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Clinical nutrition
with refer to some metabolic disorders
Clinical nutrition
Clinical nutrition can be defined as the dietary management of clinically ill animals.
Or
The use of fe...
Clinical nutrition
Health Reproduction Production
The basic principles of clinical
nutrition
Nutritional requirement Nutri...
Carbohydrates
Water
Quantity
Quality
Quality
• Nutrient requirements differ acc. To :
1. Age
2. Level of production
3. Current and/or desired body condition
4. Breed
5...
Animal feed
(Diet)
Dry matter DM
( roughage or concentrate )
Inorganic
Mineral
Organic
Vitamins Carbohydrates Proteins Fat...
Water
water
• Water is generally not discussed in
great detail because beef cattle
generally have free access to water.
• Water ...
Water intake
• Animal’s requirements for
water are proportional to
energy consumption; 1 ml of
water for every kcal of
met...
Water related disorders
Decrease
water intake
Increase
water loss
Water born disease
Poor quality water
o Hardness
o pH deviation
o Contamination
Fertilizer
Fecal material
Crop residue
Decrease water intake
...
excessive water loss
Water born disease
• Water act as a vector for a
lot of diseases that affect
cattle such as FMD , LSD ,
Cryptosporidiosis ...
Energy is not actually a nutrient, but it is contained within protein, carbohydrates and fats.
For practical purposes, ene...
Energy is the most critical consideration in animal nutrition.
Energy present in two states
Kinetic energy is the energy
o...
Gross energy GE obtained from whole feed
Digestible energy DE
UE + Gas
10%
Metabolized energy ME
Heat 20%
Net energy NE
NE...
For an example
• Each kilogram of CPC
dairy cattle feed 16%
give 1.99 Mcal as NEl
• kg feed = 1990 Kcal
• Each kilogram of...
Energy
 Obesity predisposes to ketosis and fatty
liver in recently calved cattle
 This may exacerbate chronic lameness.
...
Ingestion of large amount of concentrates
Degradable proteins
histamine
Peripheral vasodilatation
Decrease
blood
pressure
...
Energy related disorders
Obesity Laminitis
Ketosis Emaciation
Obesity
• High body score due to high
concentrate level in ration
leading to high energy
deposited as fat.
• Predisposing ...
laminitis
• Laminitis may be due
obesity as high weight of
animal press on feet of
animal specially on hard
ground.
• Lami...
ketosis
• Common after calving (early lactation)
• Insufficient Energy as energy demand.
• Decrease glucose level leading ...
emaciation
• loss of weight and body
fat .
• Cause : negative energy
balance , consequence
to ketosis
• Treatment : correc...
Mineral
• compounds needed for
structural integrity,
metabolic function and
immune function.
• They are classified as
macr...
Minerals related disorders
Hypocalcaemia Hypomagnesaemia
Hypophosphatemia Retained placenta
Udder edema White muscle disea...
Hypocalcaemia
• “ Milk fever “
• Due to high calcium
demand and Low blood
calcium. After calving.
• Metabolic disorder not...
Hypomagnesaemia
• “ grass tetany “
• Due to grazing lush
grass, Low Mg, High K,
N Interferes with
absorption in digestive
...
Hypophosphatemia
• Post parturient Hb urea
• A condition in which the
level of phosphorus in
blood is too low.
• Common in...
Retained placenta
• Normally, the membranes
should be expelled in from
half an hour to 4 or 5 hours
after the birth of the...
Udder edema
• Heifers with edema retain fluids in the
intracellular spaces of mammary tissue,
leading to swelling of the u...
White muscle disease
• It is normally is seen in young
calves and is associated with
deficiencies of selenium or
vitamin E...
Vitamins
• Vitamins are micronutrients
because they are required in
small quantities in the digesta.
• In general, vitamin...
Vitamins related disorders
deficiency or lack of a vitamin in the food. Vitamin excess may result in serious disease.
Vit. A
deficiencysource
• adequate green food leads
to abortion or the birth of
weak, blind calves, or of
those suffering ...
Vit. D
deficiencysource
The absence of this vitamin
causes rickets.
• (calciferol),
is the anti-rachitic principle
found i...
