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# Ra structure nov. 6 revised

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### Ra structure nov. 6 revised

1. 1. AGENDA MAIN OBJECTIVE: ANALYZING THE OUR CH. 21 ARGUMENT FOR ETHOS, PATHOS AND LOGOS, AND WEAVING THAT DISCUSSION INTO OUR DRAFTS WRITING PROMPT DISCUSSION PATHOS, ETHOS, LOGOS HW: CONTINUE DRAFTING
2. 2. DEADLINES TUESDAY, NOV. 12 1) RHETORICAL ANALYSIS 2) BASIC OUTLINE – RESEARCH PAPER TOPIC TENTATIVE, WORKING CLAIM SECTION A SUBTOPIC SECTION B SUBTOPIC SECTION C SUBTOPIC
3. 3. WRITING PROMPT WHAT EXAMPLES OF THE USE OF EMOTION (PATHOS), FACTS, FIGURES AND STATISTICS (LOGOS) AND EXPERTISE (ETHOS) DO YOU SEE IN YOUR CHAPTER 21 ARGUMENT?
4. 4. 1) INTRODUCTION – THIS WILL LOOK A LOT LIKE THE OPENING OF YOUR EXTENDED JOURNAL #3, BUT WITH A LITTLE MORE DETAIL AND YOUR CLAIM ABOUT THE OVERALL EFFECTIVENESS OF THE ARGUMENT, WHICH WILL BE THE LAST SENTENCE OF THE INTRO. 2) BRIEF DISCUSSION OF INTENDED AUDIENCE. 3) BODY SECTION 1: DISCUSS THE STRUCTURE/CHRONOLOGY OF YOUR ARGUMENT. USE THE ROIPHE SAMPLE AS A MODEL. 4) BODY SECTION 2: STRENGTHS OF THE ARGUMENT. USE THE MILENA ATEYA SAMPLE AS A MODEL. 5) WEAKNESSES OF THE ARGUMENT. USE ATEYA. 6) CONCLUSION (WE’LL DISCUSS THIS THURSDAY). HOW TO STRUCTURE AND OUTLINE YOUR ESSAY
5. 5. INTRODUCTION A. __Contextualize the essay: discuss its context, give a little background on the issue, paint a quick picture of the cultural climate into which the argument was introduced. B. __Introduce the author and essay: mention the essay’s title and discuss briefly the author’s background, occupation, other writings, etc. C. __Describe/summarize briefly the essay’s subject/gist D. __Identify briefly the author’s main claims/goals E. __Identify briefly the author’s intended audience F. __State thesis: How persuasive or unpersuasive you find this argument, listing briefly some of its greatest strengths and weaknesses
6. 6. AN INTRO CAN LOOK LIKE THIS: “Anne Roiphe’s “Confessions of a Female Chauvinist Sow” first appeared in the magazine New York in 1972. In this essay Roiphe aims to convince her readers that women must put faith in the idea that they are equal to men, not superior: “Women who want equality must be prepared to give it and believe in it…” (Roiphe). Personal anecdotes, contrast, and comparison are techniques Roiphe skillfully uses to create a strong, convincing essay.
7. 7. AUDIENCE (This can be part of a single introduction paragraph, or it can be broken into a separate paragraph that is still part of the introduction section. We haven’t talked a lot about audience yet, so listen up (-: __Identify author’s intended audience – the likely readers of the publication. __Describe how else we know – from the essay’s subject matter, argument, etc. – that this is the likely intended audience. __Discuss why the author likely chose this audience and how you know this.
8. 8. WHAT THIS CAN LOOK LIKE: (Second paragraph) “Judging by the author’s persuasive pleas, this article is written mainly to people who do not already share the author’s views entirely or in part. The Journal, Social Research, Is primarily written to scholars and learned individuals, but I think the general population just does not have enough information on wild species and/or the direness of their situations to feel greatly motivated to act. Here, he could have supplied more information for the less knowledgeable majority, though it is not really necessary because of the journal’s target audience.”
9. 9. DISCUSS THE STRUCTURE OF THE ESSAY Provide a roadmap of the of the essay’s organization and/or logic for your readers. __Do so by describing how the essay opens, how it unfolds, and how it concludes. __Also, you can describe any major shifts in the argument’s reasoning. __Evaluate the argument’s structure. In other words, you can comment on how the structure of the essay itself might persuade (or fail to persuade) the audience. (Some of you are already doing this, especially if your claim says that the author is successful with one part of the essay but not another part)
10. 10. WHAT THIS CAN LOOK LIKE: “Roiphe begins her essay with a personal anecdote describing the “horrifying” realization that she married a man exactly like her father. This technique immediately establishes the essay as informal and personal. It is a great way to capture the reader’s interest…” “Shortly after capturing the reader’s interest with the introductory anecdote, Roiphe begins using contrast…” “About midway through the essay, Roiphe makes a transition from contrast to comparison…” “More important than the functions of the techniques she uses independently is how Roiphe uses them together…It is obvious that Roiphe purposely used the techniques in a planned way. This allowed her to create a specifically designed essay that helped convince her readers…”
11. 11. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES After discussing the chronological structure of your essay, you will discuss first the strengths of the essay you are analyzing, and then its weaknesses.
