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Indirect Quotation

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Indirect Quotation

  1. 1. INDIRECTQUOTATION
  2. 2. The speaker’s or writer’s wordsare reported indirectly,without quotation marks(“..........”)  
  3. 3. Indirect Quotationare sometimes calledReported Speech
  4. 4.    Indirect Quotations are introduced bythe same reporting verbsused for Direct Quotations.
  5. 5. The word ‘that’ is often addedfor clarity.
  6. 6. The tense of verbs in Indirect Quotationsis affected byThe tense of The Reporting Verb.
  7. 7. changingDirect QuotationtoIndirect Quotation
  8. 8. HOW?@#$
  9. 9. 1.omit the quotation markPamella said,“I want ice cream”I want ice cream
  10. 10. 2.add the subordinate “that”(you may omit that if the meaning is clear without it)Pamella said,I want ice creamPamella said thatI want ice cream
  11. 11. 3.change the verb tense if necessaryPamella said thatI want ice creamI wanted ice cream{Follow the sequence of tense rules}
  12. 12. 4.change pronouns(and time expression if necessary)to keep the sense of the originalPamella said thatI want ice creamShe wanted ice cream
  13. 13. “Do you want this ice cream, Pamella?”
  14. 14. past tense reporting verbmay cause changes inverbs, pronouns, and time expressionin an indirect quotationaccording to the following rules.
  15. 15. SEQUENCEof tenses rules
  16. 16. 1SIMPLE PRESENTSIMPLE PAST
  17. 17. Susan said,“The exam is at eighto’clock.”Susan said (that)the exam was at eighto’clock
  18. 18. 2Simple Past Present PerfectPast Perfect
  19. 19. She said,“We didn’t have timeto eat breakfast.”She said (that)they hadn’t had timeto eat breakfast.
  20. 20. He said,“The exam has juststarted.”He said (that)The exam had juststarted.
  21. 21. 3WILL WOULDCAN COULDMAY MIGHTMUST HAD TO
  22. 22. Sam mentioned,“Today, I will eat chinese food,and tomorrow I will eat frenchfood if I can find a goodrestaurant.”Sam mentioned thatToday he would eat chinese foodand that tomorrow he would eatfrench food if he could find agood restaurant.
  23. 23. 4TIME EXPRESSIONMAY CHANGE IFTHE MEANINGREQUIRES IT.
  24. 24. The teacher said,“You must finish thetest right now.”The teaher said thatwe had to finish thetest right then.
  25. 25. 1When the reporting verb issimple present, presentperfect, or future,the verb tense in the quotationDOES NOT CHANGE.1
  26. 26. He says, “I can finish it today.”He says that he can finish ittoday.
  27. 27. When the reporting phrase isaccording to,the verb tenseDOES NOT CHANGE.2
  28. 28. The lawyer said, “My client isinnocent.”According to the lawyer, his client isinnocent.
  29. 29. When the quoted information isa fact or a general truth,the verb tenseDOES NOT CHANGE3
  30. 30. He said, “Water boils at a lowertemperature in the mountains.”He said that water boils at a lowertemperature in the mountains.
  31. 31. Changingdirect quotationtoindirect quotation
  32. 32. 1.  omit the quotation marks.2.  add the subordinator ‘that’3.  change the verb tense4.  change pronouns and timeexpression.
  33. 33. Sequence oftense rules
  34. 34. Simple present Simple pastSimple past present perfectPast perfectWill, can,may, mustWould, could,might, had toTime expression(right now)Right then
  35. 35. exception
  36. 36. The verb tense in quotationmark DOES NOT changeWhen ...
  37. 37. ....the reporting verb is simple present,present perfect, or future...the reporting verb is according to...the quoted information is a fact orgeneral truth.
  38. 38. THANK YOU,Friends@alissafatma I alissafatma@gmail.com

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