MAKING HISTORIES
Oral accounts of the emergence and development of ALL

Alisa Percy, Bronwyn James, Reem Al-Mahmood and Ti...
John Clanchy
Australian National
University
Communication and
Study Skills Centre
1975-1994
Graduate School
1995-1997
Brigid Ballard
Australian National
University
Communication and
Study Skills Centre
1977-1999
Dr Hanne Bock
LaTrobe University
Language and Academic
Study Skills Unit
1979-1990
Associate Professor
Gordon Taylor
Monash University
1974-1998
Director, Language and
Learning Unit
Faculty of Arts
1988-19...
Associate Professor
Carolyn Webb
University of Sydney
1974-1995
A/P Inaugural Head
Learning & Teaching
Unit
University of ...
JOHN CLANCHY
BA (Hons), DipEd, MA,
University of Melbourne
English Language and Literature
• Taught in schools in Victoria...
“…the transition from school to university is most
usefully seen in terms of cultural adjustment. Language,
which is perha...
John Clanchy
ANU 1975-1997

I was struggling when I first came
to the ANU because when I arrived
…I was told was that I wa...
But anyway Brigid came along [1977]
and said,
Look, this really isn't very…,
and she gave all [the reading
machines] away....
BRIGID BALLARD
BA, English Language and Literature,
Oxford University
MA, Teaching, Harvard University
GradDip, Intercultu...
Language, whether oral or written, is indivisible from
the culture in which it functions.... This is true at the
level of ...
…if there's one thing that
characterised the way we thought
about it, we're kind of intermediaries

and interpreters of th...
…and that whole idea of culture

actually spread because when we
were working with international
students …we began to rea...
…certainly working with international
students you realise that language
was NOT the key problem; it was
culture, cross cu...
I think our definition of ourselves and
our work comes back to this whole
business of the focus upon the nature
of the con...
…that is, a particular cultural system
of knowledge, a good understanding
of the underlying culture, and some

idea about ...
That first conference we had, now
that was important, because we were
aware that there were other people
working in the ot...
Study Skills Conference, ANU, 1980
And what we found was we had a lot
that wasn’t in common, and that was

a real eye opener because we realised
that we came...
And then there's a group of us who
come out of some more generalised
thing, I suppose it's either

epistemology or educati...
And then there was a third group
which was very much more heavily
…focussed on linguistics … and within

a subset of that ...
And so while we all started together
as having a common interest in
student development, intellectual

development and per...
Brigid did lots of writing about her

particular interest in cross cultural
education and …that was appreciated
by the stu...
ANU Reporter, 10 June 1983
A selection of their commercial books
I think the books we wrote were
useful because they were the first.

They may not be the best, but they
were the first…the...
Ballard, B & Clanchy, J.
(1991) Teaching students
from overseas: A brief
guide for lecturers and
supervisors, Melbourne:
L...
…you know, the books we produced
for teaching students from overseas,
are actually books about how to teach
at the tertiar...
…when we went out to the
departments - this is part of

Brigid’s cunning - [she]
always said,
We're here to help your stud...
…[we worked] alongside staff

through discussion and
sharing of experience and
then feeding in odd bits of
technique or th...
…you can see how the work we did
often got very close to academic

teaching development. Tricky
boundaries were happening,...
At one point when they were trying
to amalgamate [us with CEDAM]. We
were very uppity, and we said,
Yes, well, we will ble...
The things that happened structurally

over [the 25 years] were more to do
with the gradual changes that took
place in the...
ANU Reporter, April 1987
“…far from being a purely remedial
service, [the Centre] provides assistance to
a significant pro...
…I suppose we always saw ourselves
as responding to the context rather
than trying overall to shape it too
much…

John Cla...
…it's still a highly flexible and open
variable field, isn't it. It's not like
you’ve got the set lines of a discipline.
…...
[ALL educators ] actually are very
valuable to [the university], if the
university recognises them, because
they see what'...
I think the important thing is that it

isn't static. It is actually responsive to
changes, and although you're right,
we'...
…the biggest shift…in the 20 years
[is] that this became a field rather
than an oddity. It’s becoming a
field that’s serio...
Brigid and John‟s Research Publication record
1976

1997

1976 The „higher illiteracy‟: Some personal observations (John)
...
Students

Staff

Consults &Workshops

Working with tutors and teaching
teams in situated practices

Embedded practices

Wo...
DR HANNE BOCK
La Trobe University (1979-1990)
DR HANNE BOCK
LITERACY TUTOR
LITERACY & STUDY SKILLS
SENIOR LITERACY TUTOR
LANGUAGE & ACADEMIC
SKILLS UNIT
YEARS 1979-1990...
HANNE BOCK STARTED HER APPOINTMENT INITIALLY
FOR 9 MONTHS AT LA TROBE UNIVERSITY IN 1979.
SHE WAS TO REPORT TO THE DEAN ON...
IN THE BALANCE OF THINGS:
HERDSA
COUNSELLORS
STUDY SKILLS PEOPLE
&
THE STUDENT?
“There were the HERDSA people those who were doing
teacher development and teaching methods and so on.
Then there were the...
HOW I SAW MY ROLE…
“Trying to explain:
students to teachers,
teachers to students…

and sitting on the borderline between ...
“In relation to the counsellors we had a very funny
relationship with the counsellors at Latrobe they
kept saying: „Give t...
…BEYOND „STUDY SKILLS‟

“I found [existing study skills publications] practically
criminally insane in the advice they wer...
“I cannot say anything
else, forget about
model theories, forget
about that student
doesn‟t fit into the
pattern, if a stu...
“It really was the individual approach
that did it.”

“It is [a privileged space],
you have to guard it...”

Hanne Bock
ADVICE FOR A NEW ALL PERSON
“Don‟t presume you know.
Start listening. Start asking.
Ask, ask, ask specifically into that s...
BEYOND THE CONSULTATION
THE DUCKS AND TOADS CAMP
Academic staff and the VC attended
& taught in the one week camp
pre-uni ...
REWARDS OF ALL WORK

“The daily work with students

that‟s one aspect of it.”

