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• In scientific terms, test means an instrument to
be used for accurate measurement for anything.
• A test is a specific tool, or procedure used to draw
out or elicit a response from the students in order
to gain information.
• A test is commonly defined as tool or instrument
of measurement that is used to obtain data about
a specific trait or characteristics.
• A test is a device or technique used to measure
the performance, skill level, or knowledge of a
learner on a specific subject matter.
• A test is an instrument or a tool used to make a
particular measurement. The tool may be
written, oral, mechanical, or another variation.
• Instrument use to measure the ability and skills of a
• Is a formal and systematic instrument designed to
assess the quality, ability skill and knowledge of
students by giving a set of question in uniform manner
to be answered by them to gather information about
• The collection of information on which a decision is
• Every time, a test is used it must have its score called
• To measure any thing, we need some standard scale,
questionnaire or an instrument known as test.
Measurement is not a new concept to you.
You measured your height and weight throughout your
You have read how fast athletes have run, how high some
have jumped, and how far a baseball or a golf ball has
been hit. All of these are examples of measurement.
• Measurement is process of collecting information.
• A measurement takes place when a “test” is given
and a “score” is obtained .
• The measurement is a specific sore given by an
expert every time when a test is applied.
• It is the process of collection of data on the
properties or attributes of interest during the
administration of test or by some other reliable
sources the measurement takes place.
• The process of gathering quantitative and
qualitative data of what a student can do, and
how much a student possesses.
• It is the vital component of the teaching- learning
I. Gathering of data
II. Analyzing data
• In the context of language of teaching and learning:
• Act of gathering information on a daily basis in order
to understand individual student’s learning and
• It also refers to the act of collecting information and
making judgments about a language learner’s
knowledge of the language and ability to use it.
• The use of measurement in making decisions.
• Evaluation is the process of interpreting, analyzing,
and assessing the data obtained from the test.
• Evaluation is a process of delineating, obtaining and
providing useful information for judging decision
• The statistical treatment of analysis of data as per the
purpose of the test is called evaluation.
• Evaluation is a process of education that uses data
gathered from the products and the process by
means of measurement technique.
• The evaluation assigns the worth of value to the
• Evaluation involves two steps.
1. comparison of collected data (measurement) with
2. and decision making or announcement of
evaluation on the basis of finding “how good”.
• From the meaning and definitions, it is obvious that a term
test, measurement and evaluation are interrelated. The test
are specific instrument for measurement. Administration of a
test is a process of measurement, without test,
measurement is not possible.
• Measurement is a technique necessary for evaluation. It
represent status of a certain attributes or properties and is a
Relationship between Test, Measurement and Evaluation
• Measurement describe a situation, evaluation judges its
worth of value.
• Measurement is a technique of evaluation and test are tool
• The term test, measurement and evaluation are clearly
distinct but related. Teacher obtained measures from test in
order to make fair evaluation about specific trait or
characteristics of the students.
• An evaluation often involves one or more tests and in term
a test is involved one or more measurement.
Test Measurement Assessment Evaluation
Assessment of Learning
• The purpose of this kind of assessment is usually
SUMMATIVE and is mostly done at the end of a task, unit of
• “It is designed to provide evidence of achievement to
parents, other educators, the students themselves and
sometimes to outside groups (e.g., employers, other
“Assessment of Learning is the assessment that becomes public
and results in statements or symbols about how well students
are learning. It often contributes to pivotal decisions that will
affect students’ futures. It is important, then, that the
underlying logic and measurement of assessment of learning
be credible and defensible.”
Teachers’ Roles in Assessment of Learning
• “Teachers have the responsibility of reporting student
learning accurately and fairly, based on evidence obtained
from a variety of contexts and applications. Effective
assessment of learning requires that teachers provide:
• A rationale for undertaking a particular assessment of
learning at a particular point in time.
• Clear descriptions of the intended learning.
• Processes that make it possible for students to
demonstrate their competence and skill.
Assessment for Learning
• The emphasis shifts from summative to
FORMATIVE assessment in Assessment for
• Assessment for Learning happens during the
learning, often more than once, rather than at
• Students understand exactly what they are to
learn, what is expected of them and are given
feedback and advice on how to improve their
Teachers’ Roles in Assessment for Learning
Assessment for learning occurs throughout the learning
process. It is interactive, with teachers:
• Aligning instruction
• Identifying particular learning needs of students or
• Selecting and adapting materials and resources
• Creating differentiated teaching strategies and
learning opportunities for helping individual students
move forward in their learning
• Providing immediate feedback and direction to
PRINCIPLES OF ASSESSMENT
1. Assessment should be well aligned with
• Educational standards
2. The formative assessment needs to scaffold
students in the summative assessment
3. Assessment should become more like
4. Assessment results need to be used by teachers to help
students learn better
5. Assessment is not use to threaten and intimidate students
6. The teacher should encourage the learning community to
engaged in assessment
7. Assessment is a technical competency by using
assessment to make decisions about the instruction
Standardized Vs Teacher Made Test
• It is less valid than teacher made test.
• These are not simple in construction, where the content, scoring and
interpretation all get fixed or standardized for a particular age group,
students of the same grade, at different times and at different places.
• This is valuable to the teacher.
• Universal applicability is there and are prepared by experts and cater
to all people’s requirements.
• It is less relevant for a particular situation.
• It can be carelessly planned and executed as T.M test.
• Reliability is ensured .
• All the questions in it are expertly written, properly pre-
tested, rigorously analyzed and scientifically refined.
• They are made by the teacher himself to measure the
achievement of his pupil from time to time.
• Limited area of applications; prepared by almost all the
teachers according to their requirements.
• Teacher is directly involved in test construction where he
can measure directly classroom m objectives and
particular class situation.
• This is valuable to the teacher.
• It caters to classroom or local situation.
• It can be carelessly planned and executed
• Reliability is unknown.
• Done by the teacher himself.
Teacher Made Test
Methods of Test interpretation
• Describes student performance according to a
specified domain or clearly defined learning tasks.
• Concerned with national examination and other
• Used in the assessment of vocational and
• Results are given on a pass/fail, competent/not
• Results are conclusive and usually open to review
Criterion Referenced Interpretation
Describe the student performance according to relative
position in some known group:
• A standardized aptitude and achievement tests
• Teacher made survey test
Norm Referenced Interpretation
Purpose of Assessment
• Identify what children know (knowledge)
• Identity what the children can do and how well can they do it
• Find appropriate process for students to involve them in
• Identify children’s specific needs
• Select appropriate curriculum to meet children’s individual
• Inspect the progress of children toward achieving educational goal
• Make policy regarding what is and what is not appropriate for children
• Communicate with parents to provide information about their
children’s progress and learning
• Determine how well and to what extent programs and service children
receive are beneficial and appropriate
There are two types of assessment on the basis of nature
• Maximum performance
• Typical Performance
Nature of assessment
Determines what individuals can do when performing at their
• Aptitude test
• Achievement test
Determines what individual will do under natural condition
• Personality, interest
• Observational techniques
There are two forms of assessment
1. Fixed choice test
2. Complex performance assessment
Form of Assessment
Fixed choice test
Efficient measurement of knowledge and skills,
• Standardized multiple choice test
Complex performance test
Measurement of performance in context and on
problem values in their own right
• Projects essay oral presentation
Assessment play an important role in the instruction
• Preparing instructional goals and objectives
• Preassessing learner need
• Providing relevant instruction
• Assessing the intended learning outcomes
• Using assessment result to improves leering and