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Mechanical Vetilation

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modes,parameters,and alarms of ventilators

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Mechanical Vetilation

  1. 1. MECHANICAL VENTILATION PREPARED &PRESENTED BY: ALI SHAMSEDDINE INHALATION THERAPIST
  2. 2. <ul><li>RESPIRATORY FAILURE IS CAUSED BY THE FAILURE TO VENTILATE. IT’S CHARACTERIZED BY AN INCREASE IN ARTERIAL CARBON DIOXIDE & DECREASE IN ARTERIAL OXYGEN PRESSURES. THE TREATMENT IS EITHER BY REVERSING THE CAUSE OR BY USING MECHANICAL VENTILATION. </li></ul>INTRODUCTION
  3. 3. <ul><li>A MECHANICAL VENTILATOR (RESPIRATOR) IS A MACHINE THAT GENERATES A CONTROLLED FLOW OF GAS INTO PATIENT’S AIRWAYS. ALL THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THIS FLOW IS DETERMINED BY THE OPERATOR. </li></ul>WHAT IS MECHANICAL VENTILATOR
  4. 4. TYPES OF RESPIRATORS <ul><li>THE MOST GENERAL COMMON USED CLASSIFICATION IS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VOLUME CONTROLLED: THE RESPIRATOR CYCLES TO EXPIRATION ONCE A SET TIDAL VOLUME HAS BEEN DELIVERED. IT IS THE MOST COMMON FORM OF FULLY SUPPORTED VENTILATION. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PRESSURE CONTROLED: THE RESPIRATOR CYCLES TO EXPIRATION ONCE A SET PRESSURE IS REACHED (THE VOLUME IS VARIABLE). </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>CMV ( CONTINUES MANDATORY VENTILATION): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IT IS A CONVENTIONAL MODE WHERE THE VENTILATOR DELIVERS A PRESET TIDAL VOLUME AT A PRESET RATE REGARDLESS OF THE PATIENT EFFORT. IT IS RARELY USED. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A/C ( ASSIST / CONTROL VENTILATION): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IT IS A MODE WHERE THE VENTILATOR DELIVERS A PRESET TIDAL VOLUME AT A PRESET RATE BUT ALOWS THE PATIENT TO BREATHE SPONTANEOUSLY BUT AT THE PRESET VOLUME. </li></ul></ul>MODES OF VENTILATION
  6. 6. <ul><li>SIMV (SYNCHRONIZED INTERMITTENT MANDATORY VENTILATION): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IT IS A MODE WHERE VENTILATOR DELIVERS A PRESET TIDAL VOLUME AT A PRESET RATE AND PERMITS THE PATIENT TO BREATHE SPONTANEOUSLY AT HIS OWN RATE AND VOLUME BETWEEN THE VENTILATOR BREATHS. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CPAP (CONTINUOUS POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE). </li></ul><ul><ul><li> IT IS A MODE OF VENTILATION WITHOUT ADDITIONAL INSPIRATORY SUPPORT. THE POSITIVE PRESSURE IS APPLIED TO THE AIRWAY IN INSPIRATION AND EXPIRATION. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. RESPIRATOR CONTROL PANEL <ul><li>ALL RESPIRATORS’ FRONT PANEL ARE DIVIDED TO FOUR AREAS: </li></ul><ul><li>VENTILATOR SETTINGS </li></ul><ul><li>PATIENT DATA </li></ul><ul><li>ALARM SETTINGS </li></ul><ul><li>VENTILATOR STATUS </li></ul>
  8. 9. 1-VENTILATOR SETTINGS <ul><li>MODE(A/C,SIMV..) </li></ul><ul><li>RESP RATE </li></ul><ul><li>TIDAL VOLUME </li></ul><ul><li>PEAK FLOW </li></ul><ul><li>PEEP </li></ul><ul><li>FiO2 </li></ul><ul><li>PRESSURE SUPPORT </li></ul>
  9. 10. 1-VENTILATOR SETTINGS MODE(A/C,SIMV..)
