SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 20
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
June 2nd , 2014
UNIT 2
Yes / No questions (closed
questions)WITH BE
In English, there are two basic types of questions: Yes / No questions and Wh-
questions. Yes / No questions are also called closed questions because there
are only two possible responses: Yes or No. When forming a Yes / No question,
it must include one of these verbs: BE, DO, HAVE, or a modal verb. It is
impossible to ask a Yes / No question without one of these verbs.
correct incorrect
Are elections next year? Elections next year?
Does he want to stay? He want to stay?
Have the boys eaten? The boys eaten?
Can the dog swim? The dog swim?
Use the verb BE to ask Yes / No questions about the identity or description of a
person, place, or thing.
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
question response
Am I your friend? Yes. / Yes, you are. / Yes, you are my friend.
Is this a good
restaurant?
No. / No, it is not. / No, it is not a good restaurant.
Are these islands
Greek?
Yes. / Yes, they are. / Yes, these islands are
Greek.
Was his idea
interesting?
No. / No, it wasn’t. / No, his idea was not
interesting.
Were they happy? Yes. / Yes, they were. / Yes, they were happy.
Note that the response can be short (Yes. / No.), or long: Yes or No followed by
the subject and verb.
Use the verb BE with a preposition to ask Yes / No questions about a present or
past location.
question response
Am I at the correct location? No. / No, you aren’t.
Are the keys under the books? No. / No, they are not.
Was his house on an island? Yes. / Yes, it was.
Were the demonstrations in the center of town? No. / No, they weren’t.
Use the verb BE to ask a Yes / No question about a current activity or situation.
This requires the present progressive: BE + (verb+ing).
question response
Am I going with you and Tom? Yes. / Yes, you are.
Is she working today? No. / No, she isn’t.
Are we seeing a play tomorrow? Yes. / Yes, we are.
Use the verb BE to ask a Yes / No question about a past activity or situation.
This requires the past progressive: WAS / WERE + (verb+ing).
question response
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
Was it raining? Yes. / Yes, it was.
Were they playing? No. / No, they weren’t.
Use the verb BE to ask a Yes / No question with the passive voice.
question response
Is gold mined in Canada? Yes. / Yes it is.
Are flowers grown here? No. / No, they are not.
Was the book read? Yes. / Yes, it was.
http://www.elearnenglishlanguage.com/blog/learn-english/grammar/questions-yes-no/
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
June 5th , 2014
WH Question Words
We use question words to ask certain types of questions (question word
questions). We often refer to them as WH words because they include the
letters WH (for example WHY, HOW).
Question
Word
Function Example
what asking for information
about something
What is your
name?
asking for repetition or
confirmation
What? I can't
hear you.
You did what?
what...for asking for a reason,
asking why
What did you
do that for?
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
when asking about time When did he
leave?
where asking in or at what
place or position
Where do they
live?
which asking about choice Which colour do
you want?
who asking what or which
person or people
(subject)
Who opened
the door?
whom asking what or which
person or people
(object)
Whom did you
see?
whose asking about
ownership
Whose are
these keys?
Whose turn is
it?
why asking for reason,
asking what...for
Why do you say
that?
why don't making a suggestion Why don't I
help you?
how asking about manner How does this
work?
asking about condition
or quality
How was your
exam?
how +
adj/adv
asking about extent or
degree
see examples
below
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
how far distance How far is
Pattaya from
Bangkok?
how long length (time or space) How long will it
take?
how many quantity (countable) How many cars
are there?
how much quantity (uncountable) How much
money do you
have?
how old age How old are
you?
how come
(informal)
asking for reason,
asking why
How come I
can't see her?
http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/wh-question-words.htm
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
June 10th , 2014
Infinitives
To help the poor people of the world is a noble goal.
In the above sentence, which words form the infinitive? To help. An infinitive
is the base form of a verb with to. Here are some more infinitives:
To sleep
To wash
To love
An infinitive phrase is a group of words with an infinitive (it is NOT the whole
sentence). Again, looking at the above example, what is the infinitive
phrase? To help the poor people of the world.
book recommendation
Grammar Tests and Exercises (with all
the answers and explanations!)
Here's help for anyone who has something
to say or write but has difficulty doing so.
Better Grammar in 30 Minutes features
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
thorough coverage of key grammar skills,
clear explanations with a minimum of
grammatical terms and an abundance of
exercises and activities to help reinforce
new skill development. An answer key in
the back encourages readers to work at
