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know few about analgesics drug

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  1. 1. Analgesic By Ali Shahsavan
  2. 2. are classified into following groups depending on their usage and application related to various types of pain. Doctors take into account a variety of factors, like the cause of pain and its severity, in order to choose the appropriate analgesic for a patient
  3. 3. Aspirin & NSAIDs Narcotic Types of Analgesic drugs Adjuvant Neurological Analgesia Anesthetic Nerve Blockade
  4. 4. The most common analgesics belong to the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). They are easily available as overthe-counter medications in chemist shops. Important medicines include ibuprofen (Motrin), naproxen (Aleve) and Aspirin. These drugs have the ability to relieve pain. They can reduce fever and suppress inflammation. They work by blocking cyclooxygenase (COX), an enzyme in various tissues that produce the chemical mediators (prostaglandin E2) which are the cause for inflammation, related pain, and fever. Aspirin besides acting as a pain killer also has anti-platelet properties, which helps in the treatment for heart attacks and strokes. There is another analgesic by the trade name Tylenol, which reduces pain and fever but not inflammation, and hence not included in the NSAID class.
  5. 5. 1)Corticosteroids Corticosteroids are not exactly pain killing medicines but they are anti-inflammatory. But due to their inflammatory processes, they can reduce pain. For example, a patient with arthritis may be relieved from injections of steroids into the inflamed joint. 2) ceiling effect Aspirin & NSAIDs have limited effect .It means that Increasing the dose of aspirin doesn`t increase in peak effect but may increase the length of analgesia
  6. 6. It can influence pain at the level of the PNS and may act synergistically with narcotic analgesics which modulate pain in the CNS 4(Addiction They dont produce tolerance or physical or psychologic dependence
  7. 7. The opioid analgesics relieve pain by binding to opioid receptors in the central nervous system. They are also known as narcotics. Popular ones are morphine, fentanyl, and oxycodone. These drugs act as agonists to produce the effect of analgesia. Opioids give relief for moderate to severe pain. However, there is also the risk for potential addiction in some patients. Narcotics are stronger analgesics. They are used when pain is too severe to be controlled by NSAID analgesics. All narcotic analgesics are prescription medications.
  8. 8. There are certain drugs that are mainly used for neurologic and psychiatric conditions but they can also relieve neuropathic pain, which occurs without any external pain triggers like heat or sharp points. Neuropathic anlagesia drugs include the antidepressant amitriptyline (Elavil) and the anticonvulsant gabapentin (Neurontin).
  9. 9. Pain relief at times is required with a nerve blockade. An anesthetic drug, like lidocaine, can be injected into a nerve branch so that a certain part of the body becomes desensitized to pain. For example, anesthetic injection around the spinal cord produces pain relief in areas in the lower half of the body.
  10. 10. Aspirin is one of the most commonly used drugs today for pain relief. It is a very well known analgesics, which has been in use since the 1890. The general name of Aspirin is acetylsalicylic acid. This drug was produced by Bayer in Germany. This medicine, a predominant pain killer, was the first nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and still the most effective
  11. 11. During the course of its application, it has been found that aspirin has a number of uses besides pain relief. Many studies have been carried out to test aspirin's abilities in various areas, including its side effects. Research is still going on in this wonder drug. Present uses of aspirin include: Over-the-counter pain relief. It is mainly used for headaches. Reduction of inflammation and swelling in injuries and athritis. Aspirin is also recommended to sufferers of heart attack, ministroke and unstable angina. Can reduce heart attack severity if taken at the very first sign. It is used to recover after cardiovascular surgery. Aspirin is also recommended for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and other rheumatoid diseases.
  12. 12. Research studies have shown the following possible benefit of Aspirin: Migraine treatment Improving gums circulation Combating ovarian, breast and colon cancer and reducing colorectal cancer repeating Cataracts prevention Controlling pre-eclampsia Improving memory and brain function Prevention of adult leukaemia, HIV replicating, prostrate cancer Increasing success rates of IVF programs
  13. 13. Aspirin is not recommended for Children under 16 Asthma Patients Pregnant Women Anyone under 20 with a fever Bleeding disorders patients Patients with persistent stomach problems Diabetic Patients Breastfeeding mothers Heavy alcohol drinkers Healthy people for more than 10 days G6P deficiency diseases People with liver or kidney disease People on low sodium diets
  14. 14. Like all medicines, there are some side effects associated with aspirin. Though most of them are acceptable risks for most patients, there are some severe risks attached which are given below: The use of aspirin in children and teenagers with a fever has led to the development of a potentially fatal condition called Reye Syndrome a rare but severe liver disorder. Aspirin leads to nausea and vomiting in some patients. Hence it is better to take this with or just after food. Other side effects may be ringing in the ears, excessive bleeding, indigestion, heartburn and allergic reactions. Since the tablets are excreted via the kidneys, the medicine has the power to damage the kidneys and long term usage reduces renal function.