Hanne Bock
REWARDS OF ALL WORK
“A student came and had finished her studies
and brought me an assignment and said:
“I realise this is...
HIGHLIGHT OF ALL WORK:
BEYOND THE UNIVERSITY
“Another highlight was another student
a tiny little thing who became a teach...
Dr Hanne Bock‟s
Publications & Provocative Titles
Hanne Bock was one of the instrumental co-authors of
the seminal book in the ALL field:
BOCK, H. (1988) Academic Literacy:...
SOME OF HANNE BOCK‟S PUBLICATIONS

----- (1988) In Search of a Task. HERDSA News 10: 3, 3-6.

----- (1986) Phenomenography...
SOME OF HANNE BOCK‟S PUBLICATIONS
----- and Lewit, H. (1984). Head Counting or Skull-Duggery: a Case of
Caput Mortuum? In:...
SOME OF HANNE BOCK‟S PUBLICATIONS
-----, and Gassin, J. (1982). (Eds): Papers from the
Conference - Communication at Unive...
WHERE IS HANNE BOCK NOW?
Hanne Bock returned to Denmark with her husband after
they both served in Australian universities...
Key Thinker & Pivotal Founder of the ALL Profession
Monash University Appointments
English Advisor
1974-1975
Lecturer and Senior Lecturer, Higher Education Advisory and
Resea...
Names
“The first thing to do was to get rid of remedial teaching
office. So I got rid of the teaching officer and turned t...
Names
“It was going to be called the Language and Learning Unit
by hook or by crook. Fortunately the Dean agreed to it and...
Academic Status
“I also managed to change [the position] from an administrative
to an academic job, which I’d worked hard ...
Committees
“I spent a lot of time in the last few years at Monash on
faculty and university committees trying to influence...
Staff club
“Being a member of the staff club helped. We had long
lunches with English department people, with
historians, ...
Into the disciplines
“The first thing to do is to get inside the disciplines and get
to know the disciplines.”
“You’ve jus...
Building a presence
through university publications
Gordon’s publication legacy
Gordon's Prolific Scholarship
Gordon wrote across Linguistics, Higher Education, Philosophy,
Engineering, English Language...
Gordon’s Scholarly Journals & Publishers
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Applied Linguistics
Australian Journal of Linguistics
Au...
Taylor, G. V., Ballard, B., Beasley, V., Bock, H., Clanchy, J. Nightingale.
P., (1988) Literacy by degrees. Milton Keynes:...
“What Should We Be
Doing As A University?”
Carolyn Webb
University Of Sydney
1974-1995
University Of Western Sydney
Associ...
Early Days: A LITLE BIT OF
EXTRA WORK
s

A LIITLE BIT OF EXTRA WORK
In 1974 I started working at
Sydney, and in 1975 I sta...
AND THERE WERE SO MANY OF THEM,
just this growing stream of students
coming in, and the Director of the
Language Centre at...
And then during the rest of the 70’s,
that grew into something that
became a recognised service, and
then from probably ab...
SIGNIFICANT MOMENTS:
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
And I guess it was logical that I was doing that, because of my
own background ...
I had the enormous benefit of
working in the same building
that the Linguistics
Department was originally
located in … I w...
SIGNIFICANT MOMENTS:
INSTITUTIONAL ENGAGEMENT AND
RECOGNITION
It was always the work with faculties directly alongside the...
Bottom right are Jim Martin (pony tail) and me. I think Jim was on the Interim
Board of Studies. I had been invited to des...
EARLY DAYS: KEY FIGURES

I thought about the significant figures, for me Gordon Taylor was
always a really cool guy he had...
EARLY DAYS: KEY FIGURES
Of course all the work that was done at the Sydney
University Linguistics School, Jim Martin and a...
SIGNIFICANT MOMENTS
But it wasn’t I suppose till the
1980’s that I started to see
the signs of people sharing
information,...
SIGNIFICANT MOMENTS
EARLY DAYS

BUILDING THE FIELD
I think was a really fundamental contribution
that I and
many others ma...
SIGNIFICANT MOMENTS
COMING OF AGE – A FIELD EMERGES
I think in the 1990’s we started to see the seeds
were in and
the crop...
SIGNIFICANT MOMENTS EARLY DAYS
KEY DRIVERS FOR ACADEMIC
LANGUAGE AND LEARNING
The whole business of internationalisation w...
AND ONGOING:

KEY DRIVERS FOR ACADEMIC LANGUAGE
AND LEARNING
Quality assurance is something that the universities took rea...
FROM THE MID 80’S ON

SIGNIFICANT MOMENTS
WHAT SHOULD WE WE DOING AS A
UNIVERSITY?
The work that we did in running worksho...
FROM THE MID 80’S ON

