Goal-based Priorization
Lourenço P. Soares | Alexandre Klaser
Backlog

http://www.flickr.com/photos/toiletqueue/
Backlog

http://www.flickr.com/photos/herby_fr/
Ok, but...
Ok, but...
...if there’s no backlog,
what is there?
Effort aligned
to business
goals
Effort aligned
to business
goals
Independent
streams of
work
Effort aligned
to business
goals
Independent
streams of
work
Just enough
to meet the
goal
Recaptulando...

ed
as
-b
oal ation
G
riz
io
Pr
Effort aligned to business goals

!  What’s the expected result when we
implement a given functionality?
!  How can we gua...
...
WE BELIEVE THAT
FOR...
WILL ACHIEVE...

Hypoth
esis
Mode
l

N...
SUCCESSFUL WHE
ARE
WE WILL KNOW WE
Once upon a time...
. E T e ..
1IEVThHATg.oal
WE BEL
FOR...
WILL ACHIEVE...

protection agains
t the
weather

N...
SUCCESSFUL WHE
ARE
WE WILL ...
...
WE BELIEVE THAT
FOR...
WILL ACHIEVE...

2. What we measure

protection agains
t the
weather

...
UCCESSFUL WHEN
ARE S
...
...
WE BELIEVE THAT
FOR...

a family

WILL ACHIEVE...

For whom
3.
protection agains
t the
weather

N...
SUCCESSFUL WHE
AR...
...
WE BELIEVE THAT
FOR...

a family

WILL ACHIEVE...

building a cabin
protection agains
t the
weather

N...
SUCCESSFUL W...
...
WE BELIEVE THAT
FOR...

a family

WILL ACHIEVE...

building a cabin
protection agains
t the
weather

N...
SUCCESSFUL W...
Independent streams of work
!  What to do when a hypothesis is wrong or
cannot be validated?
!  How to prioritize streams ...
Multiple hypothesis

...
THAT
EVE
BELI
WE
..

FOR.

..

HEN.
UL W
SSF
CCE
LA
WIL
E SU
E AR
W
KNOW
ILL
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E...
HIEV
C
Prioritized by value

User value

High

Low
Low

Business Value

High
Prioritized by value

User value

High

Low
Low

Business Value

High
Prioritized by value

User value

High

Low
Low

Business Value

High
Prioritized by value
High

H3

User value

H5

H2

H6

H1

H4

H7

Low
Low

Business Value

High
Just enough to meet the goal
!  How to validate a hypothesis with the least
possible effort?
!  How to avoid that dependen...
I
N
V
E
S
T

ndependent
egotiable
aluable
estimable
mall
estable
I
N
V
E
S
T

ndependent
egotiable
aluable
estimable
mall
estable
I
N
V
E
S
T

ndependent
egotiable
aluable
estimable
mall
estable
Hypothesis are like onions

…
We believe
For…
v e…
Will achie
o w w h e n…
We will kn
Satisfaction

Kano Model

Implementation

Basic

met ≠ J
not met = L
Adapted from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kano_mod...
Satisfaction

Kano Model
Performance
met = J
not met = L
Implementation

Basic

met ≠ J
not met = L
Adapted from: http...
Excitement

met = J
not met ≠ L

Satisfaction

Kano Model
Performance
met = J
not met = L
Implementation

Basic

met ≠...
We believe that

building a cabin

a family
er
gainst the weath
tion a
achieve protec
will
e dry
ul when we ar
successf
il...
Provide

Levels of attainment of goals
!   Basic mechanics
!   It is impossible to know if it is doable
before validating ...
Provide

Levels of attainment of goals
!   Basic mechanics
!   It is impossible to know if it is doable
before validating ...
Provide

!   Basic mechanics
!   It is impossible to know if it is doable
before validating this much
!   You need to know...
Provide

!   Basic mechanics
!   It is impossible to know if it is doable
before validating this much
!   You need to know...
Provide

!   Basic mechanics
!   It is impossible to know if it is doable
before validating this much
!   You need to know...
Provide

!   Basic mechanics
!   It is impossible to know if it is doable
before validating this much
!   You need to know...
Deming Cycle
PLAN

