phased approach  Phase I forward compatible to Phase II, but no need for backward compatibility to LTE • LTE-A Pro track: • Based on existing LTE-A Rel-13 Study Items 2 0 2 0
  11. 11.  March 2017 RAN plenary concludes 5G-NR Study Item and agrees on way forward for 5G-NR work item 1. By December 2017: complete Stage 3 for Non-Standalone 5G-NR eMBB (incl. low latency support) with Option 3 where  4G LTE core network (EPC) will be reused  Control Plane from EPC to LTE eNB and from LTE eNB to UE will also be reused. Additional Next Gen Userplane from NR gNB to UE. 3GPP On Fast Track to 5G Completion Figure from RP-161266, Deutsche Telekom, T-Mobile
  12. 12. 3GPP On Fast Track to 5G Completion (cont’d)  By March 2018: intermediate implementable version with frozen ASN.1 for Non- Standalone 5G NR eMBB accordingly  Maintain current schedule for Standalone 5G-NR in Rel-15 o Stage 3 completion June 2018; ASN.1 freeze September 2018 o Overall 5G Core Network already agreed to be completed by June 2018 RP-170741, “Way Forward on the overall 5G-NR eMBB workplan”
  13. 13. Zooming in on New Radio Phase 1 Timeline 2016 2017 2018 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 NSA = Non StandAlone = EPC core (“Option 3”) & LTE anchor SA = StandAlone 5G study 5G NR Work Item 5G NR NSA Completion Stage 3 completion for Non-Standalone 5G- NR RAN #74 RAN #75 RAN #78 RAN #80 (Rel-15 completion) Further evolution 5G NR SA Completion Stage 3 completion for Standalone 5G-NR NSA Option 3 family ASN.1 Rel-15 ASN.1 for SA & NSA Figure from RP-170741, “Way Forward on the overall 5G-NR eMBB workplan”
  14. 14. Early non standard 5G Releases  Some operators and vendors have kicked off pre specification 5G efforts  These will be deployed significantly before New Radio Phase 1, as soon as end of 2017  Target application is a narrow subset of NR target applications   Fixed Wireless Access  No support for mobility  UEs are Consumer Premise Equipment (set-top box)  “Last mile” connectivity to replace fiber Verizon 5GTF KT PyeongChang 5G Figure from Samsung Whitepaper on Fixed Wireless Access
  15. 15. 5G trial deployments have started
  16. 16. 5G New Radio : Phase 1
  17. 17. From LTE to 5G NR Phase 1 LTE NR Frequency of Operation Up to 6 GHz Up to 6 GHz, ~28 GHz, ~39 GHz, other mmwave bands (Upto 52 GHz) Carrier Bandwidth Max: 20 MHz Max: 100 MHz (@ <6 GHz) Max: 1 GHz (@ >6 GHz) Carrier Aggregation Up to 32 Up to 16 Analog Beamforming (dynamic) Not supported Supported Digital Beamforming Up to 8 Layers Up to 12 Layers Channel Coding Data: Turbo Coding Control: Convolutional Coding Data: LDPC Coding Control: Polar Coding Subcarrier Spacing 15 kHz 15, 30, 60, 120, 240 kHz Self Contained Subframe Not Supported Can be implemented Spectrum Occupancy 90% of Channel BW Up to 98% of Channel BW
  18. 18. Some Terminology  LTE eNB  Capable of connecting to EPC (current LTE core network)  eLTE eNB  Evolution of LTE eNB capable of connectivity to EPC and NextGen Core  gNB  Equivalent of eNB in 5G NR  NG  The interface between NextGen Core and gNB  NG2: control plane interface between core network and RAN (S1-C in LTE)  NG3: user plane interface between core network and RAN (S1-U in LTE)
  19. 19. Deployment Scenarios:- Potential Phasing  Phase 1 non-stand-alone deployments with LTE eNB as master  Secondary cell non-standalone operation of NR gNBs connected to EPC  Phase 1 evolution to adding NextGen Core  eLTE eNB is the master  NR gNB’s in non-standalone mode EPC LTE eNB NR gNB CP + UP 1) Data flow aggregation across LTE eNB and NR gNB via EPC CP+UP UP eLTE eNB 1) eLTE eNB connected to NextGen Core NextGen Core eLTE eNB NR gNB CP + UP 2) Data flow aggregation across eLTE eNB and NR gNB via NextGen Core NextGen Core UP CP+UP Figures from 3GPP TR 38.804 (Draft v0.4)
