By the end of this presentation, thestudents will be able to describeinstructional radioeffectiveness, limitations, and designprocess.
*Radio Technology was first developed duringthe late nineteenth century and came intopopular usage during the early twentiethcentury, 50 years later. *Though sometimes overshadowed bytelevision, radio represents a medium capable ofreaching a wide geographic audience at a lowproduction cost with proven educational results . *Radio has a greater value for weak studentswho benefit from radio as a supplementarylearning tool.
*Broadcasting is the distribution of audioand/or video signals (programs) to anumber of recipients ("listeners" or"viewers") that belong to a large group.This group may be the public ingeneral, or a relatively large audiencewithin the public.
With all technological endeavors a numberof technical terms are developed.The term "broadcast" was coined by earlyradio engineers from the mid-westernUnited States.*The sequencing of content in a broadcastis called a schedule.
Radio programs are distributed throughradio broadcasting over frequency bandsthat are highly regulated by theCommunications Commission.Such regulation includes determination ofthe width of thebands, range, licensing, types of receiversand transmitters used, and acceptablecontent.
A broadcasting organization may broadcastseveral programs at the same time, throughseveral channels (frequencies), for exampleOman Channel and Shabab. On the other hand, two or more organizationsmay share a channel and each use it during afixed part of the day.
*Broadcasting forms a very large segmentof the mass media.*Broadcasting to a very narrow range ofaudience is called narrowcasting.
*Radio has been used extensively as aneducational medium in developingcountries.Published reports confirm that it hassupported educational programs in a widerange of subject areas and in manydifferent countries.
Instructional radio has been employedwithin a wide variety of instructionaldesign contexts.*In some cases it is supported by the use ofprinted materials, and other technologicalsupports by local discussion groups, andby regional study centers.
*It is sometimes designed so as to permitand encourage listener reaction andcomment.There is provision for the audience to raisequestions and to receive feedback.
*Instructional radio has been utilized in:• Thailand to teach mathematics to school childrenand for teacher training and other curricula.• India for rural development.• Swaziland for public health purposes.• Mali for literacy training.• Columbia for various programs.
• Mexico for literacy training and other programs.• Nigeria for management courses for theagriculture sector.• Kenya in support of correspondence courses.• Nicaragua for health education.• The Philippines for nutrition.• Paraguay to offer primary school instruction.
• Guatemala in order to promote changes infarming practices and to improve production.• Sri Lanka for family planning and health.• Trinidad and Tobago to promote knowledge ofbreastfeeding.• South Korea in support of family planning.• Botswana, for civics education.• The Dominion Republic in support of primaryeducation.
The popularity, availability, and low cost ofradio made it a convenient and practical mediumfor use in programs for learning at a distanceand is mostly used in combination with othermedia, such as with print medium followed byface-to face teaching. It is:• improving educational quality and relevance;• lowering educational costs; and,• improving access to educational inputs particularly todisadvantaged groups.
IR is useful in• *providing remedial tutorials, or some otherforms of tutorial based feedback;• *providing corrections, alterations or updating ofmaterial, where print re-make budgets arelimited, or where print cannot reach studentsquickly enough;• *recordings of naturally occurring events, e.g.political speech, children talking, concerts orperformances talks.
• *enabling students to identify with the emotionsand viewpoints of the main participants;• *providing an alternative view to that presentedin the correspondence text and/ or televisionprograms; and,• *enabling students to perceive the different pointsof view that exist, and observe ideas beingchallenged, through discussion and interviews.
*One of the most dominant and widespreadexamples of the use of educational radio isknown as "Farm Radio Forum." It was started in Canada in 1941 as a radiodiscussion program and served as a modelwhich was adopted subsequently in a number ofdeveloping countries. After ten years, its sponsors invited UNESCO tocooperate in carrying out an evaluation of theprogram and its effectiveness as an instrument ofadult education.
Implications Learned:• *the use of forums, multi-media, printedmaterials,• *two-way communication and;• *various production techniques(drama, interview, panel discussion)These implications were then introducedin India early in 1956, and in Ghana in1964, with the initiative and sponsorshipof UNESCO.
The radio programs for rural forums have beenconcerned with:• the problems of agriculture,• rural development,• rural education,• innovations,• self-government and literacy. Such forums have now been introduced in manydeveloping countries. By 1968, a total of about 15,000 was reported.
group listening followed by group discussionwas more influential in changing beliefs andattitudes towards innovation than was grouplistening without discussion. Group decision making was found to be animportant factor as well. *It enabled farmers to approach their problemsin a more informed fashion and to worktogether towards the solutions.