their own pace. Click here for more
information.
Infinitives and infinitive phrases can be both subjects and objects in
sentences. Take a look at these examples:
SUBJECT
To study hard will increase your chances
of getting into college.
OBJECT Kathy wants to study with her friends.
There are some verbs that are followed only by infinitives. For example,
Hesitate
She didn’t hesitate to tell the boss that
some employees were stealing office
supplies.
Offer
The Martin Family offered to watch their
neighbor’s dog for the whole week.
Promise
The school promised to help me find an
apartment.
Want
We want to visit all of the historic sites
in Tehran.
These words are rarely followed by gerunds (nouns that look like -ing ending
verbs).
For a list of verbs that are followed by
infinitives, click here.
For a list of adjectives followed by
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
infinitives, click here.
For a list of verbs followed by infinitives +
object, click here.
For a list of verbs that are followed by
gerunds, click here.
Students are often confused about this. When should I use infinitives? When
should I use gerunds? There are some situations when BOTH an infinitive and
gerund can be used with no change in meaning. For example,
The children like to go to the
zoo.
The children like going to the
zoo.
These two sentences have the same meaning.
For some other verbs, there is a difference in meaning:
Example Meaning
GERUND
Louise
stoppedsmoking.
She doesn’t
smoke
anymore.
INFINITIVE
Louise
stopped to
smoke.
She stopped
doing an
activity
because she
wanted to
smoke.
So, now you may want to ask, “What’s the difference between infinitives and
gerunds?” That’s a good question. We are glad you asked!
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
Though there are always exceptions to the following, here are two suggestions
that will help you distinguish the difference between infinitives and gerunds:
http://www.myenglishteacher.net/infinitives.html
June 16h , 2014
GERUNDS
This looks exactly the same as a present participle, and for this reason it
is now common to call both forms 'the -ing form'. Howeverit is useful to
understand the difference between the two. The gerund always has the
same function as a noun (although it looks like a verb), so it can be used:
a. as the subject of the sentence:
• Eating people is wrong.
• Hunting tigers is dangerous.
• Flying makes me nervous.
c. after prepositions. The gerund must be used when a verb comes after a
preposition:
• Can you sneeze without opening your mouth?
• She is good at painting.
• They're keen on windsurfing.
• She avoided him by walking on the opposite side of the road.
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
• We arrived in Madrid after driving all night.
• My father decided against postponing his trip to Hungary.
This is also true of certain expressions ending in a preposition, e.g. in spite of,
there's no point in..:
• There's no point in waiting.
• In spite of missing the train, we arrived on time.
d. after a number of 'phrasal verbs' which are composed of a verb +
preposition/adverb
Example:
to look forward to, to give up, to be for/against, to take to, to put off, to keep on:
• I look forward to hearing from you soon. (at the end of a letter)
• When are you going to give up smoking?
• She always puts off going to the dentist.
• He kept on asking for money.
http://www.edufind.com/english/grammar/gerund.php
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
June 20h , 2014
Using Gerunds and Infinitives
Gerunds and infinitives are verb forms that can take the place of a noun in a
sentence. The following guidelines and lists will help you figure out whether a
gerund or infinitive is needed.
Following a verb (gerund or infinitive)
Both gerunds and infinitives can replace a noun as the object of a verb.
Whether you use a gerund or an infinitive depends on the main verb in the
sentence. Consult the lists below to find out which form to use following which
verbs.
I expect to have the report done by Friday. [INFINITIVE]
I anticipate having the report done by Friday. [GERUND]
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
Some common verbs followed by a gerund (note that phrasal verbs, marked
here with *, always fall into this category):
acknowledge She acknowledged receiving assistance.
* accuse of He was accused of smuggling contraband
goods.
admit They admitted falsifying the data.
advise The author advises undertaking further
study.
anticipate He anticipates having trouble with his
supervisor.
appreciate I appreciated having a chance to read your
draft.
avoid He avoided answering my question.
complete I finally completed writing my thesis.
consider They will consider granting you money.
defer She deferred writing her report.
delay We delayed reporting the results until we
were sure.
deny They denied copying the information.
discuss They discussed running the experiments
again.
entail This review procedure entails repeating the
test.
* look after He will look after mailing the tickets.
* insist on He insisted on proofreading the article again.
involve This procedure involves testing each sample
twice.
justify My results justify taking drastic action.
