Air Permitting Biomass Combustion Units


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  • Use Glatfelter example – steam turbine.
  • Here are some examples of common air emission sources:
  • JFS please edit this
  • Here are few common misconceptions that we run across all the time at ALL4 when facilities get into trouble for not having the proper air permits. Size does not matter: It doesn’t matter how many employees you have or how often you actually run an operations, you need to pay attention to the local air rules and your process’ potential to emit regulated pollutants. Vendors want to make a sale and the odds that they are conversant in your state’s air pollution regulations are pretty small. Even the agency person may not be correct – CT example. You may need more than one permit. Depending on when units were installed, it’s common for facilities to have several air permits.
  • The first step in figuring out if you need an air permit is to understand what types of operations generate and emit air pollution. Here are some simple rules of thumb for determining if equipment at your facility might need an air permit. Does the unit have a stack, vent, or dust collector that vents to the outside? Does your process use paints, solvents, inks, adhesives, or other raw materials that contain organic compounds or VOC? Does your process burn fuel? Does your process generate fumes, dust, smoke, or odors? If you answered yes to any of the above, it’s a good sign that the equipment may need an air permit.
  • It is also important to understand that you may need more than one type of permit for your facility. Permit to install is typically required before you can install new equipment or modify your existing equipment. Permit to operate is usually required once installation or modification is completed. We’ll talk a little bit more about these permit types later on in the presentation.
  • What is ACHD???
  • How do I know if my project will need an air permit? Here are some examples of projects that would require a permit: Method of operation refers to the way in which you operate a process. So, for example, if you have a coating operation that applies coatings that are water-based, and you want to change the coating type to solvent based, even though you may not require any physical changes, you are however changing the way you are operating and it may require permitting.
  • The first step in understanding whether or not a planned project will trigger permitting is to as yourself these questions:
  • Debottlenecking?
  • The next thing you should do is pick up the air permitting regulations for your State and find the exempt activity list. This is a codified list of activities that the state has determined do not need an air permit.
  • When you begin looking for federal rules, a great place to start are the new source performance standards or NSPS. These rules regulate specific operations installed or modified after a certain date, and meeting specific size requirements. There is a size requirement and an age requirement. Two that come to mind that might apply to some of your facilities….
  • The next thing you want to look at are MACT standards. Remember, these only apply to major sources of HAP which would be any facility with the PTE > 10tpy single HAP or >25 tpy all HAP combined. Again, two examples of MACT standards that may apply to your facilities would be the boiler MACT and the Brick MACT.
  • Level of detail required for one of these control analyses can vary from state-to-state, and can even vary between the local district offices in your state. The worst case type of analysis would be a so-called “top-down” analysis. This type of analysis requires you to determine all control technologies available, determine which ones are technically feasible, rank all of the feasible technologies according to the effectiveness, and then evaluate each one based on costs on a dollars per ton of pollutant removed basis. Of course, if you select the most stringent control technology, there is no need to perform any cost analyses.
  • After you’ve taken a look at the regulations that might apply to your project, you need to determine the potential to emit rates for all regulated pollutants that could potentially be emitted from your operation.
  • Calculating the PTE rates is also important because you need to determine if there are any pollutants not previously emitted by the operations that will be emitted after the changes to your facility. Also need to look for any increases or decreases in emissions of pollutants already emitted
  • So what are some ways to calculate the Potential to emit?
  • Something else you need to be aware of when preparing an application is that some states are now requiring dispersion modeling for air toxics compounds. There are two types of modeling; they are screen modeling and refined modeling.
  • Also need to be aware that delays in issuing your permit can occur.
  • Everyone wants to know…what activities can I begin prior to receiving my permit?
  • After construction and startup are completed, you are going to have to obtain an operating permit.
