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Role of anesthesiologist in pre-opertive period


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Role of anesthesiologist in pre-opertive period

  1. 1. Role of anesthesiologist in pre-opertive period<br />Dr.ahmed turkistani<br />Department of anesthesia<br />Professor& chairman<br />King saud university<br />
  2. 2. <ul><li>To understand the perioperative period term.
  3. 3. To understand the objectives of preoprative visit.
  4. 4. To identify the risk factors in anesthesia.
  5. 5. To identify the lab tests needed before surgery.</li></ul>Objectives :<br />
  6. 6.
  7. 7. Stages of the Peri-Operative Period<br />Pre-Operative<br />From time of decision to have surgery until admitted into the OR theatre.<br />
  8. 8. Stages of the Peri-Operative Period<br />Intra-Operative<br />Time from entering the OR theatre to entering the Recovering Room or Post Anesthetic Care Unit (PACU)<br />
  9. 9. Stages of the Peri-Operative Period<br />Post-Operative<br />Time from leaving the RR or PACU until time of follow-up evaluation (often as out-patient)<br />
  10. 10. To educate about anesthesia , perioperative care and pain management to reduce anxiety.<br />To obtain patient&apos;s medical history and physical examination .<br />To determine which lab test or further medical consultation are needed .<br />To choose care plan guided by patient&apos;s choice and risk factors <br />Preoperative visit.<br />
  11. 11. Benefits from surgery ←-> Risk of complications<br />
  12. 12. A thorough history and physical exam.<br />Complete review of systems.<br />Organ specific issues.<br />Functional Status.<br />Habits (smoking, alcohol, drugs).<br />Medications (herbals) and allergies. <br />Anesthesia history.<br />Pre-op labs: one size does not fit all.<br />Preoperative Evaluation:<br />
  13. 13. Age <br />Obesity<br />Smoking<br />General health status<br />Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)<br />Asthma<br />Patient related risk factors(pulmonary)<br />
  14. 14. Smoking<br />Important risk factor<br />Smoking history of 40 pack years or more->↑risk of pulmonary complications<br />stopped smoking &lt; 2 months : stopped for &gt; 2 months4:1(57% : 14.5%) <br />quit smoking &gt; 6 months : never smoked = 1:1 (11.9% : 11%)<br />
  15. 15.
  16. 16. Risk Stratification<br />Revised Cardiac Risk Index <br />High risk surgery (vascular, thoracic)<br />Ischemic heart disease<br />Congestive heart failure<br />Cerebrovascular disease<br />Insulin therapy for diabetes<br />Creatinine &gt;2.0mg/dL<br />
  17. 17. Active Cardiac Conditions<br />Unstable coronary syndromes<br />Unstable or severe angina<br />Recent MI<br />Decompensated HF<br />Significant arrhythmias<br />Severe valvular disease<br />
  18. 18. Minor Cardiac Predictors<br />Advanced age (&gt;70)<br />Abnormal ECG<br />LV hypertrophy<br />LBBB<br />ST-T abnormalities<br />Rhythm other than sinus<br />Uncontrolled systemic hypertension <br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20. Surgical Risk Stratification<br />High Risk <br />Vascular (aortic and major vascular)<br />Intermediate Risk<br />Intraperitoneal and intrathoracic, carotid, head and neck, orthopedic, prostate<br />Low Risk<br />Endoscopic, superficial procedures, cataract, breast, ambulatory surgery<br />
  21. 21. Risk Stratification<br />ASA physical status<br />ASA 1 – Healthy patient without organic biochemical or psychiatric disease.<br />ASA 2- A Patient with mild systemic disease. No significant impact on daily activity. Unlikely impact on anesthesia and surgery.<br />ASA 3- Significant or severe systemic disease that limits normal activity. Significant impact on daily activity. Likely impact on anesthesia and surgery.<br />
  22. 22. Risk Stratification<br />ASA 4- Severe disease that is a constant threat to life or requires intensive therapy. Serious limitation of daily activity.<br />ASA 5- Moribund patient who is equally likely to die in the next 24 hours with or without surgery.<br />ASA 6- Brain-dead organ donor<br />“E” – added to the classifications indicates emergency surgery.<br />
  23. 23. Step #1:Is the surgery emergent?<br />yes<br />Is the surgery emergent?<br />Operating room*<br />no<br />(Next Step)<br />Consider beta-blockade, pain control<br />and other peri-operative management<br />
  24. 24. Step 2: Determine Presence of Active Cardiac Conditions<br />If none are present, proceed with surgery<br />Presence of one of these delays surgery for evaluation<br />Many patients need a cardiac cath<br />
  25. 25. Step 2<br />Unstable coronary syndromes<br />Decompensated heart failure<br />Significant arrhythmias<br />Severe valvular disease<br />
  26. 26. Step #2: Active Cardiac Conditions<br />Evaluate and treat per current guidelines<br />yes<br />Active Cardiac conditions<br />no<br />Consider Operating Room<br />(Next Step)<br />
  27. 27. Step 3: Surgery Low Risk?<br />Low risk surgery includes:<br />Endoscopic procedures<br />Superficial procedures<br />Cataract surgery<br />Breast surgery<br />Ambulatory surgery<br />Cardiac risk &lt;1%<br />Testing does not change management<br />
  28. 28. Step #3: Surgery Low Risk?<br />yes<br />Operating room<br />Low risk surgery<br />No<br />(Next Step)<br />
  29. 29.