Vit. E
deficiencysource
1. It is necessary for fertility.
2. Vitamin E deficiency is
associated with muscular
dystrophy.
3...
Vit. K
deficiencysource
concerned with the formation
of PROTHROMBIN, and hence
regarded as ‘the antiinternal-
haemorrhage ...
Vit. C
deficiencySource
Most animals can produce sufficient vitamin C
for their own requirements
some cases of infertility...
Vit. B complex
deficiencySource
All those vitamins can be synthesized in rumen
Vitamins of the B complex are
mostly synthe...
Good nutritional management guidelines to
keep metabolic disease low
 Feed a ration balanced for protein, energy,
fiber, ...
Clinical nutrition in cattle
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Clinical nutrition in cattle

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simple slide about clinical nutrition in cattle with refer to some metabolic disorders and nutritional deficincies

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Clinical nutrition in cattle

  1. 1. Clinical nutrition with refer to some metabolic disorders
  2. 2. Clinical nutrition Clinical nutrition can be defined as the dietary management of clinically ill animals. Or The use of feed and nutritional supplements in a way to enhance health and prevent disease The primary goal of clinical nutrition optimize nutrient intake minimize catabolism maximize immunity
  3. 3. Clinical nutrition Health Reproduction Production The basic principles of clinical nutrition Nutritional requirement Nutritional management In related to
  4. 4. Carbohydrates Water Quantity Quality Quality
  5. 5. • Nutrient requirements differ acc. To : 1. Age 2. Level of production 3. Current and/or desired body condition 4. Breed 5. Physiology • Lactation • Gestation 6. Pasture activity 7. Terrain 8. Pest load 9. Feed Additives • Ionophore 10.Environment • Temperature • Season
  6. 6. Animal feed (Diet) Dry matter DM ( roughage or concentrate ) Inorganic Mineral Organic Vitamins Carbohydrates Proteins Fat Water Energy
  7. 7. Water
  8. 8. water • Water is generally not discussed in great detail because beef cattle generally have free access to water. • Water is one of the most important essential nutrients. Without good – quality water, production rapidly declined. • Water functions : 1. important to ensure minerals do not exceed toxic levels or affect animal performance. 2. Important for digestive process. 3. Important for milk production. 4. Important for thermal regulation.
  9. 9. Water intake • Animal’s requirements for water are proportional to energy consumption; 1 ml of water for every kcal of metabolizable energy used. • Lactation and high levels of minerals in water and feed also tend to increase water intake Gallon /day Litre /day Animal 6.5-1726-66Beef cattle 9.5-2838-110Dairy cattle
  10. 10. Water related disorders Decrease water intake Increase water loss Water born disease
  11. 11. Poor quality water o Hardness o pH deviation o Contamination Fertilizer Fecal material Crop residue Decrease water intake • On average, a dairy cow will consume 25 gallons of water each day. • Decrease milk production. • reduce health status. decreased producer profitability. Decrease water intake
  12. 12. excessive water loss
  13. 13. Water born disease • Water act as a vector for a lot of diseases that affect cattle such as FMD , LSD , Cryptosporidiosis ..etc. of long list of harmful fatal diseases. • So water must undergo high level of hygiene and biosecurity through cleaning, disinfection and frequented analysis
  14. 14. Energy is not actually a nutrient, but it is contained within protein, carbohydrates and fats. For practical purposes, energy will be considered a nutrient. Energy
  15. 15. Energy is the most critical consideration in animal nutrition. Energy present in two states Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. This energy is actively engaged in doing work. Potential energy is stored. The chemical energy in nutrient molecules is an example. • It is measured as heat expressed as kilocalories (kcal)or mega calories (Mcal) • Kcal = 1000 calories • Mcal = 1000 kcal
  16. 16. Gross energy GE obtained from whole feed Digestible energy DE UE + Gas 10% Metabolized energy ME Heat 20% Net energy NE NEp(production) NEw (work) NEl (milk) NEr (pregnancy) NEg (growth) NEm(maintenance) HaHb FE 30%
  17. 17. For an example • Each kilogram of CPC dairy cattle feed 16% give 1.99 Mcal as NEl • kg feed = 1990 Kcal • Each kilogram of CPC fattening grower 14% give 1.25 Mcal as NEg • Kg feed = 1250 Kcal
  18. 18. Energy  Obesity predisposes to ketosis and fatty liver in recently calved cattle  This may exacerbate chronic lameness.  Reduces fitness for work.  There is reduced reproductive efficiency in both males and females.  Dystocia is more likely.  Drop in production .  loss of weight ( emaciation )  Animals die when they have lost about 25- 30% of normal body weight.  Death is thought to be due to protein depletion and loss of respiratory and cardiac muscle function.  Energy restriction delays puberty.  In adults it reduces estrus behavior, ovulation rates and libido. Conception and birth rates fall.