  • Air Permitting Biomass Combustion Units

    1. 1. Air Permitting Biomass Combustion Units Penn State University Biomass Combustion Conference Short Course Series 2010 April 20, 2010 John Slade, ALL4INC [email_address] 717-822-0009
    2. 2. Today’s Presentation <ul><li>1. The Basics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is an Air Contaminant? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is an Air Contamination Source? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How are Air Contaminants regulated? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Explain Air Permitting! </li></ul>
    3. 3. Basics <ul><li>What is an Air Contaminant? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Smoke, dust, fume, gas, odor, mist, radioactive substance, vapor, pollen or any combination thereof.” (PA Air Pollution Control Act) </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Basics <ul><li>Examples of Air Contaminants: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollutants with National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS - see 40 CFR Part 50) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollutants regulated under federal NSPS and NESHAP rules (see 40 CFR parts 60, 61, and 63) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulated new source review pollutants (see 40 CFR §52.21(b)(50)) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Title V regulated air pollutant as defined (40 CFR §70.2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollutants regulated under a State Implementation Plan (SIP) or under state or local rules or policy (e.g., air toxics policy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are others (e.g., RMP, pollen!!!) </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Basics <ul><li>What is an Air Contamination Source? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Any place, facility or equipment, stationary or mobile, at, from or by reason of which there is emitted into the outdoor atmosphere any air contaminant.” (25 PA Code §121.1) </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Basics <ul><li>Source, facility, emissions unit – what’s the difference? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As defined, source can be either a single unit or entire facility. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important issue for understanding air permitting requirements (e.g., an emission unit may be on exemption list but installation could be modification of facility requiring permit). </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Basics <ul><li>Common Air Emissions Sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boilers, furnaces, incinerators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing process equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Material storage silos and stock piles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage tanks </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Basics <ul><li>Who Regulates Air in PA? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philadelphia Air Management Services (AMS) and Allegheny County (ACHD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. EPA - Region 3 </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Air Permitting <ul><li>The Good Stuff!!! </li></ul>
    10. 10. Does My Facility Need An Air Permit? <ul><li>MYTHS </li></ul><ul><li>My facility is too small </li></ul><ul><li>No one told me I needed a permit </li></ul><ul><li>My vendor says I do not need a permit </li></ul><ul><li>I already have an air permit </li></ul><ul><li>FACTS </li></ul><ul><li>Size does not matter </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility lies with the facility </li></ul><ul><li>Vendors want to make a sale </li></ul><ul><li>You may need more than one permit </li></ul>
    11. 11. What Air Emissions Sources Require a Construction Permit? <ul><li>Simple Rule of Thumb: An air quality plan approval to install a source is required for ANY air emission sources unless: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The source type is listed in the PADEP rules or on the exemption list </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PADEP makes a case-by-case determination that the source does not require installation approval </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Is There More Than One Kind of Air Permit? <ul><li>Permit to Install/Permit to Construct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Required before emissions units can be installed or modified </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Permit to Operate/Operating Permit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needed to operate equipment once installation or modification is completed </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Pennsylvania Air Quality Permits <ul><ul><li>Plan Approvals (Construction Permits) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(ACHD – Installation Permits, Major New Source Review permits) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State Only Operating Permits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Minor Source /Synthetic Minor OPs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Title V Operating Permits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Major Source OPs) </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. How Do I Know If My Project Needs a Permit? <ul><li>Install new equipment that has the potential to emit a regulated air pollutant </li></ul><ul><li>A physical change to an existing emissions unit or process </li></ul><ul><li>A change in the “method of operation” of an existing emissions unit or process </li></ul><ul><li>A change to an existing permit condition </li></ul>
    15. 15. Step 1: Define The Project <ul><li>Ask yourself… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will the project require a stack? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will this project result in a production increase? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will this project remove any existing production constraints? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does this project require a physical change to an existing process? </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Step 1: Define The Project <ul><ul><li>Does this project result in the use of new and/or greater quantities of raw materials? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For Biomass – it is likely any existing permit does not provide for biomass as a permitted fuel for the combustion unit! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will this project involve changes to existing pollutant control systems? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will this project increase my production capacity? </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Step 1: Define The Project <ul><li>If you answer “yes” to any of these, project must be evaluated to determine if a new air permit or modification of your existing permit is required. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Major Source Emission Increase Pollutants Precursors Attainment Classification Major Source Threshold (tons per year) Significant Emission Increase (tons per year) NOx, SO 2 , Lead NA PSD General 100/250 As applicable Ozone VOC/NOX NNSR outside of Philadelphia 5-County Area 50/100 40 Ozone VOC/NOX NNSR Severe-Philadelphia 25 25 PM 2.5 NA PSD/NNSR 100 10 PM 2.5 NO X PSD/NNSR 100 40 PM 2.5 SO X PSD/NNSR 100 40 PM 10 NA PSD/NNSR 100 15
