conflict and negotiation = bargaining


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stephen p. robbins and timothy a. judge book organizational behavior chapter 14 in 15th edition

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  • conflict and negotiation = bargaining

    1. 1. After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Define conflict. 2. Differentiate between the traditional, human relations, and interactionist views of conflict. 3. Contrast task, relationship, and process conflict. 4. Outline the conflict process. 5. Describe the five conflict-handling intentions. 6. Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining. LEARNINGOBJECTIVES
    2. 2. After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 7. Identify the five steps in the negotiating process. 8. Describe cultural differences in negotiations.
    3. 3. Conflict and Negotiation The work life of a project manager is a life of conflict. Although conflict is not necessarily bad, it is an issue that has to be resolved by the project manager. Without excellent negotiation skills, the project manager has little chance for success. Taylor, J. 1998. A survival guide for project managers. AMACON
    4. 4. Transitions in Conflict Thought .Causes: • Poor communication • Lack of openness • Failure to respond to employee needs Traditional view of conflict – all conflict is harmful and must be avoided
    5. 5. Interactionist view of conflict – conflict is not only a positive force in a group, but it is also an absolute necessity for a group to perform effectively. Human relations view of conflict –conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group.
    6. 6. Functional versus Dysfunctional ConflictFunctional Conflict Conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance. Dysfunctional Conflict Conflict that hinders group performance.
    7. 7. 3 types of conflict: Task conflict – conflict over content and goals of the work. Relationship conflict – conflict based on interpersonal relationships. Process conflict – conflict over how work gets done.
    8. 8. The Conflict Process
    9. 9. Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility • Communication – Semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, and “noise” • Structure – Size and specialization of jobs – Jurisdictional clarity/ambiguity – Member/goal incompatibility – Leadership styles (close or participative) – Reward systems (win-lose) – Dependence/interdependence of groups • Personal Variables – Differing individual value systems – Personality types
    10. 10. Stage II: Cognition and Personalization Positive FeelingsNegative Emotions Conflict Definition Perceived Conflict Awareness by one or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise. Felt Conflict Emotional involvement in a conflict creating anxiety, tenseness, frustration, or hostility.
    11. 11. STAGE III: INTENTIONS © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14–12 Cooperativeness: • Attempting to satisfy the other party’s concerns. Assertiveness: • Attempting to satisfy one’s own concerns. Intentions Decisions to act in a given way.
    13. 13. STAGE III: INTENTIONS (CONT’D) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14–14 Competing A desire to satisfy one’s interests, regardless of the impact on the other party to the conflict. Collaborating A situation in which the parties to a conflict each desire to satisfy fully the concerns of all parties. Avoiding The desire to withdraw from or suppress a conflict.
    14. 14. STAGE III: INTENTIONS (CONT’D) Accommodating The willingness of one party in a conflict to place the opponent’s interests above his or her own. Compromising A situation in which each party to a conflict is willing to give up something.
    15. 15. STAGE IV: BEHAVIOR © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14–16 Conflict Management The use of resolution and stimulation techniques to achieve the desired level of conflict.
    16. 16. Conflict-Intensity Continuum
    17. 17. Conflict Management Techniques Conflict Resolution Techniques • Problem solving • Superordinate goals • Expansion of resources • Avoidance • Smoothing • Compromise • Authoritative command • Altering the human variable • Altering the structural variables
    18. 18. Conflict Management Techniques Conflict Resolution Techniques • Communication • Bringing in outsiders • Restructuring the organization • Appointing a devil’s advocate
    19. 19. Functional Outcomes from Conflict Increased group performance Improved quality of decisions Stimulation of creativity and innovation Encouragement of interest and curiosity Provision of a medium for problem-solving Creation of an environment for self-evaluation and change Creating Functional Conflict Reward dissent and punish conflict avoiders. Stage V: Outcomes
    20. 20. Stage V: Outcomes • Dysfunctional Outcomes from Conflict – Development of discontent – Reduced group effectiveness – Retarded communication – Reduced group cohesiveness – Infighting among group members overcomes group goals
    21. 21. Negotiation Negotiation A process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them. BATNA The Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement; the lowest acceptable value (outcome) to an individual for a negotiated agreement.
    22. 22. Bargaining Strategies Distributive Bargaining Negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources; a win-lose situation. Integrative Bargaining Negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a win-win solution.
    23. 23. Distributive Versus Integrative Bargaining Bargaining Distributive Integrative Characteristic Characteristic Characteristic Available resources Fixed amount of Variable amount of resources to be divided resources to be divided Primary motivations I win, you lose I win, you win Primary interests Opposed to each other Convergent or congruent with each other Focus of relationships Short term Long term
    25. 25. The Negotiati on Process
    26. 26. Preparation and planning • What is the nature of conflict? • Who is involved? • What are your goals? • BATNA ( the best alternative to a negotiated agreement) Definition of ground rules • Who will do the negotiating? • Where it will take place? • What is the time limit? Clarification and justification • Educating and informing
    27. 27. Bargaining and Problem Solving • Concessions time Closure and implementation • Formalizing the agreement and developing procedure • BUT closure of the negotiation process for most cases is nothing more than a formal handshake
    28. 28. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN NEGOTIATION EFFECTIVENESS Personality traits •The best bargainer is Disagreeable introvert (according to the Big Five Test) Moods/emotions Gender differences •a popular stereotype: women are more cooperative and pleasant in negotiations than men. Cultural differences •Brazilians on average said “no” 83 times, Japanese 5 and North Americans 9 •Brazilians interrupted 2.5 to 3 times more often than the North Americans and Japanese •Japanese and North Americans had no physical contact while Brazilians touched each other almost 5 times every half hour
    29. 29. THIRD PARTY NEGOTIATIONS Mediator – a neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning, persuasion and suggestions for alternatives. Arbitrator – a third party to a negotiation who has the authority to dictate an agreement
    30. 30. THIRD PARTY NEGOTIATIONS Conciliator – a trusted third party who provides an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent. Consultant – a skilled and impartial third party who attempts to facilitate problem solving through communication and analysis, aided by a knowledge of conflict management.