  19. 19. Ingestion of large amount of concentrates Degradable proteins histamine Peripheral vasodilatation Decrease blood pressure Vasodilatation of coronary blood vessels Decrease blood flow to GIT Dullness laminitis Gastric hypomotility Starch Lactic acid Acidic ruminal contents Inhibition to the small intestine Irritation to the large intestine diarrhea dehydration Increase osmolarity of ruminal contents Destruction of ruminal cell wall Cidal effect on g-ve bacteria and protozoa Destruction of ruminal bacteria and protozoa Passage of fusobacterium necrophorum to blood stream Liver abscess Withdrawal of blood water into rumen
  20. 20. Energy related disorders Obesity Laminitis Ketosis Emaciation
  21. 21. Obesity • High body score due to high concentrate level in ration leading to high energy deposited as fat. • Predisposing to many problems laminitis, dystocia, ketosis, low fertility rate, fatty liver syndrome
  22. 22. laminitis • Laminitis may be due obesity as high weight of animal press on feet of animal specially on hard ground. • Laminitis may be due to excessive production of histamine leading to vasodilatation of blood vessels of feet pressing on sensitive lamellae .
  23. 23. ketosis • Common after calving (early lactation) • Insufficient Energy as energy demand. • Decrease glucose level leading to fat utilization leading to increase ketone bodies in blood • Signs: loss of appetite , decrease milk production , dullness , acetone breath odor
  24. 24. emaciation • loss of weight and body fat . • Cause : negative energy balance , consequence to ketosis • Treatment : correct the cause
  25. 25. Mineral • compounds needed for structural integrity, metabolic function and immune function. • They are classified as macro minerals or trace minerals depending on the amounts needed. micromacro Fe I Se Cu Co Zn Mn Ca Na Mg K Cl P S
  26. 26. Minerals related disorders Hypocalcaemia Hypomagnesaemia Hypophosphatemia Retained placenta Udder edema White muscle disease
  27. 27. Hypocalcaemia • “ Milk fever “ • Due to high calcium demand and Low blood calcium. After calving. • Metabolic disorder not nutritional disorder. • Symptoms pass through 3 stages . Begin with anorexia then sternal recumbency and finally lateral recumbency and coma. • Treatment : calcium injection
  28. 28. Hypomagnesaemia • “ grass tetany “ • Due to grazing lush grass, Low Mg, High K, N Interferes with absorption in digestive tract. • Symptoms : unable to stand , stiff muscle convulsions then death • Treatment : Mg supplement
  29. 29. Hypophosphatemia • Post parturient Hb urea • A condition in which the level of phosphorus in blood is too low. • Common in high producing dairy cows after parturition • Signs : – Hb urea , anorexia , jaundice • Treatment : – Sodium acid phosphate injection – Add bran to ration
  30. 30. Retained placenta • Normally, the membranes should be expelled in from half an hour to 4 or 5 hours after the birth of the calf. • Causes : many causes leads to retained placenta but from nutritional aspect , retention of placentas is associated with a selenium deficiency. • Treatment : hormonally
  31. 31. Udder edema • Heifers with edema retain fluids in the intracellular spaces of mammary tissue, leading to swelling of the udder and teats that sometimes extends into the abdomen. • Causes: Excessive sodium and potassium. • Symptoms : 1. Tenderness and distended shape of teats. 2. Milk letdown. 3. increase the risk of mastitis. 4. Severe swelling can do permanent damage to the connective tissue that supports the udder. • Prevent : keeping sodium below 0.15 % of the diet and potassium below 1.4 % of the diet during the last three weeks before calving .