12. 12. STRENGTHS From Milena Ateya: “The author earns the reader’s respect because of his knowledge and through his logical presentation of the issue.” “The author also emphasizes the danger of the slippery slope of censorship…”
13. 13. WEAKNESSES From Milena Ateya: “Overall, however, Bok’s work lacks the kinds of evidence that statistics, interviews with students, and other representative examples of controversial conduct could provide.” “Throughout, Bok’s personal feelings are implied but not stated directly.”
14. 14. PATHOS, ETHOS, LOGOS Although these three prongs of the rhetorical triangle are treated as separate sections in this powerpoint, you will find yourself going back and forth among them, especially as you work your way through the chronological structure before moving on to strengths and weaknesses.
15. 15. FOR EXAMPLE…. It might be useful to first make a list of all the pieces of evidence from your author’s argument that you plan to discuss in your rhetorical analysis. Then, note whether each piece of evidence represents Pathos, Logos, or Ethos (which you have probably already done). Then, make sure you cover the points on the checklist.
16. 16. ETHOS __Discuss briefly the author’s ethos (credibility): How is it established, and how might it influence the intended audience. (Can include quoting an authority). __Provide a few key examples of how the author builds his or her ethos/credibility throughout the argument. Some of these may be subtle or even implied, and you have to read quite closely to find them. __Analyze each example briefly: discuss how the author uses that example or strategy to persuade readers. __Conclude this example by commenting on how the intended audience will likely respond, overall, to the author’s ethos/credibility.
17. 17. WHAT THIS CAN LOOK LIKE: Think about how Milena Ateya used her own background in both the introduction and conclusion of her rhetorical analysis.
18. 18. LOGOS _Identify the main claim (and sub-claims, if applicable) of the argument. __Describe overall how the author supports these claims (what reasons does he/she give). __Discuss the kinds of evidence the author uses to persuade readers. Provide examples. __Analyze each example briefly: discuss how the author uses that type and/or specific bit of evidence to persuade readers. __Evaluate the argument’s evidence: conclude this section or element by commenting on how the audience will likely respond to the author’s use of evidence, given its quality and quantity.
19. 19. LOGOS Identify the main claim (and sub-claims, if applicable) of the argument. __Describe overall how the author supports these claims (what reasons does he/she give). __Discuss the kinds of evidence the author uses to persuade readers. Provide examples. __Analyze each example briefly: discuss how the author uses that type and/or specific bit of evidence to persuade readers. __Evaluate the argument’s evidence: conclude this section or element by commenting on how the audience will likely respond to the author’s use of evidence, given its quality and quantity.
20. 20. WHAT THIS CAN LOOK LIKE: From the RA of “The Responsibility to Conserve Wild Species.” “He argues from his self-proclaimed conservationist viewpoints that all interventions are justifiable…The author explains (logos/reasoning) how the roles between human beings have changed over time…He could have supplied more information for the less knowledgeable majority, though it is not really necessary because of the journal’s target audience.
21. 21. LOGOS Identify the main claim (and sub-claims, if applicable) of the argument. __Describe overall how the author supports these claims (what reasons does he/she give). __Discuss the kinds of evidence the author uses to persuade readers. Provide examples. __Analyze each example briefly: discuss how the author uses that type and/or specific bit of evidence to persuade readers. __Evaluate the argument’s evidence: conclude this section or element by commenting on how the audience will likely respond to the author’s use of evidence, given its quality and quantity.
22. 22. WHAT THIS CAN LOOK LIKE: From the RA of “The Responsibility to Conserve Wild Species.” “He argues from his self-proclaimed conservationist viewpoints that all interventions are justifiable…The author explains (logos/reasoning) how the roles between human beings have changed over time…He could have supplied more information for the less knowledgeable majority, though it is not really necessary because of the journal’s target audience.
23. 23. LOGOS Identify the main claim (and sub-claims, if applicable) of the argument. __Describe overall how the author supports these claims (what reasons does he/she give). __Discuss the kinds of evidence the author uses to persuade readers. Provide examples. __Analyze each example briefly: discuss how the author uses that type and/or specific bit of evidence to persuade readers. __Evaluate the argument’s evidence: conclude this section or element by commenting on how the audience will likely respond to the author’s use of evidence, given its quality and quantity.
24. 24. WHAT THIS CAN LOOK LIKE From the RA of “The Responsibility to Conserve Wild Species.” “He argues from his self-proclaimed conservationist viewpoints that all interventions are justifiable…The author explains (logos/reasoning) how the roles between human beings have changed over time…He could have supplied more information for the less knowledgeable majority, though it is not really necessary because of the journal’s target audience.
25. 25. LOGOS Identify the main claim (and sub-claims, if applicable) of the argument. __Describe overall how the author supports these claims (what reasons does he/she give). __Discuss the kinds of evidence the author uses to persuade readers. Provide examples. __Analyze each example briefly: discuss how the author uses that type and/or specific bit of evidence to persuade readers. __Evaluate the argument’s evidence: conclude this section or example by commenting on how the audience will likely respond to the author’s use of evidence, given its quality and quantity.