  20. 20. Deployment Scenarios:- Potential Phasing  Phased evolution to adding standalone operation  All of the deployment types could be operating simultaneously as we move to this phase  Note:-  Exact timing and phasing of the deployments depend on network providers, but NR will take into account NR gNB eLTE eNB CP + UP 2) Data flow aggregation across NR gNB and eLTE eNB via NextGen Core NextGen Core UP CP+UP NR gNB 1) NR gNB connected to NextGen Core NextGen Core NR gNB NR gNB CP + UP 3) Data flow aggregation across NR gNBs via NextGen Core NextGen Core UP CP+UP Figures from 3GPP TR 38.804 (Draft v0.4)
  21. 21. New Frequency Ranges for NR Release 15 Frequency range Supporting companies (min. 3) 3.3 - 4.2 GHz NTT DOCOMO, KDDI, SBM, CMCC, China Unicom, China Telecom, KT, SK Telecom, LG Uplus, Etisalat, Orange, … 4.4 - 4.99 GHz NTT DOCOMO, KDDI, SBM, CMCC, China Unicom, China Telecom, 24.25 - 29.5 GHz NTT DOCOMO, CMCC, KT, Verizon, T-mobile, Telecom Italia, BT… 31.8 - 33.4 GHz Orange, Telecom Italia, British Telecom 37 - 40 GHz AT&T, Verizon, T-mobile
  22. 22. Release 15 LTE-NR Band Combinations  For dual connectivity  Non-stand-alone (NSA) operation.  Combination of NR band and 1 LTE band Sources: RP-170847, RP-170826, R4-1702504 (DCM) approved LTE band 1 2 3 5 7 8 19 20 21 25 26 28 39 41 66 NR Freq. Range 3.3-4.2 GHz YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES 4.4-4.99 GHz YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES 24.25-29.5GHz YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES Yes 31.8-33.4GHz YES YES YES YES 37-40GHz Yes Band 7 YES YES YES Band 28 YES YES YES Band 41 YES YES YES YES YES YES YES EPC LTE eNB NR gNB CP + UP 1) Data flow aggregation across LTE eNB and NR gNB via EPC CP+UP UP
  23. 23. Numerology for NR  Multiple numerologies are formed by scaling a basic subcarrier spacing (SCS) by integer N  15 kHz is baseline SCS  N is power of 2.  Numerology selected independently of frequency band  allow at least from 15kHz to 480kHz subcarrier spacing. Whatisnumerology Subcarrier spacing (SCS) Symbol duration Cyclic Prefix duration Slot duration/size Subframe duration/size Frame duration/size
  24. 24. Numerology  Subframe duration : fixed to 1ms  Frame length : 10 msec.  For subcarrier spacing of 15 kHz * 2n  Each symbol length (including CP) of 15 kHz equals the sum of the corresponding 2n symbols of the SCS.  The first OFDM symbol in 0.5m is longer by 16Ts (assuming 15 kHz and FFT size of 2048) compared to other OFDM symbols.  16 Ts is used for CP for the first symbol.  NR supports an extended CP
  25. 25. Slot in New Radio  A slot is  7 or 14 OFDM symbols (for subcarrier spacing up to 60kHz)  14 OFDM symbols (for subcarrier spacing higher than 60kHz)  A slot can contain  all downlink,  all uplink, or  {at least one downlink part and at least one uplink part}.  Slot aggregation  data transmission to span multiple slots.
  26. 26. Example of Numerology in a Slot  Mixed numerology in both frequency domain and time domain Source: Fujitsu, R1-166676
  27. 27. Modulation & Waveform  QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM and 256QAM (with the same constellation mapping as in LTE) are supported  OFDM-based waveform is supported.  At least up to 40 GHz, CP-OFDM waveform supports spectral utilization of Y greater than that of LTE (assuming Y=90% for LTE)  where Y (%) is defined as transmission bandwidth configuration / channel bandwidth * 100%.  Note: Y proposals example is 98%  (For UL only) DFT-S-OFDM based waveform is also supported  limited to a single stream transmissions  targeting for link budget limited cases.  Both CP-OFDM and DFT-S-OFDM based waveforms are mandatory for UEs
  28. 28. 12x15 KHz 12x30 KHz 12x60 kHz 7 symbols (example) Time Freq Resource Block in New Radio  NR defines physical resource block (PRB) where the number of subcarriers per PRB is the same for all numerologies.  The number of subcarriers per PRB is N= 12 LTE and NR New in NR Source: Nokia, R1-167260
  29. 29. Feasible Maximum Channel BW  To be studied further  Sub-6 GHz: 100 – 200 MHz range  Above 6 GHz: 100 MHz – 1 GHz range  Possibility to support maximum CBW with CA  Use CA to utilize spectrum larger than maximum CBW  Note: RAN1 agreed on maximum CBW of 400 MHz in Rel-15 Source: R4-1702374 (Docomo, Samsung) approved