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
mention The author mentions seeing this event.
* plan on They had planned on attending the
conference.
postpone The committee has postponed writing the
report.
recall I cannot recall getting those results before.
resent He resented spending so much time on the
project.
recommend She recommends reading Marx.
resist The writer resists giving any easy answers.
risk She risks losing her viewing time.
sanction They will not sanction copying without
permission.
suggest I suggest repeating the experiment.
* take care of He will take care of sending it to you.
tolerate She can't tolerate waiting for results.
Some common verbs followed by an infinitive
afford We cannot afford to hesitate.
agree The professors agreed to disagree.
appear The results appear to support your theory.
arrange They had arranged to meet at noon.
beg I beg to differ with you.
care Would you care to respond?
claim She claims to have new data.
consent Will you consent to run for office?
decide When did he decide to withdraw?
demand I demand to see the results of the survey.
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
deserve She deserves to have a fair hearing.
expect The committee expects to decide by tomorrow.
fail The trial failed to confirm his hypothesis.
hesitate I hesitate to try the experiment again.
hope What do you hope to accomplish?
learn We have learned to proceed with caution.
manage How did she manage to find the solution?
neglect The author neglected to provide an index.
need Do we need to find new subjects?
offer We could offer to change the time of the
meeting.
plan They had planned to attend the conference.
prepare He was not prepared to give a lecture.
pretend I do not pretend to know the answer.
promise They promise to demonstrate the new
equipment.
refuse She refused to cooperate any longer.
seem Something seems to be wrong with your design.
struggle We struggled to understand her point of view.
swear He swears to tell the truth.
threaten The team threatened to stop their research.
volunteer Will you volunteer to lead the group?
wait We could not wait to hear the outcome.
want She did not want to go first.
wish Do you wish to participate?
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/infinitive-gerund
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
June 26h , 2014
EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY:
TOO
Too is used before adjectives and adverbs. Too is negative; we use it too mean
there is more or less than we need/want. Too can be used with infinitive + to
after the adjective/adverb. Use for + someone/something to explain who/what
we mean.
"It's too noisy in here. Let's go outside." (too + adjective)
"My soup is too hot to drink." (too + adjective + to + infinitive)
"This is too difficult for me to understand." (too + adjective + for
someone/something)
http://w w w .ecenglish.com/learnenglish/lessons/very-too-and-enough
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
July 2nd , 2014
ENOUGH
Enough expresses that something is adequate, within what is desirable. The
expression is complemented by an infinitive. The infinitive may include a
subject introduced: by, for. [For her] to do.
 Jill is old enough to drive. (She can / may drive.)
 The car is simple enough for her to drive. (She can drive it.)
 The driving test is easy enough for her to pass. (She can pass it.)
http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=3110
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
July 8th , 2014
PHRASAL VERBS
Phrasal verbs are usually two-word phrases consisting of verb + adverb or verb
+ preposition. Think of them as you would any other English vocabulary. Study
them as you come across them, rather than trying to memorize many at once.
Use the list below as a reference guide when you find an expression that you
don't recognize. The examples will help you understand the meanings. If you
think of each phrasal verb as a separate verb with a specific meaning, you will
be able to remember it more easily. Like many other verbs, phrasal verbs often
have more than one meaning.
As well as learning their meanings, you need to
learn how to use phrasal verbs.
Verb Meaning Example
ask someone out invite on
a date
Brian asked Judy out
to dinner and a
movie.
ask around ask many
people
I asked around but
nobody has seen my
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
the same
question
wallet.
add up
to something
equal Your purchases add
up to$205.32.
back something up reverse You'll have to back
upyour car so that I
can get out.
back someone up support My
wife backed me upo
ver my decision to
quit my job.
blow up explode The racing car blew
upafter it crashed
into the fence.
blow something up add air We have to blow 50
balloons up for the
party.
break down stop
functionin
g
(vehicle,
machine)
Our car broke
down at the side of
the highway in the
snowstorm.
break down get upset The woman broke
downwhen the police
told her that her son
had died.
break somethingdo
wn
divide
into
smaller
parts
Our
teacher broke the
final
project down into
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI
ALISON VARELA
three separate parts.
http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/phrasal-verbs-list.htm

