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  1. 1. Zebra Imaging in Austin, Tex., sells holographic prints that at first glance look much likeordinary 2-by-3-foot pieces of plastic — until an LED flashlight is shined at them. Thenthe patterns, burned into the plastic with high-power laser beams, come to life, said AlWargo, chief executive. Out of the surface springs a model of a complicated building oran intricate network of pipes and mechanical equipment.Portable light stand collapses to fit in 8" x 20" tube. Includes turntable for print display.No special eyewear is required to view the holographic prints, which typically cost$1,000 to $3,000 each. The company has also demonstrated moving holographicdisplays in prototype at conferences, Mr. Wargo said. (It introduced color holograms inSeptember.)At the University of Arizona in Tucson, Dr. Peyghambarian created his displays using 16cameras. Software rendered the images in holographic pixels, and laser beams directedby the software recorded the information on a novel plastic that can be erased andrewritten in two seconds. Dr. Peyghambarian says that the group is working on speedingup the rate and expects versions to be in homes in 7 to 10 years. Slower versions may beuseful far sooner, for example, for long-distance medical consultation.UPSD assists team-based mission planning, visualization and interpretation of complex3D data such as intelligence and medical imagery. It permits simultaneous viewing forup to 20 participants and is interactive, allowing the image to be frozen, rotated andzoomed up to the resolution limit of the data. The holographic display enables full visualdepth capability up to 12 inches. The technology also enables realistic two-dimensionalprintouts of the 3D imagery that front line troops can take with them on missions.UPSD is based on full-parallax technology, which enables each 3D holographic object toproject the correct amount of light that the original object possessed in each direction,for full 360- degree viewing. Current 3D displays lack full-parallax and only provide 3D
  2. 2. viewing from certain angles with typically only three to four inches of visual depth.Presently UPSD is a scalable display platform that can be expanded from a six-inchdiagonal size up to a six-foot diagonal, in both monochrome and color formats.UPSD is part of DARPA’s broader efforts in 3D technology research. DARPA recentlydemonstrated a wide-area 3D LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) mapping capabilityunder DARPAs High Altitude LIDAR Operations Experiment (HALOE). HALOE isproviding forces in Afghanistan with unprecedented access to high-resolution 3D data,collected at rates orders of magnitude faster and from much longer ranges thanconventional methods. UPSDs 3D display can support the rapid exploitation of this datafor detailed mission planning in rugged, mountainous and complex urban terrain.DARPA is initially transitioning the UPSD technology to an Air Force research centerand two Army research centers to apply the technology to critical applications where the3D holographic display will provide a unique benefit.Zebra Imaging of Austin, Texas, was awarded the initial contract in 2005 and hasresearched and developed the technology.The Full Multiplex Holographic Display (FMHD) SBIR statementDevelop full-parallax digital three-dimensional (3-D) display with no moving parts,video rate imaging based on holograms or hogels, no special viewing apparatus, andusing a gesture glove interface.Visualization of inherently 3-D situations—such as deconfliction, intervisibility, airoperations, satellite constellations, terrain/building structures, and complex battlespacedata—is significantly hampered when projected onto a two-dimensional (2-D) medium.Despite many attempts based on a variety of approaches, all currently available true 3-Ddisplays have unacceptable levels of visual artifacts, are far too dim, require too muchspace and power, and have inadequate user interfaces for interacting with 3-D imagery.Stereoscopic approaches are common but require special headgear, which causesdiscomfort and nausea in many users, diminishes luminance for all viewers, andprecludes accessibility for multiple and/or unexpected viewers.Autostereoscopic (no eyewear) 3-D systems based on the sequential placement of full 2-D perspective images into horizontal viewing zones (2 to 11 common) do not provide asimple walkaround capability have uncomfortably restricted viewing zones for even oneperson, cannot be updated fast enough to prevent image jitter, and cause nausea in mostusers for use longer than 15 min. Autostereoscopic systems based on volumetricapproaches (e.g. spinning screen, laser-scanned cube, depth multiplex 2D) are too dimand too small to be useful. Autostereoscopic systems based on electronic holographicefforts have been too slow and too dim to be useful. Fortunately, recent advances inmicroprocessors, algorithms, communications, and gesture control technology have nowmade it possible to develop a compact full multiplex digital holographic display system