  30. 30. Feasible Sub-carrier Spacing  Sub-6 GHz: 15, 30, 60 kHz  Above 6 GHz: no decision yet  Candidates: 60, 120, 240 kHz  480 kHz FFS  Study feasibility based on  Phase noise model  CBW, FFT size  Service to support (eMBB, URLLC, mMTC)  ...  Above SCSs not applicable to all bands  Applicable to common/dedicated data channels approved Source: R4-1702374 (Docomo, Samsung)
  31. 31. Working of Analog beam based MIMO Operation  gNB has two TXRUs per polarization, connected to cross polarized Tx antenna panels.  The gNB selects one analog beams on each antenna panel polarization for the downlink data transmission, e.g., MIMO transmission.  The UE should be able to measure multiple Tx beams swept on different time units on each panel polarization and then select one ‘best’ Tx beam on each. Figure from R1-1705351
  32. 32. Hybrid Beamforming Fig: Korea Univ. IEEE presentation
  33. 33. Hybrid Beamforming  Example of hybrid beamforming with different beam-width.  The analog beams are coloured in blue, and the digital beams are coloured in red Figure from China Mobile, R1-1703405
  34. 34. Synchronization in NR  NR-PSS, NR-SSS and/or NR-PBCH transmitted within a SS block.  One or multiple SS block(s) compose an SS burst.  One or multiple SS burst(s) further compose an SS burst set  From UE perspective, SS burst set transmission is periodic.
  35. 35. Illustration of SS Burst Set Structure SS Burst Set Burst Periodicity Burst Periodicity Burst Periodicity …# 1 # 2 # 3 SS Burst # 4 # 5 # 6 SS Burst # 7 # 8 # 9 SS Burst # 1 # 2 # 3 SS Burst SS Burst Set Burst Periodicity Burst Periodicity Burst Periodicity …# 1 # 2 # 3 SS Burst # 4 # 5 # 6 SS Burst # 7 # 8 # 9 SS Burst # 1 # 2 # 3 SS Burst # 4 # 5 # 6 # 1 # 2 # 3 # 7 # 8 # 9 # 4 # 5 # 6 SS Burst Set Burst Periodicity Burst Periodicity Burst Periodicity …# 1 SS Burst # 1 SS Burst # 1 SS Burst # 1 SS Burst Example 1) Example 2) Example 3) PBCH PSS SSS PBCH Source: Ericsson, R1-1700294 Source: Intel, R1-1700329 Source: Qualcomm, R1-1700784
  36. 36. Channel Coding  Channel coding techniques for NR should support info block size K flexibility and codeword size flexibility  rate matching (i.e., puncturing and/or repetition) supports 1-bit granularity in codeword size.  Channel coding technique for data channels of NR support both Incremental Redundancy (IR) and Chase Combining (CC) HARQ.  For very small block lengths where repetition/block coding may be preferred Data channel for eMBB flexible LDPC Coding DCI for eMBB Polar Coding
  37. 37. 5G New Radio : Phase 2
  38. 38. Access to Unlicensed Spectrum  Create a single global solution for NR-based access to unlicensed spectrum  For unlicensed bands both below and above 6GHz  Coexistence methods  within NR-based  between NR-based unlicensed and LTE-based LAA  with other incumbent RATs  in accordance with regulatory requirements in e.g., 5GHz , 37GHz, 60GHz bands
  39. 39. Integrated Access and Backhaul  Study support for wireless backhaul and relay links  Enable flexible and very dense deployment of NR cells  Avoid densifying the transport network proportionately  Both inband and outband relaying in indoor and outdoor scenarios Fig from RP-170831
  40. 40. V2X use cases for LTE and NR  New evaluation methodology to be defined for the new V2X use cases  Vehicles Platooning  Extended Sensors  Advanced Driving (enables semi-automated or full-automated driving)  Remote Driving  Identify regulatory requirements of direct communications between vehicles in spectrum beyond 6GHz in different regions  63-64GHz (allocated for ITS in Europe)  76-81GHz Figure from Qualcomm website
  41. 41. Other features for study in NR Phase 2  Following items will also start from Q3 2017  Non-orthogonal Multiple Access  NR support for Non-Terrestrial Networks  Self Evaluation towards IMT-2020 submission  Note that New Rel-15 WI (Phase 1) will also be completed in parallel to NR Phase 2 Study Items.  New Radio Access Technology (RP-170847)
  42. 42. Additional Videos and Resources Join the SDR Community @ Watch the video of AT&T’s Channel Sounder demo and the DARPA Colosseum Spectrum Challenge demo