More Related Content

What's hot

Intermediate level Grammar Review
Intermediate level   Grammar ReviewIntermediate level   Grammar Review
Intermediate level Grammar Reviewannaflorence
 
تعلم . قواعد الغة الانجليزية Learn english grammar
تعلم . قواعد الغة الانجليزية Learn english grammar تعلم . قواعد الغة الانجليزية Learn english grammar
تعلم . قواعد الغة الانجليزية Learn english grammar Hussein El Hawi
 
English Grammar Review
English Grammar ReviewEnglish Grammar Review
English Grammar Reviewmctf2010
 
best methods for learning english grammer
best methods for learning english grammerbest methods for learning english grammer
best methods for learning english grammervidyabhawan school
 
Grammar notes UPSR
Grammar notes UPSRGrammar notes UPSR
Grammar notes UPSRfiona210
 
Basic grammar gr8 ambitionz
Basic grammar   gr8 ambitionzBasic grammar   gr8 ambitionz
Basic grammar gr8 ambitionzactivity4xtra
 
Morphology about-adjectives
Morphology about-adjectivesMorphology about-adjectives
Morphology about-adjectivesHarry Gatdula
 
COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR III (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR III (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR III (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR III (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)Videoconferencias UTPL
 
English grammar 1 powerpoint level 1
English grammar 1 powerpoint level 1English grammar 1 powerpoint level 1
English grammar 1 powerpoint level 1FINAFELIP
 
Basics of English Grammar
Basics of English GrammarBasics of English Grammar
Basics of English GrammarKarina Salcedo
 

What's hot (17)

Grammar verbs
Grammar verbsGrammar verbs
Grammar verbs
 
Intermediate level Grammar Review
Intermediate level   Grammar ReviewIntermediate level   Grammar Review
Intermediate level Grammar Review
 
تعلم . قواعد الغة الانجليزية Learn english grammar
تعلم . قواعد الغة الانجليزية Learn english grammar تعلم . قواعد الغة الانجليزية Learn english grammar
تعلم . قواعد الغة الانجليزية Learn english grammar
 
Junio - GRAMMAR
Junio - GRAMMARJunio - GRAMMAR
Junio - GRAMMAR
 
Basics of Grammar edited
Basics of Grammar   editedBasics of Grammar   edited
Basics of Grammar edited
 
English Grammar Review
English Grammar ReviewEnglish Grammar Review
English Grammar Review
 
English Grammar Part 2
English Grammar Part 2English Grammar Part 2
English Grammar Part 2
 
best methods for learning english grammer
best methods for learning english grammerbest methods for learning english grammer
best methods for learning english grammer
 
Parts of speech
Parts of speechParts of speech
Parts of speech
 
Grammar notes UPSR
Grammar notes UPSRGrammar notes UPSR
Grammar notes UPSR
 
Basic grammar gr8 ambitionz
Basic grammar   gr8 ambitionzBasic grammar   gr8 ambitionz
Basic grammar gr8 ambitionz
 
Verb patterns
Verb patternsVerb patterns
Verb patterns
 
Morphology about-adjectives
Morphology about-adjectivesMorphology about-adjectives
Morphology about-adjectives
 
COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR III (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR III (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR III (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR III (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
 
English grammar 1 powerpoint level 1
English grammar 1 powerpoint level 1English grammar 1 powerpoint level 1
English grammar 1 powerpoint level 1
 
Basics of English Grammar
Basics of English GrammarBasics of English Grammar
Basics of English Grammar
 
Adjectives
AdjectivesAdjectives
Adjectives
 

Viewers also liked

Viewers also liked (8)

Censo 2012
Censo 2012Censo 2012
Censo 2012
 
Marketing(1)
Marketing(1)Marketing(1)
Marketing(1)
 
Paris
Paris Paris
Paris
 
White7e ppt ch16
White7e ppt ch16White7e ppt ch16
White7e ppt ch16
 
Trabajo de _doraidis_8°2
Trabajo de _doraidis_8°2Trabajo de _doraidis_8°2
Trabajo de _doraidis_8°2
 
Week of april_26th
Week of april_26thWeek of april_26th
Week of april_26th
 
Dossier psicope
Dossier psicopeDossier psicope
Dossier psicope
 
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Inform...
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Inform...ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Inform...
ISPIRE, GMES and GEOSS Activities, Methods and Tools towards a Single Inform...
 

