Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Women Empowerment By Her Story is making History


Published on

Published in: Education

Women Empowerment By Her Story is making History

  1. 1. Women Empowerment <ul><li>Her Story is Making History </li></ul>FOR ENDING VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN
  2. 2. DEFINITION <ul><li>“ Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women and girls, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivations of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life”. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Violence against women and girls is on the increase. <ul><li>More violent forms, such as </li></ul><ul><li>femicide, acid attacks, ritual rapes and murders, </li></ul><ul><li>gang rapes, abductions, defilement and forced early marriages, </li></ul><ul><li>Military sexual slavery, rape as a weapon of war, </li></ul><ul><li>trafficking in women and girls and </li></ul><ul><li>ill-treatment of widows have become more widespread. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>In spite of treaties, (the Protocol to the the African Charter) conventions, legislation and policies against some cultural practices the situation of women in Africa continue to be vulnerable to harmful traditional practices and customs such as FGM and widow inheritance, which expose them to the risk of HIV and AIDSduct </li></ul>
  5. 5. There is a palpable feeling that legislation alone is not enough to achieve equality in Africa, that it is not sufficient to change perceptions, or cultures of sexism – the types of cultures which are permissive to gendered violence happening. Even with an increasing number of women in parliament in some of the countries and increasing legislation to prevent discrimination and violence on the basis of gender, a culture of masculinity prevails. Why is that? Unequal power relationships continue
  6. 6. EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN TO END VAW- WHAT CAN WE DO? <ul><li>Obtaining data on violence against women – use these to show the economic and social cost of VAW as well as emotional and psychological impact on the affected person </li></ul><ul><li>It is important that the extent, nature and root causes of such violence are well-documented. By analyzing such information, concrete steps can be taken, both legal and charitable, to reduce the occurrence of such violence and reduce its effects </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Increase access to opportunities for women empower women to avoid abusive relationships - empower women, free them to leave behind abusive relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Build capabilities of women- including physical capabilities/ create awareness/ prevention pro-grammes/ crisis counseling & support groups </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Make ending VAW every one’s concern; everyone’s business: The boys in your life need your time and energy. Your son, grandson, nephew, younger brother, your male colleague. The boys you teach, coach and mentor. All need you to help them grow into healthy men. The girls in your life what are you teaching them above all what do they see! </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>THE UN has identified violence against women and girls &quot;the most pervasive&quot; human rights violation that we know today. Statistics from the world over, paint a clear picture of the social and health consequences of violence against women. </li></ul><ul><li>According to the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), violence against women is a major cause of death and disability for women aged 16 to 44 years </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The economic costs are considerable. Such violence impoverishes not only individuals, but families, communities, and governments, and stalls economic development of each nation </li></ul>
  11. 11. How do you empower someone like this? <ul><li>Identify the individual </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in dialogue/ Reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Lead to Action </li></ul><ul><li>Is your Neighbor, your sister, your friend being abused? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you engage to facilitate empowerment? </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The answer to ending violence against women is first and foremost based on unequal power relations…The answer to end violence lies with you as it is such a complex issue </li></ul>
  13. 13. Outline of the presentation <ul><li>Facts about : </li></ul><ul><li>Place of Women in Society </li></ul><ul><li>Women in Modern Times </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Employment </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Introspection </li></ul>
  14. 14. Facts <ul><li>Population: 33,757,176 (July 2007 est.) </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic groups: Maghrebians (Arab-Berbers) by heritage, Arab or Berber by identity </li></ul><ul><li>Languages: Classical Arabic (official, though not used in daily speech), Darija-Arabic (not used in writing), Berber (spoken and written but not fully standardized), French often the language of big business, government, military and diplomacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy: (definition: age 15 and over can read and write) total population: 52.3% (male: 64.7% / female: 40.6%) (2004 census) </li></ul><ul><li>Legal system: based partly on Islamic law, French and Spanish civil law systems; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of The Moroccan Higher Council (the equivalent of the US Supreme Court). </li></ul>
  15. 15. Women's role in Moroccan society <ul><li>The women of Morocco have played a major role in its history. They have been the backbone of the nation on many occasions. It suffices to take a quick look at the internationally known Karaouiyine university, to recall that it was founded by a woman. As this introduction does not allow me to go into further details, I will limit myself to mentioning the name &quot;La Kahina&quot; to evoke her courage and strength of character. This is our vision of a role women in Moroccan society must play as time goes by. We wish she would regain her luster and glory so she may enable the rebirth of prestige and dignity to her land and people. By Said Hajji </li></ul>