    19. 19. Step 2: Check The Air Regulations <ul><li>Exempt activity lists: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary from State to State </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically low-emitting emissions units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May require a notification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of except activities: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small natural gas-fired boilers/heaters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel oil tanks less than certain size </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be careful – exemption may not apply for multi-source facility </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Step 2: Check The Air Regulations <ul><li>Federal New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) </li></ul><ul><li>National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Standards </li></ul>
    21. 21. Step 2: Check The Air Regulations <ul><li>Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>40 CFR Part 63 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EPA will propose a Boiler MACT the end of April 2010 – Effective December 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major and area sources of HAP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emission limits, testing, monitoring, recordkeeping and reporting requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of possible litigation – and delays </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Step 2: Check The Air Regulations <ul><li>Pennsylvania requires that all new or modified sources are subject to review for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best Available Technology (BAT) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And Major Air Emission Sources can be subject to review for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best Available Control Technology (BACT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowest Achievable Emission Reductions (LAER) </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Step 2: BAT / BACT <ul><li>A PSD BACT review will require performance of a “Top-Down” analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine what control technologies are feasible vs. technically infeasible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rank “feasible” controls according to their effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate operating costs on $/ton basis </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Step 2: LAER <ul><li>The rate of emissions based on the following, whichever is more stringent: </li></ul><ul><li>(A) The most stringent emission limitation which is contained in the implementation plan of a state for the class or category of source unless the owner or operator of the proposed source demonstrates that the limitations are not achievable. </li></ul><ul><li>(B) The most stringent emission limitation which is achieved in practice by the class or category of source. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Step 2: Determine Emission Increase <ul><li>New Sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential To Emit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Existing Major Facilities or Where the Emission Increase Will Be Major Itself </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified Sources – Projected Actual Emissions minus Baseline Actual Emissions </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Step 3: For New Sources Calculate PTE <ul><li>Calculate PTE rates for all regulated pollutants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PTE assumes 8,760 hours/year at max rated capacity, unless operations are restricted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Account for the presence of control devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Account for physical constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criteria pollutants (NO X , SO 2 , PM, PM 10 , VOC, CO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazardous air pollutants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State-only air toxics </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Step 3: Calculate PTE <ul><li>Pollutants not previously emitted or increased existing emissions may trigger permitting. </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased amounts of pollutants already emitted may or may not trigger permitting or a streamlined paper exercise.?????? </li></ul><ul><li>Recent EPA decisions do not allow maximum credit for substitution of cleaner fuels. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Step 3: Calculate PTE <ul><li>Accepted ways of calculating PTE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass/Material balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facility-specific emission factors (EFs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vendor-supplied emission factors or emission rate guarantee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Published emission factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Engineering judgment” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There can be more than one way to calculate PTE from your operation </li></ul>
    29. 29. Step 3: Existing Modified Sources <ul><li>Calculate Baseline Actual Emissions (BAE) </li></ul><ul><li>Determine a Future Projected Actual Emissions (PAE) </li></ul>
    30. 30. Step 3: Existing Modified Sources <ul><li>Emission increase is PAE minus BAE </li></ul><ul><li>Emission increase may be reduced by emissions the unit could have accommodated </li></ul><ul><li>If the Project is greater than major source significance then all facility emission increases and deceases must be considered over the last 5 years (contemporaneous period). </li></ul><ul><li>If the Project is less than significant, all de minimis emission increases are counted over the past 10 years for offsets. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Step 4: Dispersion Modeling <ul><li>Required for PSD Major Source Permits </li></ul><ul><li>State air toxics modeling sometimes required </li></ul><ul><li>Screen modeling - simple, conservative, overestimates ambient concentrations </li></ul><ul><li>Refined modeling – more complex, accounts for terrain features, building downwash effects </li></ul><ul><li>Refined modeling typically only required if screen fails </li></ul>
    32. 32. My Application Is Submitted; Now What? <ul><li>Application “completeness” letter within 30-days of submittal </li></ul><ul><li>Applications processed on first-come, first-served basis </li></ul><ul><li>Typical review time is 3 to 6 months for “minor” modifications. 6 to 12 months (or more) for “major” modifications. </li></ul><ul><li>Construction cannot begin until permit is issued </li></ul>
    33. 33. Delays Can Occur <ul><li>Relationships are important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agency relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public comment period </li></ul><ul><li>Public hearings may be requested, so plan this into uour timeline </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling results if performed by state </li></ul>
    34. 34. Commence Construction <ul><li>A facility cannot “commence construction” until a permit is issued </li></ul><ul><li>Here’s what you can do: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site clearing activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excavation and demolition activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Here’s what you cannot do: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start any construction directly related to the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bring any project equipment on site </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Operating Permit <ul><li>Once construction is complete and agency is satisfied, an operating permit is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on the state agency, construction permit may automatically become an operating permit </li></ul><ul><li>May require paperwork </li></ul>