Similar to June

Similar to June (20)

June 10th
June 10thJune 10th
June 10th
 
June
JuneJune
June
 
Activity 4 – creating a blog
Activity 4 – creating  a blogActivity 4 – creating  a blog
Activity 4 – creating a blog
 
Basics of-english-grammar-1205533999606300-3
Basics of-english-grammar-1205533999606300-3Basics of-english-grammar-1205533999606300-3
Basics of-english-grammar-1205533999606300-3
 
Basics Of English Grammar
Basics Of English GrammarBasics Of English Grammar
Basics Of English Grammar
 
grammar
grammargrammar
grammar
 
Basics of-english-grammar-1205533999606300-3
Basics of-english-grammar-1205533999606300-3Basics of-english-grammar-1205533999606300-3
Basics of-english-grammar-1205533999606300-3
 
Wh question
Wh  questionWh  question
Wh question
 
Ingles I (I Bimestre)
Ingles I (I Bimestre)Ingles I (I Bimestre)
Ingles I (I Bimestre)
 
ENGLISH GRAMMAR..pptx ENGLISH CLASS. NIVEL BASICO.
ENGLISH GRAMMAR..pptx ENGLISH CLASS. NIVEL BASICO.ENGLISH GRAMMAR..pptx ENGLISH CLASS. NIVEL BASICO.
ENGLISH GRAMMAR..pptx ENGLISH CLASS. NIVEL BASICO.
 
Editorial style guide
Editorial style guideEditorial style guide
Editorial style guide
 
Present tense and present continuous can
Present tense and present continuous canPresent tense and present continuous can
Present tense and present continuous can
 
Grammar
GrammarGrammar
Grammar
 
Pronouns
PronounsPronouns
Pronouns
 
N_V_ADJ_ADV.ppt
N_V_ADJ_ADV.pptN_V_ADJ_ADV.ppt
N_V_ADJ_ADV.ppt
 
Questions in English.pptx
Questions in English.pptxQuestions in English.pptx
Questions in English.pptx
 
English grammar
English grammarEnglish grammar
English grammar
 
English grammar
English grammarEnglish grammar
English grammar
 
Basics of-english-grammar-1205533999606300-3
Basics of-english-grammar-1205533999606300-3Basics of-english-grammar-1205533999606300-3
Basics of-english-grammar-1205533999606300-3
 
Basics of-english-grammar-1205533999606300-3
Basics of-english-grammar-1205533999606300-3Basics of-english-grammar-1205533999606300-3
Basics of-english-grammar-1205533999606300-3
 

More from alisonhell (12)

July
JulyJuly
July
 
June
JuneJune
June
 
SYLLABUS
SYLLABUSSYLLABUS
SYLLABUS
 
Answers
AnswersAnswers
Answers
 
Exercises
ExercisesExercises
Exercises
 
May
MayMay
May
 
April
AprilApril
April
 
March
MarchMarch
March
 
Pagina principal
Pagina principalPagina principal
Pagina principal
 
April
AprilApril
April
 
March
MarchMarch
March
 
Pagina principal
Pagina principalPagina principal
Pagina principal
 

Recently uploaded

Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and FilmOppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and FilmStan Meyer
 
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSTextual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSMae Pangan
 
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)Mark Reed
 
week 1 cookery 8 fourth - quarter .pptx
week 1 cookery 8  fourth  -  quarter .pptxweek 1 cookery 8  fourth  -  quarter .pptx
week 1 cookery 8 fourth - quarter .pptxJonalynLegaspi2
 
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-designKeynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-designMIPLM
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptxmary850239
 
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdfInclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdfTechSoup
 
How to Manage Engineering to Order in Odoo 17
How to Manage Engineering to Order in Odoo 17How to Manage Engineering to Order in Odoo 17
How to Manage Engineering to Order in Odoo 17Celine George
 
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdfActive Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdfPatidar M
 
MECHANISMS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF HYPERSENITIVITY REACTIONS.pptx
MECHANISMS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF HYPERSENITIVITY REACTIONS.pptxMECHANISMS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF HYPERSENITIVITY REACTIONS.pptx
MECHANISMS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF HYPERSENITIVITY REACTIONS.pptxAnupkumar Sharma
 
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for ParentsChoosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parentsnavabharathschool99
 
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)lakshayb543
 
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Projectjordimapav
 
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdfVirtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdfErwinPantujan2
 
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfJemuel Francisco
 
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxVanesaIglesias10
 
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfVanessa Camilleri
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and FilmOppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
 
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSTextual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
 
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
 
week 1 cookery 8 fourth - quarter .pptx
week 1 cookery 8  fourth  -  quarter .pptxweek 1 cookery 8  fourth  -  quarter .pptx
week 1 cookery 8 fourth - quarter .pptx
 