  3. 3. with adequate performance for use in operational applications. Computational power togenerate full multiplex holograms can be produced affordably by use of clusters ofconsumer personal computers and graphics rendering cards. The hologram pixel(sample of the 2-D hologram) should ideally be 500 nm or smaller in size and 14 bits ingrayscale for adequate discrete representation. Alternatively, basis representations ofholograms based on precompiled hologram element (hogel) basis sets require pixels of20 µm or smaller compared to the 11-20 µm pitches now in production forMicroDisplays in a variety of MEMS, OLED, and LCD technologies. Nanoelectronicfabrication techniques now being matured by the integrated circuit industry at the 45-nm node, together with diffractive optics for pixel or hogel imaging, enable fabricationof hologram pixels (hpixel) across 100 sq inch of a 16-inch wafer. The resulting sampledhologram (70-giga-hpixels) might correspond to a true 3-D resolution of severalmegavoxels in a 30º field of view (FOV). The goal of this topic is to capitalize on thisopportunity to begin to enable petabyte command and control databases to be visualizedand controlled dynamically in 3-D with look-around in all directions with artifacts thatare acceptable by long-term use operators. Gesture control of the imagery via a sensor-embedded glove is also envisioned to make user interaction with 3-D content intuitive.Solid state 3-D would enhance both ground and airborne displays, providing depthinformation in the cockpit and reducing ambiguity in ground based applications. Thetechnology developed in this topic should be focused on comfortable long-term use bymultiple simultaneous viewers in air, space, and cyberspace operations centers and beadaptable to airborne functions.PHASE I: Design an FMHD capable of presenting, at a minimum, a full parallaxmonochrome image at any pupil position in a 30º FOV that is viewable in roomillumination and controllable with a gesture (e.g. glove) interface. Develop a visualartifact reduction strategy and assess usability and comfort issues.PHASE II: Fabricate and demonstrate a solid-state FMHD display system at video ratein a laboratory environment in a single color with a wearable dataglove interface. Definea pathway for integration into a tabletop multiperson team workstation form-factor thatis scalable to wall size. Demonstrate pathways to full color, larger fields of view, andhigher resolutions.PHASE III / DUAL USE: Military application: Complex system visualization for air,space, and cyberspace situational awareness, planning, execution of missions incommand and control centers; battlespace visualization, and medical research.Commercial application: Commercial air traffic control, computer-aided design, real-time functional magnetic resonant brain activity imaging, scientific data visualization,teaching, entertainment, and medical research.
  4. 4. Apple patent reveals plans for holographic displayTelevision and cinema screens that produce holographic images withoutthe need for special glasses are being developed by computer giant Apple.Most current 3D technologies require viewers to wear glasses that allow the right and left eye seeslightly different images to produce the illusion of a three dimensional image on the screenBy Richard Gray, Science Correspondent8:30AM GMT 26 Dec 2010 103 CommentsA recently granted patent reveals that Apple, the company behind the iPod andiPhone, has been working on a new type of display screen that produces threedimensional and even holographic images without the need for glasses.The technology could be used to produce a new generation of televisions, computermonitors and cinema screens that would provide viewers with a more realisticexperience.The system relies upon a special screen that is dotted with tiny pixel-sized domesthat deflect images taken from slightly different angles into the right and left eye ofthe viewer.By presenting images taken from slightly different angles to the right and left eye,this creates a stereoscopic image that the brain interprets as three-dimensional.Apple also proposes using 3D imaging technology to track the movements ofmultiple viewers and the positions of their eyes so that the direction the image is
  5. 5. deflected by the screen can be subtly adjusted to ensure the picture remains sharpand in 3D.RELATED ARTICLESApple to teach the world to sing21 Aug 2011Apple files ‘iMac touch’ patent24 Aug 2010Forget 3D, here comes QD TV11 Dec 2011Introducing the iKey06 Mar 2010Apple to venture into 3-D11 Apr 2010The patent claims this technology would also create images that appear to beholographic because of the ability to track the observers movements.It states: "An exceptional aspect of the invention is that it can produce viewingexperiences that are virtually indistinguishable from viewing a true hologram."Such a "pseudo-holographic" image is a direct result of the ability to track andrespond to observer movements."By tracking movements of the eye locations of the observer, the left and right 3Dsub-images are adjusted in response to the tracked eye movements to produceimages that mimic a real hologram."The invention can accordingly continuously project a 3D image to the observer thatrecreates the actual viewing experience that the observer would have when movingin space around and in the vicinity of various virtual objects displayed therein. This isthe same experiential viewing effect that is afforded by a hologram."It allows the observer, for example, to move around a virtual object and top observemultiple sides from different angles."