WHAT SHOULD WE WE DOING AS A
UNIVERSITY?
…for me it was very much about not just having an immediate...
TEACHING AND LEARNING
… taking up the job at UWS Hawkesbury was really exciting because I could
bring those 2 things [lear...
AALL Making Histories Project Slideshow, November 26, 2013
AALL Making Histories Project Slideshow, November 26, 2013
AALL Making Histories Project Slideshow, November 26, 2013
AALL Making Histories Project Slideshow, November 26, 2013
AALL Making Histories Project Slideshow, November 26, 2013
AALL Making Histories Project Slideshow, November 26, 2013
AALL Making Histories Project Slideshow, November 26, 2013
AALL Making Histories Project Slideshow, November 26, 2013
AALL Making Histories Project Slideshow, November 26, 2013
AALL Making Histories Project Slideshow, November 26, 2013
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  • English Advisor, 1974-1975Lecturer and Senior Lecturer, Higher Education Advisory & Research Unit, 1976-1987Senior Lecturer and Director, Language & Learning Unit, Faculty of Arts, 1988-1995Associate Professor and Director, Language & Learning Unit, Faculty of Arts, 1996-1998Honorary Associate: School of Linguistics & Philosophy, Faculty of Arts, 1999-2000Adjunct Senior Research Fellow: School of Languages, Culture & Linguistics, Faculty of Arts, 2007-2010Monash University
  • Assoc Professor Carolyn WebbUniversity of Sydney1974-1995University of Western SydneyAssociate Professor Inaugural headLearning & Teaching Unit 1996-2006
  • So it’s education and epistemology, I suppose, so that was a second very strong sort of core of things that pulled us together.
  • wrote a number of important texts for staff and students1981 Essay writing for students : a guide for arts and social science students 1983 How to write essays: A practical guide for students 1984 Study abroad : a manual for Asian students 1988 Studying in Australia1991 Teaching International Students: A Brief Guide for Lecturers and Supervisors (Longman Cheshire)1991 Essay Writing for Students - A Practical Guide 1993 Supervising students from overseas (ANU Publication)1997 Teaching International Students: A Brief Guide for Lecturers and Supervisors (IDP Education Australia)
  • I
  • Intro (to be developed)Rhetorical Q about what we know about Gordon, refer to Key Thinkers and why he was the one giving the overviewBasic overviewSituate him as ‘the philosopher’ – note his theoretical interests, background and contributionPoint to the ongoing value to be drawn from his large legacy of work
  • Intro (to be developed)Rhetorical Q about what we know about Gordon, refer to Key Thinkers and why he was the one giving the overviewBasic overviewSituate him as ‘the philosopher’ – note his theoretical interests, background and contributionPoint to the ongoing value to be drawn from his large legacy of work
  • + note appointments in African universities and schoolsJust mention these and his adventurous streak (perhaps add an amusing quote from him about his daring trips)Perhaps link with John and Brigid (ie. they did a similar thing & possible influence of these cross experiences on their work and that of the field)
  • Career history: the beginning
  • Career history: the beginning
  • Gordon’s awareness of the power of language / wiliness / immediate exercising of agency
  • Gordon’s awareness of the power of language / wiliness / immediate exercising of agency (continued)Then move onto further examples Gordon’s strategic savvy and his resultant influence:Academic Role“I also managed to change [the position] from an administrative to an academic job, which I’d worked hard at for over two years because I didn’t think I was going to get any sort of credence from the academic staff unless I was also a member of the academic staff.” “John and Bridget took a different line; they didn’t seem to worry about that. Maybe that had to do with the size of the university and what not. But for me it was a big issue. And so, when I moved into here I became a member of the academic staff and they appointed me at lecturer level.”Recommendation“And, of course, I would also say that if you don’t have an academic appointment, then again you’d want to fight for one of them because that’s the best way to start getting the ear of the academic staff and you can’t really work without the academic staff helping you, and being helped by you.” Getting on to committees“I spent a lot of time in the last few years at Monash on faculty and university committees trying to influence the thinking at that level.” Impact of these approaches“So I was really able to have an enormous input into the teaching that went on. And in that period too […] all faculties had to have an Associate Dean Teaching, which they’d never had before, and so, I was able to work with the Associate Dean Teaching then, in these committees, and was able to influence a lot of the changes to teaching that went on. So that committee work, I think, for me anyway, was important.”Staff club and relationships“Being a member of the staff club helped. We had long lunches with English department people, with historians, with philosophers, and that became part of my life, you know; long lunches with plenty to drink.”“I got to know a lot of academics in the club. And that’s just so important. And I think, a lot of people in the sort of work we did felt isolated in that respect, socially isolated, and so you’ve got to overcome that, and if you’ve got a club in your institution, use it.”Getting into the disciplines“The first thing to do is to get inside the disciplines and get to know the disciplines.”“You’ve just got to specialise in a range of disciplines that’s really the first thing, and if you happen to be in a position which isn’t like that, then my advice to anybody would be to say, agitate to get back into the faculties or schools, so that you can focus on a range of disciplines. That’s the very first thing.”“In the end I became almost, and I think … said, an honorary member of the History department, and I was teaching courses to third and fourth year students, as part of their overall courses. There was a course in historiography, for example, and writing history was part of it. And so, I would get a historian in and get them to submit a draft of some of the histories that they’d written, and then in these classes we’d go through and tear it up.”Team Teaching“And then, I think get into team teaching as quickly as you can with academic staff, depending on whatever approach model you want or might want to take, depending on your circumstances.”
  • Gordon’s presence in the uni press/community & the impact of this
  • Gordon’s presence in the uni press/community & the impact of this
  • Gordon’s presence in the uni press/community & the impact of this(note publication of book and broader presence here)Segue into the section on more targeted strategic uses of writing using Writing about a Poem as the core exampleWriting about a Poem How it was conducted and what skills of Gordon it drew uponWhat it revealedWhat it changedIt’s role in the history of work on the relationship between language and learningNext section: Strategic use of use of writing # 2“I think it’s pretty important myself, to hang onto the one-to-one teaching, as far as possible. It’s not the only thing you’re going to do, but I think you need that detailed one-to-one teaching in order to be able to develop a sense of what students are feeling like, getting their feedback, in fact, you’ve got to have that. And, yeah the students taught us a lot in the early days, they really did, and you can’t replace that.”“Often you know, an academic would refer a student to you, so I’d make sure to get back in touch with the academic and tell them how we were getting on and asking him or her if they could see any changes going on, and things like that.”“And you’ll see from that CV that I wrote lots of reports in those years too, on what the faculty was like, and what it needed to do, and so on and so forth.”Use Writing about a Poem as an example Writing about a Poem: Influence of this work (Develop a whole section about this)And I did this study which is that one there, writing about a poem in which I got the English department people to give me essays. Q: So, what was this study, sorry? A: That was this one here, Writing about a Poem which was a report to the English department to examine a lot of students’ essays and try to work out what was driving them, what was driving their problems, and it was in here that I first started to develop this question of the relationship between the actual problems and the discipline, and this goes back to the philosophy stuff that we were just talking about, you know, the … (unclear) logical problems in the discipline as seen from the discipline’s perspective, and then tried to plot by looking at the errors in the students’ writing, how in fact, the errors that they were making stem directly from questions in literary theory and literary criticism, so that I make an issue in that paper, for example – it was a big issue in literary criticism at the time, what’s the difference between the writer of the poem and the speaker in the poem, and there were all sorts of arguments going on in the field about this, at the time; can you always distinguish the writer from the speaker of the poem. And then, what role does the reader play, and where is the poem, what is this thing called the poem. Well I tried to show in here that a lot of the mistakes the students had when they were writing which give the confusions of this thing which were confusions in literary theory, which of course, they knew nothing about their being first year students, you know this is the first exercise that they did when they started.  Q: And what was the impact of this kind of work on the academics you were working with? A: Oh it was quite tremendous, really. When I gave a seminar to the English department on all this stuff they were staggered and they were quite excited actually to see things and … sort of said, you know, it was one of those “oh yeah!” moments, yeah I can see … (laughter). And that was quite something. And after that, apart from a few stuffed shirts in the English department I got on pretty well with most of the ordinary staff in there, and they used to come and seek my views on things.
  • Gordon’s legacy of written workLiteracy by Degrees
  • Gordon’s legacy of written workA HERD paper
  • AALL Making Histories Project Slideshow, November 26, 2013