  16. 16. Morocco women win rights <ul><li>The Moroccan King, Mohammed VI, has announced a landmark reform to the law over women's position in the family. The changes to the personal status code would give women greater rights on matters covering marriage and divorce. </li></ul><ul><li>BBC News, 11 October, 2003 </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Women in Modern Times </li></ul><ul><li>Education Literacy Gender gaps </li></ul><ul><li>Differences between rural and urban areas Parental preference for boys going to school Higher dropout rate among girls </li></ul>Female Male 1971 22% 46% 1991 39% 64% 2003 48% 70%
  18. 18. <ul><li>Complementary investments to increase education in Morocco </li></ul><ul><li>A study in Morocco used data from the Living Standards Measurements Survey, and a 1993 literacy study to </li></ul><ul><li>show that improved supply of school facilities in rural areas was insufficient to increase attendance and </li></ul><ul><li>attainment, particularly of females. It was concluded that complementary investments in rural infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>and productive capacity are also needed. Different investments revealed striking gender-differentiated </li></ul><ul><li>effects. It was found that investment in paved roads, rural electrification and rural water supply has a more </li></ul><ul><li>marked impact on female than male enrollment in primary schools, whilst investing in more schools, irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>and advanced crop technologies increases male but not female schooling. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Khandker et al. 1994, cited in Baden 1995b </li></ul>
  19. 19. Is There a Glass Ceiling in Morocco? Evidence from Matched Worker–Firm Data <ul><li>Several empirical studies have found larger gender pay gaps at the upper tail of the wage distribution in developed countries, the so-called glass ceiling effect. In this paper, we investigate the relevance of the glass ceiling hypothesis in Morocco using a matched worker–firm data set of more than 8,000 employees and 850 employers working in the manufacturing sector. We estimate linear and quartile earnings regressions with controls for unobserved firm heterogeneity and perform a quantity decomposition. We also focus on the within-firm gender earnings gap using information on the firms' characteristics. Our results show that the gender earnings gap is higher at the top of the distribution than at the bottom. Furthermore, the gender gap widens in the upper tail of the earnings distribution when controlling for firm fixed effects. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Women in Modern Times <ul><li>Barriers to Female Education </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty: </li></ul><ul><li>population lives below the poverty line (2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Social values and parental preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate school facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of female teachers: 29 percent at the primary level and 22 percent at the university level (1993) </li></ul><ul><li>Gender bias in curriculum </li></ul>
  21. 21. Women in Modern Times <ul><li>Employment </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to get an overall picture of employment among women in Most women work in the informal sector </li></ul><ul><li>Women accounted for only 23 percent of the total workers in the formal sector in 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>The number of female workers has increased faster than the number of male workers </li></ul><ul><li>Female unemployment rates are similar to male unemployment rates </li></ul>
  22. 22. Women in Modern Times <ul><li>Barriers to Female Employment </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical society (caste system) </li></ul><ul><li>Purdah system: the veiling and seclusion of women </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>at Workplace More prevalent in fields where male competition is high </li></ul><ul><li>Less prevalent in fields where competition is </li></ul><ul><li>low Lack of employment opportunities </li></ul>
  23. 23. Women in Modern Times <ul><li>Empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Social Empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>There is no direct relationship between education and work force participation; but may affect their participation in household decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Independence: </li></ul><ul><li>Economic independence does not imply significant improvement in social standing Culture and tradition play an important role A small fraction has opened up towards Western values </li></ul>
  24. 24. Women in Modern Times <ul><li>Economic Empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Property Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchal society </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Decision </li></ul><ul><li>Making In the household In businesses </li></ul>
  25. 25. Women in Modern Times <ul><li>Political Empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Representation in democratic institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Government reservations policy for women </li></ul><ul><li>New Constitution of 2011 </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>“ The origin of a child is a mother, a woman. ….she shows a man what sharing, caring, and loving is all about. That is the essence of a woman.&quot; Sushmita Sen, </li></ul><ul><li>Miss Universe 1994 </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>… but that is just a beginning… </li></ul>
  28. 28. Women and Legal Framework <ul><li>Women specific Legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956 </li></ul><ul><li>The Maternity Benefit Act 1961 T </li></ul><ul><li>The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961 </li></ul><ul><li>Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986 </li></ul><ul><li>The Commission of Sati (Prevention)Act, 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 </li></ul>
  29. 29. Evolution Initiatives <ul><li>Seventh Plan </li></ul><ul><li>1985- Ministry of Human Resource Development set up Department for Women and Child Development constituted in HRD Ministry </li></ul><ul><li>27 major women specific schemes identified for monitoring to assess quantum of funds/benefits flowing to women </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Eighth Plan </li></ul><ul><li>(1992-97) for the first time highlighted the need to ensure a definite flow of funds from general developmental sectors to women It commented: “ … special programmers on women should complement the general development pro grammes The latter in turn should reflect greater gender sensitivity” </li></ul>