ACT

DO

CHECK
Prioritized hypothesis
High

H3

User value

H5

H2

H6

H1

H4

H7

Low
Low

Business Value

High
Priority Matrix

Excel

Satisfy

Provide

H1

H2

H3

H4

H5

H6

H7
Now add stories

Excel

Satisfy

Provide

H1

H2

H3

H4

H5

on
sssspers sony
er
p
ele
ho e n m
s sa ahommelof overthe us...
Priority Matrix

Excel

Satisfy

Provide

H1
Story

H2
Story

Story

H3
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

S...
A real-world example
Consuming stories

Excel

Satisfy

Provide

H1
Story

H2
Story

Story

H3
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story
...
Consuming stories

Excel

Satisfy

Provide

H1
Story

H2
Story

Story

H3
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story
...
Consuming stories

Excel

Satisfy

Provide

H1
Story

H2
Story

Story

H3
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story
...
Consuming stories
Provide
Satisfy
Excel

Story

H2
Story

Story

H3
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story...
Identifying scope creep

Excel

Satisfy

Provide

H1
Story

H2
Story

Story

H3
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

...
Identifying scope creep

Excel

Satisfy

Provide

H1
Story

H2
Story

Story

H3
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

...
Small finite increments

Excel

Satisfy

Provide

H1

ü

H2
Story

Story

H3
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

St...
Small finite increments

Excel

Satisfy

Provide

H1

ü

H2

ü

Story

H3
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Stor...
Small finite increments
Provide

Story

Excel

ü

Satisfy

H1

H2

ü

Story

H3
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story...
Small finite increments
Provide

Story

Excel

ü

Satisfy

H1

H2

ü

Story

H3
Story

Story

ü

Story

Story

Story

S...
Small finite increments
Provide

Story

Excel

ü

Satisfy

H1

H2

ü

Story

H3
Story

Story

ü

Story

Story

Story

S...
It works in practice…

Actual product
owner using the
board
The whole team using the board

“It helps a great deal when finding
the most important stories”
Recaptulando...

Questions,
Comments,
Suggestions?
aklaser@thoughtworks.com
@alklaser
lous@thoughtworks.com
about.me/lous
Recaptulando...reading
Further
!  Beyond Good Enough – Darius Kumana (bit.ly/darius_bge)
!  Systemico Model – Barry O’Rill...
Another real-world example
Goal-Based Priorization - Ágiles 2013
Goal-Based Priorization - Ágiles 2013
Goal-Based Priorization - Ágiles 2013
Goal-Based Priorization - Ágiles 2013
Goal-Based Priorization - Ágiles 2013
Goal-Based Priorization - Ágiles 2013
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Goal-Based Priorization - Ágiles 2013

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Talk about goal-based priorization presented with Lourenço Soares at Agiles 2013, in Lima, Peru.