    1. 1. MAKING HISTORIES Oral accounts of the emergence and development of ALL Alisa Percy, Bronwyn James, Reem Al-Mahmood and Tim Beaumont
    2. 2. John Clanchy Australian National University Communication and Study Skills Centre 1975-1994 Graduate School 1995-1997
    3. 3. Brigid Ballard Australian National University Communication and Study Skills Centre 1977-1999
    4. 4. Dr Hanne Bock LaTrobe University Language and Academic Study Skills Unit 1979-1990
    5. 5. Associate Professor Gordon Taylor Monash University 1974-1998 Director, Language and Learning Unit Faculty of Arts 1988-1998
    6. 6. Associate Professor Carolyn Webb University of Sydney 1974-1995 A/P Inaugural Head Learning & Teaching Unit University of Western Sydney 1996-2006
    7. 7. JOHN CLANCHY BA (Hons), DipEd, MA, University of Melbourne English Language and Literature • Taught in schools in Victoria • Started at ANU in 1975 John Clanchy ANU 1975-1997 • Initial observations: psychology, pastoral care and reading machines • He was one of the first to begin to conceptualise the area of ALL as we might recognise it today.
    8. 8. “…the transition from school to university is most usefully seen in terms of cultural adjustment. Language, which is perhaps the most potent and tangible expression of culture, is both the biggest obstacle to successful integration into an alien culture and the most powerful means for unlocking it”. (Clanchy 1981, p. 24) “..when we talk about the reading and writing failures of tertiary students we are dealing with a complex set of phenomena which we cannot begin to understand unless we consider the total learning and language environment in which those failures occur.” (Clanchy, 1976, p. 20)
    9. 9. John Clanchy ANU 1975-1997 I was struggling when I first came to the ANU because when I arrived …I was told was that I was running the reading laboratory, and I thought, What the hell’s a reading laboratory?, and there were these reading machines…speed reading was the big go in those years…
    10. 10. But anyway Brigid came along [1977] and said, Look, this really isn't very…, and she gave all [the reading machines] away. She solved the problem. John Clanchy ANU 1975-1997
    11. 11. BRIGID BALLARD BA, English Language and Literature, Oxford University MA, Teaching, Harvard University GradDip, Intercultural Communication, Goulburn CAE Brigid Ballard ANU 1977-1999 • International teaching experience (England, Nigeria and Papua New Guinea) • Started at ANU in 1977 • Worked with John to shape the anthropological approach to ALL work (language, knowledge and culture)
    12. 12. Language, whether oral or written, is indivisible from the culture in which it functions.... This is true at the level of the general academic culture, though it is far more obvious at the sub-cultural level, the level of disciplinary languages or „dialects‟. The key to improving standards of student literacy lies, we think, …in exploring this fundamental relationship between the culture of knowledge and the language by which it is maintained and expressed. 1988 SRHE and Open University Press By such an exploration we are seeking to redress the imbalance in current thinking and discussion about literacy in the university: to move beyond the focus of attention from a concern simply with issues of surface correctness to a larger concern with the functions of and demands upon language in a particular cultural context. (Excerpt, p.7)
    13. 13. …if there's one thing that characterised the way we thought about it, we're kind of intermediaries and interpreters of this whole culture of knowledge and learning, and we're John Clanchy ANU 1975-1997 in between the student in a sense, we're in between the student and the practitioner…
    14. 14. …and that whole idea of culture actually spread because when we were working with international students …we began to realise that it wasn’t just the disciplinary cultures, it was the whole culture of learning, whether you question, how do you make an argument… Brigid Ballard ANU 1977-1999
    15. 15. …certainly working with international students you realise that language was NOT the key problem; it was culture, cross culture, across major cultures, across disciplines, across what you could say and what you couldn’t say… Brigid Ballard ANU 1977-1999
    16. 16. I think our definition of ourselves and our work comes back to this whole business of the focus upon the nature of the context and …, I suppose, if you've got to give it a name, it's epistemology… John Clanchy ANU 1975-1997
    17. 17. …that is, a particular cultural system of knowledge, a good understanding of the underlying culture, and some idea about the way that gets diversified and differentiated by the disciplinary base and how that John Clanchy ANU 1975-1997 interacts with styles of learning.
    18. 18. That first conference we had, now that was important, because we were aware that there were other people working in the other institutions but we didn’t know that much about John Clanchy ANU 1975-1997 them.
    19. 19. Study Skills Conference, ANU, 1980
    20. 20. And what we found was we had a lot that wasn’t in common, and that was a real eye opener because we realised that we came from very different backgrounds and had very different understandings of what we were John Clanchy ANU 1975-1997 doing. So there was the whole psychological stream…out of which a lot of people came…
    21. 21. And then there's a group of us who come out of some more generalised thing, I suppose it's either epistemology or education... So it's more, John Clanchy ANU 1975-1997 What is the university? What is its cultural system? What is it aiming to do in bringing students through and how is language involved in that intellectual development?
    22. 22. And then there was a third group which was very much more heavily …focussed on linguistics … and within a subset of that was an interest in second language, English for Academic John Clanchy ANU 1975-1997 Purposes.
    23. 23. And so while we all started together as having a common interest in student development, intellectual development and personal development, our emphases and our John Clanchy ANU 1975-1997 interests were actually quite diverse.
    24. 24. Brigid did lots of writing about her particular interest in cross cultural education and …that was appreciated by the study advisors…but it was much more appreciated by the John Clanchy ANU 1975-1997 academics around Australia, who [invited her] to visit virtually every university in Australia at their request.
    25. 25. ANU Reporter, 10 June 1983
    26. 26. A selection of their commercial books
    27. 27. I think the books we wrote were useful because they were the first. They may not be the best, but they were the first…there was absolutely nothing in the field that was pragmatic, and I think they were really useful actually. Brigid Ballard ANU 1977-1999