  31. 31. Evolution Initiatives <ul><li>Eighth Plan </li></ul><ul><li>(1992-97) for the first time highlighted the need to ensure a definite flow of funds from general developmental sectors to women </li></ul><ul><li>It commented: “ … special programmer on women should complement the general development programmers The latter in turn should reflect greater gender sensitivity” </li></ul>
  32. 32. Evolution Initiatives <ul><li>Ninth Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Ninth Plan Women’s Component Plan- 30% of funds were sought to be ear-marked in all women related sectors – inter-sectoral review and multi-sector approach </li></ul><ul><li>Special vigil to be kept on the flow of the earmarked funds/benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Quantifies performance under Women’s Component Plan in Ninth Plan-Approach Paper Tenth Plan indicates 42.9% of gross budgetary support in 15 women related Ministries/Departments has gone to women </li></ul>
  33. 33. Evolution Initiatives <ul><li>Tenth Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforces commitment to gender budgeting to establish its gender-differential impact and to translate gender commitments into budgetary commitments. both preventive and post-factor action in enabling women to receive their rightful share from all the women-related general development sectors. </li></ul><ul><li>Aims at initiating immediate action in tying up the two effective concepts of Women Component Plan (WCP) and Gender Budgeting to play a complementary role to each other, and thus ensure both preventive and post-factor action in enabling women to receive their rightful share from all the women-related general development sectors. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Holistic approach to Empowerment <ul><li>Holistic approach to Empowerment Health & Nut. Education Water & San. Skills Technology Credit Political Participation Marketing Asset base </li></ul>Credit Marketing Asset base Political Participation Water & San. Health & Nut . Education Skills Technology
  35. 35. Action Areas <ul><li>Women availing services of public utilities like road transport, power, water and sanitation, telecommunication etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Training of women as highly skilled workers- top end skills </li></ul><ul><li>Research/Technology for women </li></ul><ul><li>Women in the work force </li></ul><ul><li>Asset ownership by women </li></ul><ul><li>Women as Entrepreneur s </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Implementation of Laws </li></ul><ul><li>like Equal remuneration </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum Wages </li></ul><ul><li>Factories Act </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure for women like </li></ul><ul><li>Water and sanitation at workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Creches Working Women Hostels </li></ul><ul><li>Transport services </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul>
  37. 37. To Conclude <ul><li>“ It is more important to create a general awareness’ and understanding of the problems of women’s employment in all the top policy and decision making and executive personnel. There is also the special problem facing women like the preference for male children for social and cultural reasons. This will require awareness, understanding and action. The best way to do so is to educate the children, orient the teachers, examine the text books and teaching-aids and ensure that the next generation grows up with new thinking.” (6th Five Year Plan ) </li></ul>
  38. 38. 2005-06 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) <ul><li>Gender Inequality and Women’s Empowerment </li></ul>
  39. 39. Gender Disparity in Media Exposure <ul><li>Not only are fewer women than </li></ul><ul><li>men literate but fewer are also </li></ul><ul><li>regularly exposed to media </li></ul><ul><li>Percentage of men and women age 15-19 regularly exposed to print media, TV, radio, or cinema </li></ul><ul><li>Men 88% </li></ul><ul><li>Women 71% </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Disparity 19% </li></ul>
  40. 40. The majority of employed women are engaged in agricultural work Type of worker Occupational Distribution (%) Women Men Professional 7 7 Sales 4 14 Service 7 5 Production 22 37 Agricultural 59 33 Other 2 4
  41. 41. Control over Women’s Earnings as Reported by Currently Married Women and Men Women’s report about their own earnings Men’s report about their wife’s earnings Mainly wife Husband & wife jointly Mainly husband Percent Percent Women’s report about their own earnings Men’s report about their wife’s earnings Mainly Husband Percent Husband & Wife jointly Mainly Wife
  42. 42. Are some women more likely than others to NOT participate in the use of their earnings? Percent of currently married women Age Residence Education Wealth Index
  43. 43. What are some of the other hurdles that prevent women from attaining gender equality? <ul><li>Limited freedom of movement </li></ul><ul><li>Gender norms that promote men’s control over women. </li></ul><ul><li>Wife beating </li></ul><ul><li>A husband’s right to have sex with his wife irrespective of his wife’s wishes </li></ul>
  44. 44. Percentage of women age 15-49 who are allowed to go alone to The majority of women have little freedom of movement. Only one-third go alone to all three destinations: the market, health facility and outside the village or community .
  45. 45. Percentage who agree that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife if she
  46. 46. Key Findings <ul><li>Women are disadvantaged absolutely and relative to men in terms of access to education, media exposure, and employment for cash. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of married women do not have the final say on the use of their own earnings or all other household decisions asked about. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional gender norms, particularly those concerning wife beating, remain strongly entrenched. </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>Thank You </li></ul>
  48. 48. Special Thanks <ul><li>Houda Albee </li></ul><ul><li>Jamila Chami Bradley </li></ul><ul><li>Resource : </li></ul><ul><li>Shwetketu Rastogi </li></ul><ul><li>Women and Legal Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Women specific Legislations Immoral </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956 </li></ul><ul><li>The Maternity Benefit Act 1961 </li></ul><ul><li>The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961 </li></ul><ul><li>Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986 </li></ul><ul><li>The Commission of Sati (Prevention)Act, 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 200 5 </li></ul>