Be9e 02 Chp 2


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Be9e 02 Chp 2

  1. 1. 9 th Edition, © 2008, Thomson/South-Western Chapter 2 Parts of Speech
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Define the eight parts of speech. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize how parts of speech function in sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Compose sentences showing words playing more than one grammatical role. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Interjections Conjunctions Prepositions Adverbs Adjectives Verbs Pronouns Nouns The Eight Parts of Speech
  4. 4.  Nouns name persons, places, things, qualities, feelings, concepts, activities, and measures. Persons Ryan, Angelica, employees Places San Francisco, Hawaii, Europe Things pizza, popcorn, surfboard Qualities reliability, flexibility, patience Feelings happiness, anger, confusion Concepts communication, productivity, freedom Activities working, snowboarding, dancing Measures day, week, inch, kilometer
  5. 5. To test for a noun, use the word in question with the verb is or are . <ul><li>Try these nouns with is or are . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laurie is . . . . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers are . . . . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiative is . . . . </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6.  Pronouns replace nouns. Use them for efficiency and variety. <ul><li>Without pronouns, sentences sound like this: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Matt said that Matt must find Matt’s keys before Matt can leave for work. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How would that sentence sound with pronouns? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Matt said that he must find his keys before he can leave for work. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7.  Verbs express an action, an occurrence, or a state of being. <ul><li>Kim drove her car to work. (Action) </li></ul><ul><li>Kim has a bicycle too. (Occurrence) </li></ul><ul><li>Her bicycle is red. (State of being) </li></ul><ul><li>For our purposes, we’ll focus on two kinds of verbs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Action verbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linking verbs </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Action Verb Tells what the subject does; includes physical and mental action EXAMPLES dances, decides, works, praises Linking Verb Joins words that describe the subject EXAMPLES is, are, was, were, am, appears, seems, feels, smells, tastes, looks
  9. 9. To test for a verb, try the word in question with a noun. <ul><li>Try several action and linking verbs with this expression. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The manager(s) _________________. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make sense? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The manager dances , the manager decides , and so forth. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10.  Adjectives describe nouns or pronouns. They answer the questions What kind? How many? and Which one? <ul><li>A good student submitted excellent work. (What kind?) </li></ul><ul><li>Our manager bought two computers and one printer. (How many?) </li></ul><ul><li>This printer is expensive . (Which one?) </li></ul>The words a , an , and the form a special group of adjectives called articles .
  11. 11.  Adverbs describe or limit verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. They answer such questions as When? How? Where? and To what extent? <ul><li>Yesterday the printer jammed repeatedly . (When and how?) </li></ul><ul><li>The restaurant is over there . (Where?) </li></ul><ul><li>We were served very quickly . (How and to what extent?) </li></ul>To help you remember the function of an adverb, think of its two syllables: ad meaning to add to or amplify the meaning of a verb .
  12. 12.  Prepositions join nouns and pronouns to other words in sentences. For example, The truck was driven by Kim. for Kim. to Kim. with Kim. around Kim. over Kim. Notice how prepositions change the relationship between Kim and the verb.
  13. 13. How many prepositions do you see in the following sentence? After the accident Kim went to Hawaii for a vacation in the sun. 4
  14. 14.  Conjunctions connect words or groups of words. The coordinating conjunctions are: Pizza and burritos are Kim’s favorites, but she is also able to tolerate gyros. <ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>nor </li></ul><ul><li>but </li></ul><ul><li>so (used casually) </li></ul><ul><li>yet (used occasionally) </li></ul><ul><li>for </li></ul>
  15. 15.  Interjections show surprise, disbelief, or strong feeling. Oops , I can’t believe I forgot the attachment again! Wow ! Did you feel that tremor?
  16. 16. TIP The same word can function as different parts of speech depending on how it is used in a sentence. Consider the word service . <ul><li>We received good service here. (Noun) </li></ul><ul><li>He operates a service station. (Adjective) </li></ul><ul><li>Did you service your car? (Verb) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Exclaimers Interjections Connectors Prepositions Conjunctions Describers Adjectives Adverbs Performers Verbs Namers Nouns Pronouns Quick Summary of Parts of Speech
  18. 18. Show strong feeling Interjections Exclaimers Connect words Conjunctions Join nouns, pronouns to sentence Prepositions Connectors Describe verbs, adjectives, adverbs Adverbs Describe nouns and pronouns Adjectives Describers Show action or link words Verbs Performers Rename things Pronouns Name things Nouns Namers
  19. 19. Identify the part of speech for each word in the following sentence. TRY YOUR SKILL <ul><li>Kim becomes angry when she receives spam messages. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kim ( noun ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>becomes ( verb ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>angry ( adjective ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when ( conjunction ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>she ( pronoun ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>receives ( verb ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spam ( adjective ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>messages ( noun ) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. TRY YOUR SKILL <ul><li>Ryan was upset, but he quickly solved the problem. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ryan ( noun ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>was ( verb ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>upset ( adjective ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but ( conjunction ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>he ( pronoun ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>quickly ( adverb ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>solved ( verb ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the ( article-adjective ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>problem ( noun ) </li></ul></ul>Identify the part of speech for each word in the following sentence.
  21. 21. TRY YOUR SKILL <ul><li>They work carefully on a big project. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They ( noun ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>work ( verb ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carefully ( adverb ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on ( preposition ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a ( article-adjective ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>big ( adjective ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>project ( noun ) </li></ul></ul>Identify the part of speech for each word in the following sentence.
  22. 22. TRY YOUR SKILL <ul><li>Kim and Ryan prepared two work sheets. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kim ( noun ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and ( conjunction ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ryan ( noun ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prepared ( verb ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>two ( adjective ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>work ( adjective ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sheets ( noun ) </li></ul></ul>Identify the part of speech for each word in the following sentence.
  23. 23. TRY YOUR SKILL <ul><li>The work for the project is very hard. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ( adjective–article ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>work ( noun ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for ( preposition ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the ( adjective-article ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>project ( noun ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is ( verb ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>very ( adverb ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hard ( adjective ) </li></ul></ul>Identify the part of speech for each word in the following sentence.
  24. 24. <ul><li>Language is like a house that is made of bricks (vocabulary) and cement (grammar). </li></ul><ul><li>Without bricks, you can't build a house; without cement, the house will fall apart. </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar holds your vocabulary together and helps make your meaning exact. </li></ul>