  10. 11. 1-VENTILATOR SETTINGS RESP RATE
  11. 12. RESPIRATORY RATE <ul><li>IT IS THE NUMBER (FREQUENCY) OF BREATHS DELIVERED TO THE PATIENT PER MINUTE. </li></ul>
  12. 13. 1-VENTILATOR SETTINGS TIDAL VOLUME
  13. 14. TIDAL VOLUME <ul><li>IT IS THE AMOUNT OF AIR DELIVERED TO THE PATIENT WITH EACH BREATH. 8-10 ml/kg IS RECOMMENDED. </li></ul>
  14. 15. 1-VENTILATOR SETTINGS PEAK FLOW
  15. 16. PEAK FLOW <ul><li>IT IS THE VELOCITY OF AIR FLOW PER UNIT TIME (LITERS/MINUTE). </li></ul>
  16. 17. 1-VENTILATOR SETTINGS PEEP
  17. 18. PEEP <ul><li>POSTIVE-END-EXPIRATORY-PRESSURE: IS THE PRESSURE MAINTAINED IN THE LUNGS AT THE END OF EXPIRATION. </li></ul>
  18. 19. 1-VENTILATOR SETTINGS FIO2
  19. 20. FIO2 <ul><li>FRACTION OF INSPIRED OXYGEN : IS THE PERCENTAGE OF OXYGEN IN DELIVERED TIDAL VOLUME. THE RANGE IS 21% TO 100%. </li></ul>
  20. 21. 1-VENTILATOR SETTINGS PRESSURE SUPPORT
  21. 22. PRESSURE SUPPORT <ul><li>IT IS THE PRESSURE THAT ASSISTS (SUPPORTS) SPONTANEOUS BREATHING EFFORTS TO A POINT WHERE THE PRESET PRESSURE IS REACHED. </li></ul>
  22. 23. 2-PATIENT DATA <ul><li>PRESSURES </li></ul><ul><li>PEAK </li></ul><ul><li>MEAN </li></ul><ul><li>PLATEAU </li></ul><ul><li>PEEP </li></ul><ul><li>VOLUMES </li></ul><ul><li>EXHALED </li></ul><ul><li>MINUTE </li></ul><ul><li>DELIVERED </li></ul><ul><li>SPONT MV </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL RR </li></ul><ul><li>I:E RATIO </li></ul>
  23. 24. 2-PATIENT DATA : PRESSURES <ul><li>PEAK </li></ul><ul><li>MEAN </li></ul><ul><li>PLATAEU </li></ul><ul><li>PEEP </li></ul>
  24. 25. PEAK AIRWAY PRESSURE <ul><li>IT IS THE PRESSURE MEASURED BY THE VENTILATOR IN THE MAJOR AIRWAYS,AND IT STONGLY REFLECTS AIRWAY RESISTANCE. </li></ul>
  25. 26. PLATEAU PRESSURE <ul><li>IT IS THE PRESSURE APPLIED TO THE SMALL AIRWAYS AND ALVEOLI. IN OTHER WORDS,THIS PRESSURE REFLECTS THE ALVEOLAR PRESSURE </li></ul>
  26. 27. 2-PATIENT DATA : VOLUMES <ul><li>EXHALED </li></ul><ul><li>MINUTE </li></ul><ul><li>DELIVERED </li></ul><ul><li>SPONT MV </li></ul>
  27. 28. MINUTE VOLUME <ul><li>IT IS THE TOTAL VOLUME DELIVERED TO THE PATIENT IN ONE MINUTE. </li></ul><ul><li>MV= TV X RR </li></ul>
  28. 29. 2-PATIENT DATA <ul><ul><li>TOTAL RR I:E RATIO </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. TRR & I:E <ul><li>TRR IS THE SUM OF MECHANICAL AND SPONTANEOUS BREATHS.IT MAY BE TO ONE OF THEM ONLY. </li></ul><ul><li>INSPIRATORY TO EXPIRATORY RATIO: NORMALLY INSPIRATION IS SHORTER THAN EXPIRATION.A RATIO OF 1:2 IS MOSTLY SET ON VENTILATORS. </li></ul>
  30. 31. 3-ALARM SETTINGS <ul><li>HIGH RATE </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH TV </li></ul><ul><li>LOW INSP </li></ul><ul><li>PRESSURE </li></ul><ul><li>LOW TV </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH PRES. </li></ul><ul><li>LOW MV </li></ul>
  31. 32. 4-VENTILATOR STATUS <ul><li>ALARM </li></ul><ul><li>VENT INOP </li></ul><ul><li>A/C or BATTERY </li></ul><ul><li>BATTERY LEVEL </li></ul><ul><li>SILENCE(2 MIN) </li></ul><ul><li>RESET </li></ul><ul><li>CLEAR </li></ul><ul><li>ACCEPT </li></ul>

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