  30. 30. Airway Evaluation<br /><ul><li>Take very seriously history of prior difficulty
  31. 31. Head and neck movement (extension)
  32. 32. Alignment of oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal axes
  33. 33. Cervical spine arthritis or trauma, burn, radiation, tumor, infection, scleroderma, short and thick neck</li></li></ul><li>Airway Evaluation<br />Jaw Movement<br />Both inter-incisor gap and anterior subluxation<br />&lt;3.5cm inter-incisor gap concerning<br />Inability to sublux lower incisors beyond upper incisors<br />Receding mandible<br />Protruding Maxillary Incisors (buck teeth)<br />
  34. 34. Airway Evaluation<br />Oropharyngeal visualization<br />Mallampati Score<br />Sitting position, protrude tongue, don’t say “AHH”<br />
  35. 35. Preoperative Testing<br />Routine preoperative testing should not be ordered.<br />Preoperative testing should be performed on a selective basis for purposes of guiding or optimizing perioperative management.<br />
  36. 36. Preoperative Testing5<br />Procedure based.<br />Low risk<br />Baseline creatinine if procedure involves contrast dye.<br />Intermediate risk<br />Base line creatinine if contrast dye or &gt;55yr of age.<br />High risk<br />CBC, lytes & S, creatinine as above.<br />PFTs for lung reduction surgery.<br />
  37. 37. Preoperative Testing<br />Disease-based indications<br />Alcohol abuse<br />CBC, ECG, lytes, LFTs, PT<br />Anemia<br />CBC<br />Bleeding disorder<br />CBC, LFTs, PT, PTT<br />Cardiovascular<br />CBC, creatinine, CXR, ECG, lytes<br />
  38. 38. Preoperative Testing<br />Disease-based indications<br />Cerebrovascular disease<br />Creatinine, glucose, ECG<br />Diabetes<br />Creatinine, electrolytes, glucose, ECG<br />Hepatic disease<br />CBC, creatinine, lytes, LFTs, PT<br />Malignancy<br />CBC, CXR<br />
  39. 39. Preoperative Testing<br />Disease-based indications<br />Pregnancy (controversial)<br />Serum B-hCG- 7 days, Upreg 3 days<br />Pulmonary disease<br />CBC, ECG, CXR<br />Renal disease<br />CBC, Cr, lytes, ECG<br />RA<br />CBC, ECG, CXR, C-spine (atlantoaxial subluxation)<br />AP C-spine, AP odontoid view and lateral flexion and extention.<br />
  40. 40. Preoperative Testing<br />Disease-based <br />Sleep apnea <br />CBC, ECG<br />Smoking &gt;40 pack year<br />CBC, ECG, CXR<br />Systemic Lupus<br />Cr, ECG, CXR<br />
  41. 41. Preoperative Testing<br />Therapy-based indications<br />Radiation therapy<br />CBC, ECG, CXR<br />Warfarin<br />PT<br />Digoxin<br />Lytes, ECG, Dig level<br />Diuretics<br />Cr, lytes, ECG<br />Steroids<br />Glucose, ECG<br />
  42. 42. <ul><li>Q & A</li>