    28. 28. Ballard, B & Clanchy, J. (1991) Teaching students from overseas: A brief guide for lecturers and supervisors, Melbourne: Longman Cheshire. Cited 371 times GS Ballard, B & Clanchy, J. (1997) Teaching international students: A brief guide for lecturers and supervisors, IDPE Australia Cited 243 times GS …the most used thing that we've produced is a one page diagram about different styles of learning and different styles of teaching in different cultures…We still get lots of royalties from the UK ……
    29. 29. …you know, the books we produced for teaching students from overseas, are actually books about how to teach at the tertiary level, but again they're all saying, John Clanchy ANU 1975-1997 We've learnt all this from working with the students, so we're coming at it from that end all the time…
    30. 30. …when we went out to the departments - this is part of Brigid’s cunning - [she] always said, We're here to help your students work better. We're never here to help you teach better, but actually that's what you were doing...
    31. 31. …[we worked] alongside staff through discussion and sharing of experience and then feeding in odd bits of technique or theory as it seemed appropriate. But it was always driven by what was happening to the tutors at that time within their different classes rather than here's a course you’ve got to go through…
    32. 32. …you can see how the work we did often got very close to academic teaching development. Tricky boundaries were happening, and the CEDAM people went off more into research, so it was alright, but we were really treading, well we could have been seen to be treading on their paths. Brigid Ballard ANU 1977-1999
    33. 33. At one point when they were trying to amalgamate [us with CEDAM]. We were very uppity, and we said, Yes, well, we will blend with them: (a) if we can run it, and (b) if all their staff have to work with students for two years, because they'd never taught and worked with students…but that never happened… Brigid Ballard ANU 1977-1999
    34. 34. The things that happened structurally over [the 25 years] were more to do with the gradual changes that took place in the university, and so we had to respond to that…gradually we acquired resources and different kind John Clanchy ANU 1975-1997 of styles as the university changed…
    35. 35. ANU Reporter, April 1987 “…far from being a purely remedial service, [the Centre] provides assistance to a significant proportion of students who go on to obtain credits and distinctions…”
    36. 36. …I suppose we always saw ourselves as responding to the context rather than trying overall to shape it too much… John Clanchy ANU 1975-1997
    37. 37. …it's still a highly flexible and open variable field, isn't it. It's not like you’ve got the set lines of a discipline. …So it is much less settled, which is an opportunity for people to do all sorts John Clanchy ANU 1975-1997 of things...
    38. 38. [ALL educators ] actually are very valuable to [the university], if the university recognises them, because they see what's happening right across the university. John Clanchy ANU 1975-1997
    39. 39. I think the important thing is that it isn't static. It is actually responsive to changes, and although you're right, we've got a core of different things, I think once we defined ourselves as something specific, we'd be done for, we'd be out-dated … Brigid Ballard ANU 1977-1999
    40. 40. …the biggest shift…in the 20 years [is] that this became a field rather than an oddity. It’s becoming a field that’s serious about itself and is taken seriously by the institution John Clanchy ANU 1975-1997 …even if they don’t understand particularly well what is being done…
    41. 41. Brigid and John‟s Research Publication record 1976 1997 1976 The „higher illiteracy‟: Some personal observations (John) 1978 Language in the university (John) 1981 From school to university: the transition between two cultures (John) 1982 Language is not enough: responses to the academic difficulties of overseas students (Brigid) 1984 Improving student writing: An integrated approach to cultural adjustment (Brigid) 1987 Academic adjustment: The other side of the export dollar (Brigid & John) 1988 Literacy in the university: an 'anthropological 'approach (Brigid & John) 1989 Cultural Adjustment by Foreign Students : The Australian Experience (Brigid) 1990 The Cultures of Reason: Students in Strange Lands (Brigid) 1991 Assessment by misconception: Cultural influences and intellectual traditions (Brigid & John) 1994 The integrative role of the learning advisor (Brigid) 1995 Generic skills in the context of higher education (Brigid & John) 1995 Some issues in teaching international students (Brigid) 1996 Contexts of judgement: an analysis of some assumptions identified in examiners' reports on 62 successful PhD theses (Brigid) 1997 Through language to learning: Preparing overseas students for study in Western universities (Brigid)
    42. 42. Students Staff Consults &Workshops Working with tutors and teaching teams in situated practices Embedded practices Working with academics on their own literacy practices ‘How to’ publications ‘How to’ publications on teaching international students Spheres of influence Institution Sector Committee Participation Conference hosting and participation Internal Reports Extensive Networks Extensive academic and commercial scholarship Pivotal role in establishing Aboriginal Centre and Graduate Program Consultation to most Australian universities Various international visits
    43. 43. DR HANNE BOCK La Trobe University (1979-1990)
    44. 44. DR HANNE BOCK LITERACY TUTOR LITERACY & STUDY SKILLS SENIOR LITERACY TUTOR LANGUAGE & ACADEMIC SKILLS UNIT YEARS 1979-1990 SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES LA TROBE UNIVERSITY
    45. 45. HANNE BOCK STARTED HER APPOINTMENT INITIALLY FOR 9 MONTHS AT LA TROBE UNIVERSITY IN 1979. SHE WAS TO REPORT TO THE DEAN ON: WHY STUDENTS CAN‟T WRITE ESSAYS “So the Dean was my boss and I was very, very lucky in [that] the Deans we had in those early years the first 2 or 3 Deans, they were very supportive and they gave us a very free hand. And one more thing, I could use the secretarial services of the dean‟s private secretary.”
    46. 46. IN THE BALANCE OF THINGS: HERDSA COUNSELLORS STUDY SKILLS PEOPLE & THE STUDENT?
    47. 47. “There were the HERDSA people those who were doing teacher development and teaching methods and so on. Then there were the counsellors, the psychological counsellors and then there were what was called study skills people like myself. And we were the people who met occasionally, once a year or so, and tried to learn a bit from each other and generally. We ended up being in separate corners all of us but anyway if I define my role within that triangle then in contrast to those who worked with teachers we didn‟t work on statistics, we didn‟t work on models…” Hanne Bock