FINALS_OF_LEFT_ON_C'N_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
FINALS_OF_LEFT_ON_C'N_EL_DORADO_2024.pptxFINALS_OF_LEFT_ON_C'N_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
FINALS_OF_LEFT_ON_C'N_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
 
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-designKeynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
 
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdfInclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
 
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTAParadigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
 
How to Manage Engineering to Order in Odoo 17
How to Manage Engineering to Order in Odoo 17How to Manage Engineering to Order in Odoo 17
How to Manage Engineering to Order in Odoo 17
 
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdfActive Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
 
MECHANISMS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF HYPERSENITIVITY REACTIONS.pptx
MECHANISMS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF HYPERSENITIVITY REACTIONS.pptxMECHANISMS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF HYPERSENITIVITY REACTIONS.pptx
MECHANISMS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF HYPERSENITIVITY REACTIONS.pptx
 
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for ParentsChoosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
 
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
 
YOUVE_GOT_EMAIL_PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
YOUVE_GOT_EMAIL_PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptxYOUVE_GOT_EMAIL_PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
YOUVE_GOT_EMAIL_PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
 
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
 
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdfVirtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
 
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
 
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
 
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
 

June

  • 1. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA June 2nd , 2014 UNIT 2 Yes / No questions (closed questions)WITH BE In English, there are two basic types of questions: Yes / No questions and Wh- questions. Yes / No questions are also called closed questions because there are only two possible responses: Yes or No. When forming a Yes / No question, it must include one of these verbs: BE, DO, HAVE, or a modal verb. It is impossible to ask a Yes / No question without one of these verbs. correct incorrect Are elections next year? Elections next year? Does he want to stay? He want to stay? Have the boys eaten? The boys eaten? Can the dog swim? The dog swim? Use the verb BE to ask Yes / No questions about the identity or description of a person, place, or thing.
  • 2. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA question response Am I your friend? Yes. / Yes, you are. / Yes, you are my friend. Is this a good restaurant? No. / No, it is not. / No, it is not a good restaurant. Are these islands Greek? Yes. / Yes, they are. / Yes, these islands are Greek. Was his idea interesting? No. / No, it wasn’t. / No, his idea was not interesting. Were they happy? Yes. / Yes, they were. / Yes, they were happy. Note that the response can be short (Yes. / No.), or long: Yes or No followed by the subject and verb. Use the verb BE with a preposition to ask Yes / No questions about a present or past location. question response Am I at the correct location? No. / No, you aren’t. Are the keys under the books? No. / No, they are not. Was his house on an island? Yes. / Yes, it was. Were the demonstrations in the center of town? No. / No, they weren’t. Use the verb BE to ask a Yes / No question about a current activity or situation. This requires the present progressive: BE + (verb+ing). question response Am I going with you and Tom? Yes. / Yes, you are. Is she working today? No. / No, she isn’t. Are we seeing a play tomorrow? Yes. / Yes, we are. Use the verb BE to ask a Yes / No question about a past activity or situation. This requires the past progressive: WAS / WERE + (verb+ing). question response
  • 3. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA Was it raining? Yes. / Yes, it was. Were they playing? No. / No, they weren’t. Use the verb BE to ask a Yes / No question with the passive voice. question response Is gold mined in Canada? Yes. / Yes it is. Are flowers grown here? No. / No, they are not. Was the book read? Yes. / Yes, it was. http://www.elearnenglishlanguage.com/blog/learn-english/grammar/questions-yes-no/
  • 4. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA June 5th , 2014 WH Question Words We use question words to ask certain types of questions (question word questions). We often refer to them as WH words because they include the letters WH (for example WHY, HOW). Question Word Function Example what asking for information about something What is your name? asking for repetition or confirmation What? I can't hear you. You did what? what...for asking for a reason, asking why What did you do that for?
  • 5. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA when asking about time When did he leave? where asking in or at what place or position Where do they live? which asking about choice Which colour do you want? who asking what or which person or people (subject) Who opened the door? whom asking what or which person or people (object) Whom did you see? whose asking about ownership Whose are these keys? Whose turn is it? why asking for reason, asking what...for Why do you say that? why don't making a suggestion Why don't I help you? how asking about manner How does this work? asking about condition or quality How was your exam? how + adj/adv asking about extent or degree see examples below