  6. 6. Three dimensional televisions are set to be next years must have gadget as manymajor electronics manufacturers have launched 3D-ready televisions and blu-rayplayers.Sky has also launched a 3D TV channel while many movies are now being filmed in3D for viewing at the cinema.Most of these technologies require viewers to wear glasses that allow the right andleft eye see slightly different images to produce the illusion of a three dimensionalimage on the screen.Apples patent, however, has now raised speculation that the computer giant may beaiming to branch into the 3D domain by looking to abolish the need for glasses andeven go further by offering the chance for holographic films.Holographic movies, however, would require new filming techniques currently notbeing used by the movie industry to ensure actors are filmed from multiple angles.Initially the holographic displays may be used for computers and the patent suggestsa solution to allow users to walk around an object without ever having to go behind ascreen.It proposes using "holographic acceleration" – where the image moves fasterrelative to the observers own movement so they would only need to walk in a smallarc to see all the way around the holographic object.Leander Kahney, a consumer technology expert and author of the Cult of Mac, said:"At present, Apple seems an unlikely company to get into the 3D TV business, whichis struggling, but if Apple cracks the technology it could help make 3D the dominantdisplay technology. It certainly does away with the biggest problem – the 3Dglasses."As well as watching 3D movies, Apples system would have a ton of applications inscience, engineering, design and education, while 3D iPhones and iPads would bekiller."Its easy to imagine things like amazing 3D textbooks and instructional videos. 3Dgaming on an iPad would be an incredibly immersive gaming experience."holographic screen :
  7. 7. A holographic screen is a display technology that uses coated glass media for theprojection surface of a video projector. "Holographic" refers to the coating that bundleslight using formedmicrolenses. The lens design and attributes match the holographicarea. The lenses may appear similar to the fresnel lenses used inoverhead projectors.The resulting effect is that of a free-space display, because the image carrier appearsvery transparent. Additionally, the beam manipulation by the lenses can be used tomake the image appear to be floating in front of or behind the glass, rather than directlyon it. However, this display is only two-dimensional and not true three-dimensional. It isunclear if such a technology will be able to provide acceptable three-dimensionalimages in the future.Working principleThe display design can use either front or rear projection, in which one or more videoprojectors are directed at the glass plate. Each projectors beam widens as itapproaches the surface and then is bundled again by the lenses arrangement on theglass. This forms a virtual point of origin, so that the image source appears to be animaginary object somewhere close to the glass. In rear projection (the common usecase), the light passes through the glass; in front projection it is reflected.Interactive holographic screensBasic scheme of interactive holographic screensInteractive holographic screens add gesture support to holographic screens. Thesesystems contain three basic components: A projector A computer
  8. 8.  Two filmsThe computer sends the image to the projector. The projector generates light beamswhich form the image on the screen. When the user touches the screen, a tactilemembrane film reacts to these movements, generating electrical impulses that are sentback to the computer. The computer interprets the received impulses and modifies theprojected image according to the information.The projector generates the beams of light that will form the image on the screens film,which is adhered to the crystal support. These crystal lenses can be a maximum of 16millimeters (0.63 in) across. The projector is usually located behind the screen and mustbe placed a certain angle above or below the users line of sight to avoid the dazzlingthe user. Therefore, it must be trapezoidal projector, so it can compensate for thedeforming of the images at this angle of displacement.Thin plastic filmThe films are thin sheets of plastic applied to the crystal that allow both visualization andinteractivity. There are two types of films: Screen film: This film can be opaque or transparent. It is possible to work with different degrees of opacity that can vary between 90% and 98%, depending on the application (interior, exterior,natural lighting, artificial lighting, etc.). Tactile membrane: This film enables interactivity. Capacitive projected technology[1] catches user gestures and sends impulses to the computer.UsesMost initial uses of this technology are advertising-related, such as shop windows.[2] Aninteractive holographic screen can be mounted on the shop windows so that passersbycan interact with it. Non-interactive holographic screens in shop windows can becoupled with artificial vision softwareto adapt ads based on the viewers characteristics(age, sex, etc.).