are classified into following groups depending on
their usage and application related to various types of
pain. Doctors take into account a variety of factors,
like the cause of pain and its severity, in order to
choose the appropriate analgesic for a patient
The most common analgesics belong to the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). They are easily available as overthe-counter medications in chemist shops. Important medicines
include ibuprofen (Motrin), naproxen (Aleve) and Aspirin.
These drugs have the ability to relieve pain. They can reduce
fever and suppress inflammation. They work by blocking
cyclooxygenase (COX), an enzyme in various tissues that
produce the chemical mediators (prostaglandin E2) which are
the cause for inflammation, related pain, and fever. Aspirin
besides acting as a pain killer also has anti-platelet properties,
which helps in the treatment for heart attacks and strokes.
There is another analgesic by the trade name Tylenol, which
reduces pain and fever but not inflammation, and hence not
included in the NSAID class.
Corticosteroids are not exactly pain killing medicines but
they are anti-inflammatory. But due to their inflammatory
processes, they can reduce pain. For example, a patient
with arthritis may be relieved from injections of steroids
into the inflamed joint.
2) ceiling effect
Aspirin & NSAIDs have limited effect .It means that
Increasing the dose of aspirin doesn`t increase in peak
effect but may increase the length of analgesia
It can influence pain at the level of the PNS and may act
synergistically with narcotic analgesics which
modulate pain in the CNS
They dont produce tolerance or physical or
The opioid analgesics relieve pain by binding to opioid
receptors in the central nervous system. They are also
known as narcotics. Popular ones are morphine,
fentanyl, and oxycodone. These drugs act as agonists to
produce the effect of analgesia. Opioids give relief for
moderate to severe pain. However, there is also the risk
for potential addiction in some patients. Narcotics are
stronger analgesics. They are used when pain is too
severe to be controlled by NSAID analgesics. All
narcotic analgesics are prescription medications.
There are certain drugs that are mainly used for
neurologic and psychiatric conditions but they can
also relieve neuropathic pain, which occurs
without any external pain triggers like heat or
sharp points. Neuropathic anlagesia drugs include
the antidepressant amitriptyline (Elavil) and the
anticonvulsant gabapentin (Neurontin).
Pain relief at times is required with a nerve
blockade. An anesthetic drug, like lidocaine, can be
injected into a nerve branch so that a certain part
of the body becomes desensitized to pain. For
example, anesthetic injection around the spinal
cord produces pain relief in areas in the lower half
of the body.
Aspirin is one of the most commonly used drugs
today for pain relief. It is a very well known
analgesics, which has been in use since the 1890. The
general name of Aspirin is acetylsalicylic acid. This
drug was produced by Bayer in Germany. This
medicine, a predominant pain killer, was the first
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and
still the most effective
During the course of its application, it has been found that aspirin
has a number of uses besides pain relief. Many studies have been
carried out to test aspirin's abilities in various areas, including its
side effects. Research is still going on in this wonder drug. Present
uses of aspirin include: Over-the-counter pain relief. It is mainly
used for headaches.
Reduction of inflammation and swelling in injuries and athritis.
Aspirin is also recommended to sufferers of heart attack, ministroke and unstable angina.
Can reduce heart attack severity if taken at the very first sign.
It is used to recover after cardiovascular surgery.
Aspirin is also recommended for treatment of rheumatoid
arthritis, osteoarthritis and other rheumatoid diseases.
Research studies have shown the following possible
benefit of Aspirin: Migraine treatment
Improving gums circulation
Combating ovarian, breast and colon cancer and reducing
colorectal cancer repeating
Improving memory and brain function
Prevention of adult leukaemia, HIV replicating, prostrate
Increasing success rates of IVF programs
Aspirin is not recommended for Children under 16
Anyone under 20 with a fever
Bleeding disorders patients
Patients with persistent stomach problems
Heavy alcohol drinkers
Healthy people for more than 10 days
G6P deficiency diseases
People with liver or kidney disease
People on low sodium diets
Like all medicines, there are some side effects associated
with aspirin. Though most of them are acceptable risks for
most patients, there are some severe risks attached which
are given below: The use of aspirin in children and
teenagers with a fever has led to the development of a
potentially fatal condition called Reye Syndrome
a rare but severe liver disorder.
Aspirin leads to nausea and vomiting in some patients.
Hence it is better to take this with or just after food.
Other side effects may be ringing in the ears, excessive
bleeding, indigestion, heartburn and allergic reactions.
Since the tablets are excreted via the kidneys, the medicine
has the power to damage the kidneys and long term usage
reduces renal function.