    48. 48. HOW I SAW MY ROLE… “Trying to explain: students to teachers, teachers to students… and sitting on the borderline between the two groups, to some extent debunking, to some extent drawing out the blind spots” Hanne Bock Image Source Escher Bond of Union
    49. 49. “In relation to the counsellors we had a very funny relationship with the counsellors at Latrobe they kept saying: „Give them confidence and they‟ll get competence‟, and we kept saying: „Give them competence and they‟ll get confidence‟. … And that sort of defined the relationship we had with them but my point …was always we think that we are right, they think they are right but where do the students come in?” Hanne Bock
    50. 50. …BEYOND „STUDY SKILLS‟ “I found [existing study skills publications] practically criminally insane in the advice they were giving…” Hanne Bock
    51. 51. “I cannot say anything else, forget about model theories, forget about that student doesn‟t fit into the pattern, if a student doesn't fit into a pattern then it's up to you to find where that student‟s universe [is], how that student‟s universe looks. …” Hanne Bock
    52. 52. “It really was the individual approach that did it.” “It is [a privileged space], you have to guard it...” Hanne Bock
    53. 53. ADVICE FOR A NEW ALL PERSON “Don‟t presume you know. Start listening. Start asking. Ask, ask, ask specifically into that student, that situation, and then listen until you feel you have got firm ground, and then always remember that a student is an entire little universe and you have to find access to that universe to help the student and the student has to allow you that access and that‟s something you must treat as a very personal and very precious thing.” Hanne Bock
    54. 54. BEYOND THE CONSULTATION THE DUCKS AND TOADS CAMP Academic staff and the VC attended & taught in the one week camp pre-uni during summer holidays! “One thing we did, we had 500 students in that course from the first year, a 5-week course, and we had lecturers from within the school teaching it, and Helene [Lewit, colleague at La Trobe] had an incredible gift of convincing people they should take part. There were a couple of professors teaching in it and the nice Dean was teaching in it and other than that several lecturers and tutors and they all came back and said: “They had learnt a lot from teaching that course.”
    55. 55. REWARDS OF ALL WORK “The daily work with students that‟s one aspect of it.” Hanne Bock
    56. 56. REWARDS OF ALL WORK “A student came and had finished her studies and brought me an assignment and said: “I realise this is what you were trying to teach me in year 1 and now I have done it. This is my first A paper, and now I'm finished and it's for you, you must have it, you did it. I didn‟t keep the paper of course because she would need to look at that.” Hanne Bock
    57. 57. HIGHLIGHT OF ALL WORK: BEYOND THE UNIVERSITY “Another highlight was another student a tiny little thing who became a teacher and the first year of her teaching career, she was sent out to do sports with a group of HSC boys who were head and shoulders taller than her, and she was a square little Greek girl who had never done a day of sport in her life. It was a terrible situation, and she said: „She really felt very, very badly about it.‟ And then she said: „But then I thought: “What would Hanne have done?”‟ And so I did what you would have done, and it worked.‟” Hanne Bock
    58. 58. Dr Hanne Bock‟s Publications & Provocative Titles
    59. 59. Hanne Bock was one of the instrumental co-authors of the seminal book in the ALL field: BOCK, H. (1988) Academic Literacy: Starting Point or Goal?, in G. Taylor, B. Ballard, V. Beasley, H. Bock, J. Clanchy & P. Nightingale, Literacy by Degrees (Milton Keynes, The Society for Research in Higher Education & Open University Press.
    60. 60. SOME OF HANNE BOCK‟S PUBLICATIONS ----- (1988) In Search of a Task. HERDSA News 10: 3, 3-6. ----- (1986) Phenomenography: Orthodoxy and Innovation or Innovation and Orthodoxy? In: Student Learning: Research into Practice. Ed. John A. Bowden, Centre for the Study of Higher Education, The University of Melbourne. ----- (1985) Interim Report on Transition Course with Peer Group Support for First Year Students, Report commissioned by the Commonwealth Tertiary Education Commission, La Trobe University.
    61. 61. SOME OF HANNE BOCK‟S PUBLICATIONS ----- and Lewit, H. (1984). Head Counting or Skull-Duggery: a Case of Caput Mortuum? In: Proceedings from the conference Language and Learning at Tertiary Level. Ed. R. Meyer, Community Services, Deakin University, Vol. 2, pp. 1-12. ----- and Lewit, H. (1983). What are Remedial Problems?--A Tentative Analysis. In Proceedings from the Conference: the Communication Needs of Tertiary-Level Students. Eds. C. Webb and H. Drury, Language Centre, Sydney University, pp. 1-19. ----- (1983). Essay Writing: Meaning as a Way to Language. Research & Development in Higher Education VI, HERDSA, Sydney, pp. 273-284. ----- (1982). University Essays as Cultural Battlegrounds: The Problems of Migrant Students. In Bock & Gassin (1982), pp. 140-155.
    62. 62. SOME OF HANNE BOCK‟S PUBLICATIONS -----, and Gassin, J. (1982). (Eds): Papers from the Conference - Communication at University: Purpose, Process and Product. School of Social Sciences, La Trobe University. ----- (1981). Teaching Essay Writing to First-Year Social Science Students. Research and Development in Higher Education IV, HERDSA, Sydney, pp. 304-317. ----- (1980). Essay Writing: The Purgatory of University Studies. Laura 1979/80 (Legal Studies Students' Association, La Trobe University), pp. 36-38. Reprinted Blackacre (Sydney University Law Society), pp. 40-42.
    63. 63. WHERE IS HANNE BOCK NOW? Hanne Bock returned to Denmark with her husband after they both served in Australian universities for significant years to embark on a new adventure and establish a translating company. She will be gifting her ALL resources, papers, and books to our project. She reflects on her 11 years of ALL work at La Trobe, saying: “It was a terrific experience.”
    64. 64. Key Thinker & Pivotal Founder of the ALL Profession
    65. 65. Monash University Appointments English Advisor 1974-1975 Lecturer and Senior Lecturer, Higher Education Advisory and Research Unit 1976-1987 Senior Lecturer and Director, Language and Learning Unit Faculty of Arts, 1988-1995 Associate Professor and Director, Language and Learning Unit Faculty of Arts, 1996-1998 Honorary Associate: School of Linguistics and Philosophy Faculty of Arts, 1999-2000 Adjunct Senior Research Fellow: School of Languages, Culture and Linguistics Faculty of Arts, 2007-2010