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  • Apresentaçãopessoal1 - QuemaquiéAnalista de Negócio?2 - Quemestáàespera de umapalestrasobreprincípios?Vamosfalar de uma PRÁTICA – “priorizaçãoporobjetivos”Disclaimer: nãoé silver bullet – uma entre outrastantas
  • When we shifted from waterfall to agile we reduced major analysis upfront, but we’re left with a big story list describing the entire scope in order to keep track of everything that needs to be delivered.
  • This leads to a huge inventory of stories that need to be tracked and managed, which is one of the seven types of waste. Other waste here is waiting.And when business circumstances change, there is a lot of effort to reprioritize and understand them.Story card hell – James ShoreWhat should we do then?
  • Let’s try to reduce another type of waste, over-processing, and think about what we really need when we create scope for the project…
  • Similar to Impact Mapping – first define goals then derive from itFocus on doing just the necessary to reach the business goalsDeviations: political pressure, “gold plating”Examples: demanda de tráfegocarrinho de compras com íconeanimadoBUT… UX can be relevant to the business goals!
  • Value is not linear…We can’t know that the top priority hypothesis is the one that will bring more value to the customerDiversifying risk: if one work stream gets blocked, it’s possible to keep on with the otherDon’t put all your eggs in one basket
  • Not too big, not too small… just enough to reach the goal.Avoid spending too much time developing a feature before getting feedback (anticipate TTM)Waste: over-production
  • Do the right thing + more than one thing + of the right size
  • What is the expected result?
  • Hypothesismodel: Josh Seiden
  • Setting the context…A happy family (in the countryside, desert island…)
  • What is the goal?
  • KPIs
  • A different goal can be “be well fed”…
  • Differencebetweenuservalueand businessvalue. Example: tracking cookies
  • How much effort is enough to get feedback?This helps us to think in a division of stories that aims to minimize the feedback timeExample… (TV channel)
  • Bill Wake
  • Bill Wake
  • Bill Wake
  • To tell stories, we begin from the center of the problem – the most important part – and then add layers around itYou can’t have outer layers without the inner layers, the same way it isn’t worth to have a pole without a traffic light.Naturally, in a bigger system, it’s hard to avoid some order relation between stories, this is natural and expected
  • The Kano model is a theory of product development and customer satisfaction, developed in the 80s by professor Noriaki Kano.Example: Hotmail vs. Gmail – let’s go back to 2007Basic: login
  • Hotmail: 2 MB (“it should be enough for anybody”)Gmail: 1 GB
  • Hotmail: foldersGmail: labels and threaded conversations!Over time, extraordinary things end up becoming commodity- Gmail pioneered the use of Ajax.
  • How do you start building a cabin?(Perguntarpara a audiência?)what would be the first thing to do?
  • Até uma caverna é melhor que isso!Mas já estamos aprendendoCuidar com a analogia da fundação, ela pode deixar as pessoas inseguras. Tem que deixar claro que temos diversas hipóteses, e outra pode lidar com a durabilidade da obra. Lembrar que DESENVOLVIMENTO de software é diferente de PRODUÇÃO. A primeira pessoas que resolveu construir sua casa não começou pela fundação... Comparar aprendizado proporcionado/chance de dar certo
  • Darius Kumana
  • DariusKumanaStories: good for developmentbutnotholisticEpics:notestimable
  • We killed the linear backlog, placing stories in a multi-threaded processing
  • When can you measure if the goal was reached?
  • When can you measure if the goal was reached?Max & Michael talk
  • Goal-Based Priorization - Ágiles 2013