  • 6. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA how far distance How far is Pattaya from Bangkok? how long length (time or space) How long will it take? how many quantity (countable) How many cars are there? how much quantity (uncountable) How much money do you have? how old age How old are you? how come (informal) asking for reason, asking why How come I can't see her? http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/wh-question-words.htm
  • 7. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA June 10th , 2014 Infinitives To help the poor people of the world is a noble goal. In the above sentence, which words form the infinitive? To help. An infinitive is the base form of a verb with to. Here are some more infinitives: To sleep To wash To love An infinitive phrase is a group of words with an infinitive (it is NOT the whole sentence). Again, looking at the above example, what is the infinitive phrase? To help the poor people of the world. book recommendation Grammar Tests and Exercises (with all the answers and explanations!) Here's help for anyone who has something to say or write but has difficulty doing so. Better Grammar in 30 Minutes features
  • 8. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA thorough coverage of key grammar skills, clear explanations with a minimum of grammatical terms and an abundance of exercises and activities to help reinforce new skill development. An answer key in the back encourages readers to work at their own pace. Click here for more information. Infinitives and infinitive phrases can be both subjects and objects in sentences. Take a look at these examples: SUBJECT To study hard will increase your chances of getting into college. OBJECT Kathy wants to study with her friends. There are some verbs that are followed only by infinitives. For example, Hesitate She didn’t hesitate to tell the boss that some employees were stealing office supplies. Offer The Martin Family offered to watch their neighbor’s dog for the whole week. Promise The school promised to help me find an apartment. Want We want to visit all of the historic sites in Tehran. These words are rarely followed by gerunds (nouns that look like -ing ending verbs). For a list of verbs that are followed by infinitives, click here. For a list of adjectives followed by
  • 9. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA infinitives, click here. For a list of verbs followed by infinitives + object, click here. For a list of verbs that are followed by gerunds, click here. Students are often confused about this. When should I use infinitives? When should I use gerunds? There are some situations when BOTH an infinitive and gerund can be used with no change in meaning. For example, The children like to go to the zoo. The children like going to the zoo. These two sentences have the same meaning. For some other verbs, there is a difference in meaning: Example Meaning GERUND Louise stoppedsmoking. She doesn’t smoke anymore. INFINITIVE Louise stopped to smoke. She stopped doing an activity because she wanted to smoke. So, now you may want to ask, “What’s the difference between infinitives and gerunds?” That’s a good question. We are glad you asked!
  • 10. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA Though there are always exceptions to the following, here are two suggestions that will help you distinguish the difference between infinitives and gerunds: http://www.myenglishteacher.net/infinitives.html June 16h , 2014 GERUNDS This looks exactly the same as a present participle, and for this reason it is now common to call both forms 'the -ing form'. Howeverit is useful to understand the difference between the two. The gerund always has the same function as a noun (although it looks like a verb), so it can be used: a. as the subject of the sentence: • Eating people is wrong. • Hunting tigers is dangerous. • Flying makes me nervous. c. after prepositions. The gerund must be used when a verb comes after a preposition: • Can you sneeze without opening your mouth? • She is good at painting. • They're keen on windsurfing. • She avoided him by walking on the opposite side of the road.
  • 11. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA • We arrived in Madrid after driving all night. • My father decided against postponing his trip to Hungary. This is also true of certain expressions ending in a preposition, e.g. in spite of, there's no point in..: • There's no point in waiting. • In spite of missing the train, we arrived on time. d. after a number of 'phrasal verbs' which are composed of a verb + preposition/adverb Example: to look forward to, to give up, to be for/against, to take to, to put off, to keep on: • I look forward to hearing from you soon. (at the end of a letter) • When are you going to give up smoking? • She always puts off going to the dentist. • He kept on asking for money. http://www.edufind.com/english/grammar/gerund.php
  • 12. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA June 20h , 2014 Using Gerunds and Infinitives Gerunds and infinitives are verb forms that can take the place of a noun in a sentence. The following guidelines and lists will help you figure out whether a gerund or infinitive is needed. Following a verb (gerund or infinitive) Both gerunds and infinitives can replace a noun as the object of a verb. Whether you use a gerund or an infinitive depends on the main verb in the sentence. Consult the lists below to find out which form to use following which verbs. I expect to have the report done by Friday. [INFINITIVE] I anticipate having the report done by Friday. [GERUND]