  32. 32. White muscle disease • It is normally is seen in young calves and is associated with deficiencies of selenium or vitamin E, or both. • Calves affected by the congenital form usually die within 2-3 days of birth due to cardiac muscle degeneration. • Treatment : Cattle affected by white muscle disease have been treated with sodium selenite and vitamin E. • Prevention: cows are given selenium, usually as sodium selenite four weeks before calving.
  33. 33. Vitamins • Vitamins are micronutrients because they are required in small quantities in the digesta. • In general, vitamins function metabolically either as coenzymes or as hormones. • Absorption is usually limited to the small intestine. • Vitamins can be grouped into two categories, fat soluble and water soluble. Water soluble vitaminsFat soluble vitamins • C • B complex (Niacin, Thiamin, B12, Choline, Biotin ) • A • D • E • K • Can be synthesized by rumen microbes • Must be furnished in diet except vit K • Excess secreted with urine • Excess can be stored
  34. 34. Vitamins related disorders deficiency or lack of a vitamin in the food. Vitamin excess may result in serious disease.
  35. 35. Vit. A deficiencysource • adequate green food leads to abortion or the birth of weak, blind calves, or of those suffering from diarrhea which die within a few days. • Corneal lesions and blindness may also result in growing cattle. Carrots and green foods
  36. 36. Vit. D deficiencysource The absence of this vitamin causes rickets. • (calciferol), is the anti-rachitic principle found in cod-liver oil and cow’s milk.
  37. 37. Vit. E deficiencysource 1. It is necessary for fertility. 2. Vitamin E deficiency is associated with muscular dystrophy. 3. Its absence from a diet has been shown to cause sterility in rats by inducing firstly the death, and later the absorption, of the embryos. (tocopherol) This vitamin is found in oil of seeds and milk .
  38. 38. Vit. K deficiencysource concerned with the formation of PROTHROMBIN, and hence regarded as ‘the antiinternal- haemorrhage factor’ so increase bleeding time • Present in alfalfa. • Synthetic preparations are available
  39. 39. Vit. C deficiencySource Most animals can produce sufficient vitamin C for their own requirements some cases of infertility may, it is believed, be due to a deficiency, and some cases of navel-ill benefit, it is said, from vitamin C treatment. In hot weather and other stressful situations, additional vitamin C may be needed for all animals. (ascorbic acid) it is found in the juices of most fruits and vegetables.
  40. 40. Vit. B complex deficiencySource All those vitamins can be synthesized in rumen Vitamins of the B complex are mostly synthesized in the rumen, but in the newborn calf a deficiency may occur. this deficiency include loss of appetite, a staggering gait, and muscular spasms. Vitamin B1 (thiamin) is present in the husks of cereal grains Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) present in the husks of cereal grains and milk Vitamin B3 (pantothenic acid). Necessary for skin health, and growth. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)yeast and cereals, is important for growth and protein metabolism. Vitamin Bl2 is the anti-pernicious anemia Biotin, formerly known as vitamin H, is another of the B group of vitamins. It is necessary for the health of skin and hoof
  41. 41. Good nutritional management guidelines to keep metabolic disease low  Feed a ration balanced for protein, energy, fiber, vitamins and minerals.  Group cows according to production and adjust body condition accordingly during lactation.  Dry cows off at a 3.5 body condition score, the desired score for the dry period and at weaning. Maintain this condition throughout the dry period, avoiding the fat cow syndrome and related metabolic disorders.  Provide exercise for dry cows.  Maintain a balance of forage-to-concentrate in the total ration after calving to maximize intake but to prevent digestive upsets during adaptation to the peak lactation ration.  Feed grass hay or pasture to dry cows to minimize calcium intake to prevent milk fever.  Limit grain feeding prior to calving to about 0.5 kg increase per day starting about 15 days ahead of calving. By the 15th day you’ll be feeding 6 kg.  Limit corn silage fed to dry cows to 15-20 kg daily, and feed 5 kg of grass hay or equivalent forage.  Limit concentrate feeding after peak lactation and conception have occurred.  Maintain a 12- to 13-month calving interval to avoid long dry periods by providing good health and nutrition measures and expert reproductive practices.

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