    66. 66. Names “The first thing to do was to get rid of remedial teaching office. So I got rid of the teaching officer and turned that into English advisor but still had the remedial in front” “And it took me two years to get rid of the remedial bit, officially that is. You know, because you have a plaque on the door, Remedial English Advisor (laughter).”
    67. 67. Names “It was going to be called the Language and Learning Unit by hook or by crook. Fortunately the Dean agreed to it and said, ‘yeah, that’s a good name.’” “I just became the Director of the Language and Learning Unit … And the only person I was directing was myself, at first.”
    68. 68. Academic Status “I also managed to change [the position] from an administrative to an academic job, which I’d worked hard at for over two years because I didn’t think I was going to get any sort of credence from the academic staff unless I was also a member of the academic staff.” “And, of course, I would also say that if you don’t have an academic appointment, then again you’d want to fight for one of them because that’s the best way to start getting the ear of the academic staff”.
    69. 69. Committees “I spent a lot of time in the last few years at Monash on faculty and university committees trying to influence the thinking at that level.” “So I was really able to have an enormous input into the teaching that went on…So that committee work, I think, for me anyway, was important.”
    70. 70. Staff club “Being a member of the staff club helped. We had long lunches with English department people, with historians, with philosophers, and that became part of my life, you know; long lunches with plenty to drink.” “I got to know a lot of academics in the club. And that’s just so important. And I think, a lot of people in the sort of work we did felt isolated in that respect, socially isolated, and so you’ve got to overcome that, and if you’ve got a club in your institution, use it.”
    71. 71. Into the disciplines “The first thing to do is to get inside the disciplines and get to know the disciplines.” “You’ve just got to specialise in a range of disciplines that’s really the first thing, and if you happen to be in a position which isn’t like that, then my advice to anybody would be to say, agitate to get back into the faculties or schools.”
    72. 72. Building a presence through university publications
    73. 73. Gordon’s publication legacy
    74. 74. Gordon's Prolific Scholarship Gordon wrote across Linguistics, Higher Education, Philosophy, Engineering, English Language, Grammar, Writing, History, Education, etc., in a variety of genres: – – – – – – – – – – Edited Books Book Chapters Books Refereed conference papers Journal articles Monographs Government & University commissioned reports Reviews Book Reviews Keynote addresses
    75. 75. Gordon’s Scholarly Journals & Publishers • • • • • • • • • • • • Applied Linguistics Australian Journal of Linguistics Australian Universities Review English in Australia HERDSA News Higher Education Research & Development The History Teacher Cambridge University Press Journal of Literary Semantics Professional Engineer Open University Press & Society Quadrant for Research into Regional English Language Centre Journal Higher Education Victorian Universities & Schools Examinations Board Oxford University Press
    76. 76. Taylor, G. V., Ballard, B., Beasley, V., Bock, H., Clanchy, J. Nightingale. P., (1988) Literacy by degrees. Milton Keynes: Open University Press and Society for Research into Higher Education.
    77. 77. “What Should We Be Doing As A University?” Carolyn Webb University Of Sydney 1974-1995 University Of Western Sydney Associate Professor, Inaugural Head Learning And Teaching Unit 1996-2006
    78. 78. Early Days: A LITLE BIT OF EXTRA WORK s A LIITLE BIT OF EXTRA WORK In 1974 I started working at Sydney, and in 1975 I started from the role that I had just doing a little bit of extra work which was tutoring international – well, students of non-English speaking background. It was 1975 – a year in from starting up work at what was then called the Language Centre at Sydney. And the reason was that there was this flow of students starting to come into the Language Centre… to study English independently, using tapes, the old tapes, spool tapes…
    79. 79. AND THERE WERE SO MANY OF THEM, just this growing stream of students coming in, and the Director of the Language Centre at the time, suggested that I start running some classes…and as it got known more and more students would be …attending these classes. So the numbers of classes grew and over a period of some years this eventually became my full job, and I got given a title of Tutor, then Senior Tutor, and so on. USyd News October 23 1984 – Carolyn Webb, Helen Drury, and students
    80. 80. And then during the rest of the 70’s, that grew into something that became a recognised service, and then from probably about the beginning of the 1980’s, it became increasingly formalised and turned into a centre, … During the mid 1980’s, what I was doing was then restructured into the Centre for Teaching and Learning, which was an academic development unit in the university. And then from the 1990’s I headed up what was then the new Learning Centre. The 1980’s at the University of Sydney with Helen Drury
    81. 81. SIGNIFICANT MOMENTS: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK And I guess it was logical that I was doing that, because of my own background in languages and literature that was a reasonable beginning. I didn’t have any ESL teaching background, or any ESL knowledge. So I just started learning it for myself and then in 1981 I enrolled in the Masters Degree in Applied Linguistics at Sydney.
    82. 82. I had the enormous benefit of working in the same building that the Linguistics Department was originally located in … I was very much an active part of that whole, the Linguistic School… I was really up-to-date and it was, it was a very, very exciting time, leading edge stuff… Michael Halliday was up on another floor and Jim Martin was there and it was, it really was very exciting.
    83. 83. SIGNIFICANT MOMENTS: INSTITUTIONAL ENGAGEMENT AND RECOGNITION It was always the work with faculties directly alongside them working with curriculum, I found that was the highlight of my work, the pinnacle. So I could be working with them as equal colleagues coming from my perspective with their perspective combined – that is where I always saw the best success. I was really, really excited at the time when the Chair of Academic Board at Sydney University asked me to take on what eventually became the MASUS work. I thought that was a significant initiative.