    1. 1. Goal-based Priorization Lourenço P. Soares | Alexandre Klaser
    2. 2. Backlog http://www.flickr.com/photos/toiletqueue/
    3. 3. Backlog http://www.flickr.com/photos/herby_fr/
    4. 4. Ok, but...
    5. 5. Ok, but... ...if there’s no backlog, what is there?
    6. 6. Effort aligned to business goals
    7. 7. Effort aligned to business goals Independent streams of work
    8. 8. Effort aligned to business goals Independent streams of work Just enough to meet the goal
    9. 9. Recaptulando... ed as -b oal ation G riz io Pr
    10. 10. Effort aligned to business goals !  What’s the expected result when we implement a given functionality? !  How can we guarantee we are doing what must be done? http://www.flickr.com/photos/morganhh/
    11. 11. ... WE BELIEVE THAT FOR... WILL ACHIEVE... Hypoth esis Mode l N... SUCCESSFUL WHE ARE WE WILL KNOW WE
    12. 12. Once upon a time...
    13. 13. . E T e .. 1IEVThHATg.oal WE BEL FOR... WILL ACHIEVE... protection agains t the weather N... SUCCESSFUL WHE ARE WE WILL KNOW WE
    14. 14. ... WE BELIEVE THAT FOR... WILL ACHIEVE... 2. What we measure protection agains t the weather ... UCCESSFUL WHEN ARE S WE WILL KNOW WE e is dry and the temperatur we are between 15 and 35°C
    15. 15. ... WE BELIEVE THAT FOR... a family WILL ACHIEVE... For whom 3. protection agains t the weather N... SUCCESSFUL WHE ARE WE WILL KNOW WE e is dry and the temperatur we are between 15 and 35°C
    16. 16. ... WE BELIEVE THAT FOR... a family WILL ACHIEVE... building a cabin protection agains t the weather N... SUCCESSFUL WHE ARE WE WILL KNOW WE What we will do 4. e is dry and the temperatur we are between 15 and 35°C
    17. 17. ... WE BELIEVE THAT FOR... a family WILL ACHIEVE... building a cabin protection agains t the weather N... SUCCESSFUL WHE ARE WE WILL KNOW WE e is dry and the temperatur we are between 15 and 35°C
    18. 18. Independent streams of work !  What to do when a hypothesis is wrong or cannot be validated? !  How to prioritize streams of work and maintain business alignment? http://www.flickr.com/photos/elsie/
    19. 19. Multiple hypothesis ... THAT EVE BELI WE .. FOR. .. HEN. UL W SSF CCE LA WIL E SU E AR W KNOW ILL WE W E... HIEV C
    20. 20. Prioritized by value User value High Low Low Business Value High
    21. 21. Prioritized by value User value High Low Low Business Value High
    22. 22. Prioritized by value User value High Low Low Business Value High
    23. 23. Prioritized by value High H3 User value H5 H2 H6 H1 H4 H7 Low Low Business Value High
    24. 24. Just enough to meet the goal !  How to validate a hypothesis with the least possible effort? !  How to avoid that dependency between stories prevent progress in small increments? http://www.flickr.com/photos/pasukaru76/
    25. 25. I N V E S T ndependent egotiable aluable estimable mall estable
    26. 26. I N V E S T ndependent egotiable aluable estimable mall estable
    27. 27. I N V E S T ndependent egotiable aluable estimable mall estable
    28. 28. Hypothesis are like onions … We believe For… v e… Will achie o w w h e n… We will kn
    29. 29. Satisfaction Kano Model Implementation Basic met ≠ J not met = L Adapted from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kano_model
    30. 30. Satisfaction Kano Model Performance met = J not met = L Implementation Basic met ≠ J not met = L Adapted from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kano_model
    31. 31. Excitement met = J not met ≠ L Satisfaction Kano Model Performance met = J not met = L Implementation Basic met ≠ J not met = L Adapted from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kano_model
    32. 32. We believe that building a cabin a family er gainst the weath tion a achieve protec will e dry ul when we ar successf ill know we are we w etween 15 and b e temperature is and th 35°C for
    33. 33. Provide Levels of attainment of goals !   Basic mechanics !   It is impossible to know if it is doable before validating this much !   You need to know it to use it
    34. 34. Provide Levels of attainment of goals !   Basic mechanics !   It is impossible to know if it is doable before validating this much !   You need to know it to use it “It’s a proof of concept... Without this, the experience is broken... I would never go live with only this...”
    35. 35. Provide !   Basic mechanics !   It is impossible to know if it is doable before validating this much !   You need to know it to use it Satisfy Levels of attainment of goals !   Basic functionality !   Meets user needs !   Anyone with minimum knowledge should be able to use it “It’s a proof of concept... Without this, the experience is broken... I would never go live with only this...”
    36. 36. Provide !   Basic mechanics !   It is impossible to know if it is doable before validating this much !   You need to know it to use it “It’s a proof of concept... Without this, the experience is broken... I would never go live with only this...” Satisfy Levels of attainment of goals !   Basic functionality !   Meets user needs !   Anyone with minimum knowledge should be able to use it “All of our competitors have it... I would expect it to work... It’s something even my mom would understand...”
    37. 37. Provide !   Basic mechanics !   It is impossible to know if it is doable before validating this much !   You need to know it to use it “It’s a proof of concept... Without this, the experience is broken... I would never go live with only this...” Satisfy !   Basic functionality !   Meets user needs !   Anyone with minimum knowledge should be able to use it “All of our competitors have it... I would expect it to work... It’s something even my mom would understand...” Excel Levels of attainment of goals !   Diferentiating proposition !   Only the main features of the product should be at this level !   Draw users to the product