*Retention of information and overall learningwere greatly improved because of high interestin the content and the reinforcement of messagesby various communication channels such asradio, literature and field visits by extensionagents and technicians. *The IR staff and the farmer audience werefound to be extremely motivated by the RadioFarm Forum activity.
Radio can teach; it can present new concepts andinformation. *Students who were taught through radiolessons achieved significantly higher scores inthe final evaluation than those taught throughregular, face-to-face, classroom instruction
Radio lessons were effective in raising thelevel of knowledge of those who knewleast.*Using a format which combinesentertainment, humor andinstruction, radio programs weremeasured effective in educating theaudience about modern child carepractices
*IR is more cost-effective and results in a greaterlearning effect size than textbooks or teachereducation. *It has the advantage of teaching subjects inwhich classroom teachers are deficient oruntrained. *It provides instruction for one group ofstudents while the teacher works with anothergroup.
*Radio has also been used to promotecommunity development, innovation, and otherprograms in which self-help and communityparticipation are essential. *The potential of radio to motivate listeners totake action, modify behavior, and undertakeactivities is evident. *In some cases, radio has been used effectively toadvise populations of new government policiesand to encourage discussion, feedback, andeventual support for new measures.
Radio alone can bring when used in conjunctionwith some form of interpersonal support such asdiscussion/study groups, printed materials orcontact with extension workers is very efficientand effective. Radio plays an effective educational role both asthe sole medium or in conjunction with print andgroup support. A mixture of radio and home visits by a fieldworker and an agricultural specialist workedbest.
IR can be most effective when supported bytrained facilitators, group learning, groupdiscussion (dialogues), feedback and the useof multimedia approaches. IR needs good preparation of trainingmaterials and their continuousimprovements. Group learning is more effective thanindividual learning; and that groupdiscussion is an effective method of learningfrom radio.
*The facilitator must converse with students inorder to emphasize the main points covered byradio programs as well as to provide feedbackwhere necessary. *The facilitator must ensure that programs aresupported by visual demonstrations, thatgroups are cohesive, and that discussions arecarried out effectively by employing techniquesof group discussion.
*The study centers where studentsinteract, help each other, replay programsand opportunities for practicalexperiments are important.*The study centre aids the effectiveness ofIR and acts as a link between theinstitution and the local community inwhich it is embedded.
IR can be effectively utilized by employingthe following techniques:1. *Using educators with long (andpreferably recent) experience of living inrural areas.2. *Communicating, in detail andcontinually, with the leaders of villageand learning groups where these exist.
paying careful attention to, and learning from, thework of local communities or other organizedgroups (for example, farmers, agricultural andhealth service radio broadcasters). Working through valid intermediaries such as chiefsor headmen in villages, i.e., through established andaccepted social structures. Encouraging illiterate people to communicate theirideas and concerns through trusted and bettereducated villagers, who can act as scribes if required.
*Interaction is limited; *Instructor feedback and clarification isgenerally unavailable; *The instruction is uninterruptible and notreviewable; *The pace of the lesson is fixed for allstudents; *Note-taking is difficult *No visual supports *Time for reflection on the content isminimal.
*Successful IR projects require bothcomprehensive and complex planningusing a team approach toplanning, development, andimplementation*The IR planning team needs to haveknowledge and capabilities in severaltechnical (radio), social (context), andeducational areas (curriculumdevelopment) .
1. *Make inventory and evaluation of the facilitiesshould be made: studios;broadcast, recording, equipment; classroomradios; and so on.2. *Assess capabilities of broadcast personnel andprovide training/hire specialist team.3. *Initiate planning of radio lessons by assessinglearner needs, knowledgetopic, environment, social climate, andassessment.4. *Develop lessons that consideraudience, physical environment, topic, social
*Develop lessons that consideraudience, physical environment, topic, andassessment. *Evaluation specialist or team may beemployed, to evalute project evaluating theproject. *Subject matter testing is another technical areaof expertise needed by the project team.
*Provide opportunities to listen topodcasts*Provide hands-on instruction to createpodcasts*Begin with a plan*Plan includes knowledge of topic, visualstoryboard, script, and sequencing*Provide opportunties to share podcastswith others