    84. 84. Bottom right are Jim Martin (pony tail) and me. I think Jim was on the Interim Board of Studies. I had been invited to design a course on ‘introduction to academic writing’ or some title like that as one of the foundation courses for credit so that’s why I was at the meeting – I think. Sign of recognition of the value of the work Helen and I had been doing. Of course none of that eventuated and UWS was established quite differently...
    85. 85. EARLY DAYS: KEY FIGURES I thought about the significant figures, for me Gordon Taylor was always a really cool guy he had a lot to say and a lot of really valuable stuff that was a reflection on language and learning. And I really enjoyed what, what he used to say and what he wrote. I think the Clanchy and Ballard stuff was quite interesting for all of their work on cultural influences. I always appreciated Kate Chanock’s work, I think she did really good stuff on the pedagogical practices of ALL and it was always interesting reading the views on individual consultations.
    86. 86. EARLY DAYS: KEY FIGURES Of course all the work that was done at the Sydney University Linguistics School, Jim Martin and all of those on Genre Studies were really important even though they weren’t exactly ALL practitioners, far from it. A lot of the people that were working in teaching and learning centres could’ve just about been called ALL practitioners. If people like Peggy Nightingale, they, she wrote a book on assessment that should’ve been written by an ALL practitioner, but of course there’s been an enormous amount of work since those early days.
    87. 87. SIGNIFICANT MOMENTS But it wasn’t I suppose till the 1980’s that I started to see the signs of people sharing information, sharing ideas, and a field really starting to emerge where there was a name for something that, you’d promote the name, you’d say there’s a meeting and a number of people would come along thinking that it must refer to them. And in a sense that was like, preparing the soil.
    88. 88. SIGNIFICANT MOMENTS EARLY DAYS BUILDING THE FIELD I think was a really fundamental contribution that I and many others made, we got things published, we got discussions going with other groups like HERDSA. We got onto the agenda of HERDSA basically and I remember that going back to early 1980’s where myself and a few other people met with the HERDSA executive to get this as a recognised group within HERDSA. But I think the research function was, was probably quite important in that sharing ideas in a more scholarly kind of forum was a valuable contribution. And not just from me, I mean everyone who contributed from those early days, when we were just building it.
    89. 89. SIGNIFICANT MOMENTS COMING OF AGE – A FIELD EMERGES I think in the 1990’s we started to see the seeds were in and the crop was starting to grow by the 2000’s. I think it was, it was really probably around about 2000 or 2001, in fact for me a very significant time was that conference at Wollongong, because it was really focussed on what the profession was about, that 2001, what was it called? Changing Identities? I found that a really significant turning point, because it just looked like it was such a professional sort of conference, there were so many people speaking in a very interesting and insightful way about what the role was. I thought, oh yeah this is great, the field is really now properly developing into a profession.
    90. 90. SIGNIFICANT MOMENTS EARLY DAYS KEY DRIVERS FOR ACADEMIC LANGUAGE AND LEARNING The whole business of internationalisation was very significant, but I think even before that the bigger influence was the opening up of education. What they call massification, I mean I think that was a really critical part of it and it took quite a long time I think for universities to come to grips with what that would mean. So I think that ALL as a field was really very significant in helping universities interpret the meaning of that, on the ground, so the equity drivers were really fundamental to all of that
    91. 91. AND ONGOING: KEY DRIVERS FOR ACADEMIC LANGUAGE AND LEARNING Quality assurance is something that the universities took really seriously because of the audit processes that were put in train. It took a long time before that started turning into quality improvement, the QA/QI two sides of the coin, but I think what really happened for, not just for the ALL field, but also for teaching and learning support services across the whole plethora. I think they helped universities to articulate what it meant to bring about improvement processes, not just the simpler accountability processes, but actually showing that, auditing and evaluating had some goal, which was to bring about improvement, and clear improvement that you could actually attest to the value for money that public funding was giving.
    92. 92. FROM THE MID 80’S ON SIGNIFICANT MOMENTS WHAT SHOULD WE WE DOING AS A UNIVERSITY? The work that we did in running workshops for students, fabulous, they were always fun, you always felt that you’d enriched the lives of students in some way, and that they went away having learnt valuable things. So I loved doing those, but they were really frustrating because you could never do enough, and the work that you did with individual students, was always absolutely brilliant, but you just couldn’t do enough.
    93. 93. FROM THE MID 80’S ON WHAT SHOULD WE WE DOING AS A UNIVERSITY? …for me it was very much about not just having an immediate impact on the students … but actually having an impact that had a longer term that would stay. Even though a student had finished their degree, someone else had learnt something that had become part of a system. That things had a longevity beyond the lives of each individual student, and that the whole system was improving. And I think that was really driving my thinking, probably from about the mid 1980’s and caused me to get into a lot of discussion, a lot of argy bargy, as I tried to beat people around the head, with what my view was.
    94. 94. TEACHING AND LEARNING … taking up the job at UWS Hawkesbury was really exciting because I could bring those 2 things [learning and teaching] together in a way that I wasn’t aware at the time was being done anywhere else in the country. And they were, they were really exciting years actually, even though I’d have to also say they weren’t easy, because it was a constant process of trying to engage other people in sharing that understanding. And that included both the staff of the university outside the unit, but also the staff within the unit. I think people struggled to understand how you could marry those 2 elements, because it was just such a view that teaching and learning were separate, that staff and students had to be dealt with in different domains. And I just never, never really subscribed to that view…

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