26. 26. WHAT THIS CAN LOOK LIKE From the RA of “The Responsibility to Conserve Wild Species.” “He argues from his self-proclaimed conservationist viewpoints that all interventions are justifiable…The author explains (logos/reasoning) how the roles between human beings have changed over time…He could have supplied more information for the less knowledgeable majority, though it is not really necessary because of the journal’s target audience.
27. 27. PATHOS __Discuss the author’s appeals to the audience’s emotions, values, assumptions, sense of identity. __Provide a few key examples of how the author uses pathos in different ways to persuade his audience. __Analyze each example briefly: discuss how the author uses that particular strategy to evoke certain responses/feelings from readers. __Conclude this section or element by commenting on how the audience likely will respond, overall, to the author’s appeals to pathos. Note strengths as well as weaknesses.
28. 28. PATHOS Discuss the author’s appeals to the audience’s emotions, values, assumptions, sense of identity. __Provide a few key examples of how the author uses pathos in different ways to persuade his audience. __Analyze each example briefly: discuss how the author uses that particular strategy to evoke certain responses/feelings from readers. __Conclude this section or element by commenting on how the audience likely will respond, overall, to the author’s appeals to pathos. Note strengths as well as weaknesses.
29. 29. WHAT CAN THIS LOOK LIKE? “Roiphe begins her essay with a personal anecdote describing the “horrifying” realization that she married a man exactly like her father. This technique immediately establishes the essay as informal and personal. It is a great way to connect emotionally to readers and, ultimately, to convince them… (Essay continues on with several anecdotes…) “Anecdotes such as these are entertaining and tend to lighten the mood of the essay. Also, it is quite easy for readers to relate to personal experience. Another function of anecdotes in this essay is to substantiate and support main ideas.”
30. 30. PATHOS Discuss the author’s appeals to the audience’s emotions, values, assumptions, sense of identity. __Provide a few key examples of how the author uses pathos in different ways to persuade his audience. __Analyze each example briefly: discuss how the author uses that particular strategy to evoke certain responses/feelings from readers. __Conclude this section or element by commenting on how the audience likely will respond, overall, to the author’s appeals to pathos. Note strengths as well as weaknesses.
31. 31. WHAT CAN THIS LOOK LIKE? “Roiphe begins her essay with a personal anecdote describing the “horrifying” realization that she married a man exactly like her father. This technique immediately establishes the essay as informal and personal. It is a great way to connect emotionally to readers and, ultimately, to convince them… (Essay continues on with several anecdotes…) “Anecdotes such as these are entertaining and tend to lighten the mood of the essay. Also, it is quite easy for readers to relate to personal experience. Another function of anecdotes in this essay is to substantiate and support main ideas.”
32. 32. PATHOS Discuss the author’s appeals to the audience’s emotions, values, assumptions, sense of identity. __Provide a few key examples of how the author uses pathos in different ways to persuade his audience. __Analyze each example briefly: discuss how the author uses that particular strategy to evoke certain responses/feelings from readers. __Conclude this section or element by commenting on how the audience likely will respond, overall, to the author’s appeals to pathos. Note strengths as well as weaknesses.
33. 33. WHAT THIS CAN LOOK LIKE: “Roiphe begins her essay with a personal anecdote describing the “horrifying” realization that she married a man exactly like her father. This technique immediately establishes the essay as informal and personal. It is a great way to connect emotionally to readers and, ultimately, to convince them… (Essay continues on with several anecdotes…) “Anecdotes such as these are entertaining and tend to lighten the mood of the essay. Also, it is quite easy for readers to relate to personal experience. Another function of anecdotes in this essay is to substantiate and support main ideas.”
34. 34. COUNTER ARGUMENTS Huh???? Remember, an author’s argument is stronger if he or she acknowledges the possibility or existence of opposing views. __Discuss how or whether the author acknowledges any different points of view. __Discuss how the author handles those points of view, if he or she acknowledges them.
35. 35. WHAT THIS CAN LOOK LIKE: From the RA of “The Responsibility to Conserve Wild Species.” “Are there any other viewpoints that he ignored or failed to see? I think there are, but Robinson does not even acknowledge the existence of other points of view. I think that to him there are just no other opinions and he does not want readers to begin to consider not intervening…”
36. 36. CONCLUSION _The concluding paragraph should highlight the argument’s strengths and weaknesses. __After weighing strengths and weaknesses, offer a final evaluation of the argument’s overall persuasiveness.
37. 37. WHAT THIS CAN LOOK LIKE: From “A Curse and a Blessing” (Milena Ataya’s rhetorical analysis in response to Harvard president). “In writing this essay, Bok faced a challenging task: to write a short response to a specific situation that represents a very broad and controversial issue. Some people may find that freedom of expression is both a curse and a blessing because of the difficulties it creates. As one who has lived under a regime that permitted very limited, censored expression, I am all too aware that I could not have written this response in 1991 in Bulgaria. As a result, I feel, like Derek Bok, that freedom of expression is a blessing, in spite of any temporary problems associated with it.”