  • 13. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA Some common verbs followed by a gerund (note that phrasal verbs, marked here with *, always fall into this category): acknowledge She acknowledged receiving assistance. * accuse of He was accused of smuggling contraband goods. admit They admitted falsifying the data. advise The author advises undertaking further study. anticipate He anticipates having trouble with his supervisor. appreciate I appreciated having a chance to read your draft. avoid He avoided answering my question. complete I finally completed writing my thesis. consider They will consider granting you money. defer She deferred writing her report. delay We delayed reporting the results until we were sure. deny They denied copying the information. discuss They discussed running the experiments again. entail This review procedure entails repeating the test. * look after He will look after mailing the tickets. * insist on He insisted on proofreading the article again. involve This procedure involves testing each sample twice. justify My results justify taking drastic action.
  • 14. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA mention The author mentions seeing this event. * plan on They had planned on attending the conference. postpone The committee has postponed writing the report. recall I cannot recall getting those results before. resent He resented spending so much time on the project. recommend She recommends reading Marx. resist The writer resists giving any easy answers. risk She risks losing her viewing time. sanction They will not sanction copying without permission. suggest I suggest repeating the experiment. * take care of He will take care of sending it to you. tolerate She can't tolerate waiting for results. Some common verbs followed by an infinitive afford We cannot afford to hesitate. agree The professors agreed to disagree. appear The results appear to support your theory. arrange They had arranged to meet at noon. beg I beg to differ with you. care Would you care to respond? claim She claims to have new data. consent Will you consent to run for office? decide When did he decide to withdraw? demand I demand to see the results of the survey.
  • 15. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA deserve She deserves to have a fair hearing. expect The committee expects to decide by tomorrow. fail The trial failed to confirm his hypothesis. hesitate I hesitate to try the experiment again. hope What do you hope to accomplish? learn We have learned to proceed with caution. manage How did she manage to find the solution? neglect The author neglected to provide an index. need Do we need to find new subjects? offer We could offer to change the time of the meeting. plan They had planned to attend the conference. prepare He was not prepared to give a lecture. pretend I do not pretend to know the answer. promise They promise to demonstrate the new equipment. refuse She refused to cooperate any longer. seem Something seems to be wrong with your design. struggle We struggled to understand her point of view. swear He swears to tell the truth. threaten The team threatened to stop their research. volunteer Will you volunteer to lead the group? wait We could not wait to hear the outcome. want She did not want to go first. wish Do you wish to participate? http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/infinitive-gerund
  • 16. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA June 26h , 2014 EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY: TOO Too is used before adjectives and adverbs. Too is negative; we use it too mean there is more or less than we need/want. Too can be used with infinitive + to after the adjective/adverb. Use for + someone/something to explain who/what we mean. "It's too noisy in here. Let's go outside." (too + adjective) "My soup is too hot to drink." (too + adjective + to + infinitive) "This is too difficult for me to understand." (too + adjective + for someone/something) http://w w w .ecenglish.com/learnenglish/lessons/very-too-and-enough
  • 17. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA July 2nd , 2014 ENOUGH Enough expresses that something is adequate, within what is desirable. The expression is complemented by an infinitive. The infinitive may include a subject introduced: by, for. [For her] to do.  Jill is old enough to drive. (She can / may drive.)  The car is simple enough for her to drive. (She can drive it.)  The driving test is easy enough for her to pass. (She can pass it.) http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=3110
  • 18. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA July 8th , 2014 PHRASAL VERBS Phrasal verbs are usually two-word phrases consisting of verb + adverb or verb + preposition. Think of them as you would any other English vocabulary. Study them as you come across them, rather than trying to memorize many at once. Use the list below as a reference guide when you find an expression that you don't recognize. The examples will help you understand the meanings. If you think of each phrasal verb as a separate verb with a specific meaning, you will be able to remember it more easily. Like many other verbs, phrasal verbs often have more than one meaning. As well as learning their meanings, you need to learn how to use phrasal verbs. Verb Meaning Example ask someone out invite on a date Brian asked Judy out to dinner and a movie. ask around ask many people I asked around but nobody has seen my
  • 19. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA the same question wallet. add up to something equal Your purchases add up to$205.32. back something up reverse You'll have to back upyour car so that I can get out. back someone up support My wife backed me upo ver my decision to quit my job. blow up explode The racing car blew upafter it crashed into the fence. blow something up add air We have to blow 50 balloons up for the party. break down stop functionin g (vehicle, machine) Our car broke down at the side of the highway in the snowstorm. break down get upset The woman broke downwhen the police told her that her son had died. break somethingdo wn divide into smaller parts Our teacher broke the final project down into
  • 20. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO BLOG OF GRAMMAR VI ALISON VARELA three separate parts. http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/phrasal-verbs-list.htm