    38. 38. Provide !   Basic mechanics !   It is impossible to know if it is doable before validating this much !   You need to know it to use it “It’s a proof of concept... Without this, the experience is broken... I would never go live with only this...” Satisfy !   Basic functionality !   Meets user needs !   Anyone with minimum knowledge should be able to use it “All of our competitors have it... I would expect it to work... It’s something even my mom would understand...” Excel Levels of attainment of goals !   Diferentiating proposition !   Only the main features of the product should be at this level !   Draw users to the product “Only your product does this... Makes me come back time and time again... Everyone is talking about it...”
    39. 39. Deming Cycle PLAN ACT DO CHECK
    40. 40. Prioritized hypothesis High H3 User value H5 H2 H6 H1 H4 H7 Low Low Business Value High
    41. 41. Priority Matrix Excel Satisfy Provide H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 H7
    42. 42. Now add stories Excel Satisfy Provide H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 on sssspers sony er p ele ho e n m s sa ahommelof overthe usually AA o o a an r ll wwnt ta a wa II et ad heainy sidedon’t lget w in t ess ra r I o othat t I ige dy ha a ns n SS t i r hen nitit is w wwhe H6 H7
    43. 43. Priority Matrix Excel Satisfy Provide H1 Story H2 Story Story H3 Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story H5 Story Story Story Story Story H4 Story Story Story H6 Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story H7 Story Story Story
    44. 44. A real-world example
    45. 45. Consuming stories Excel Satisfy Provide H1 Story H2 Story Story H3 Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story H5 Story Story Story Story Story H4 Story Story Story H6 Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story H7 Story Story Story
    46. 46. Consuming stories Excel Satisfy Provide H1 Story H2 Story Story H3 Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story H5 Story Story Story Story Story H4 Story Story Story H6 Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story H7 Story Story Story
    47. 47. Consuming stories Excel Satisfy Provide H1 Story H2 Story Story H3 Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story H5 Story Story Story Story Story H4 Story Story Story H6 Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story H7 Story Story Story
    48. 48. Consuming stories Provide Satisfy Excel Story H2 Story Story H3 Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story H5 Story Story Story Story H4 ^ H1 H6 Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story H7 Story Story Story
    49. 49. Identifying scope creep Excel Satisfy Provide H1 Story H2 Story Story H3 Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story H5 Story Story Story Story Story H4 Story Story Story H6 Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story H7 Story Story Story
    50. 50. Identifying scope creep Excel Satisfy Provide H1 Story H2 Story Story H3 Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story H4 Story Story Story H5 Story Story H6 Story Story Why is this in scope? Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story H7 Story Story Story
    51. 51. Small finite increments Excel Satisfy Provide H1 ü H2 Story Story H3 Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story H5 Story Story Story Story Story H4 Story Story Story H6 Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story H7 Story Story Story
    52. 52. Small finite increments Excel Satisfy Provide H1 ü H2 ü Story H3 Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story H5 Story Story Story Story Story H4 Story Story Story H6 Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story H7 Story Story Story
    53. 53. Small finite increments Provide Story Excel ü Satisfy H1 H2 ü Story H3 Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story H5 Story Story Story ü Story H4 Story Story Story H6 Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story H7 Story Story Story
    54. 54. Small finite increments Provide Story Excel ü Satisfy H1 H2 ü Story H3 Story Story ü Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story H4 Story Story H5 Story H6 Story Story tests   Can have functional ü Story Story Story Story Storyoduction Story   Can be deployed in pr ü r experience Story   Can test useStory Story ü Story H7 Story Story Story
    55. 55. Small finite increments Provide Story Excel ü Satisfy H1 H2 ü Story H3 Story Story ü Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story Story H4 Story Story H5 Story H6 Story Story H7 Story Story Story tests   Can have functional ü Story Story Story Story Storyoduction Story   Can be deployed in pr ü r experience Story   Can test useStory Story ü VAL ID LEA ATED RNIN G! Story
    56. 56. It works in practice… Actual product owner using the board
    57. 57. The whole team using the board “It helps a great deal when finding the most important stories”
    58. 58. Recaptulando... Questions, Comments, Suggestions? aklaser@thoughtworks.com @alklaser lous@thoughtworks.com about.me/lous
    59. 59. Recaptulando...reading Further !  Beyond Good Enough – Darius Kumana (bit.ly/darius_bge) !  Systemico Model – Barry O’Rilley & Lourenço P. Soares (bit.ly/systemico) !  Kano Model – Jason Mesut (bit.ly/kano_model) !  Replacing Requirements with Hypotheses– Josh Seiden (bit.ly/josh_hdd) !  INVEST in Good Stories, and SMART Tasks – Bill Wake (bit.ly/invest_stories) aklaser@thoughtworks.com @alklaser lous@thoughtworks.com about.me/lous
    60. 60. Another real-world example

    ×