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Slides for a talk on UML Semantics in Nuremberg in 2005

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An ASM semantics for the communication layer in
          Rational Rose Real-Time

           Stefan Leue    Alin Stef˘nescu
                               ¸ a
                              speaking

             Software Engineering Group
               University of Konstanz

                  7–November–2005
IMCOS project at the University of Konstanz


   People:
     • Prof. Stefan Leue
     • Wei Wei
     • Alin Stef˘nescu
            ¸ a

   Project IMCOS:
     • “incomplete but fully automated methods for the analysis and
       verification of concurrent, object-oriented software systems”
     • buffer-boundedness scalable test for RoseRT models and other
       communicating machines                        (stage: mature)
     • model checking RoseRT models              (stage: in progress)


                                                                        2
Motivation



   Goal: formal analysis of models as implemented by a tool
   (Rational Rose Real Time)

     • Formal semantics of model behavior is essential
        → tuned analysis algorithms
        → tool documentation also sometimes too informal
        → not enough UML-RT formalization
     • Executable semantics
        → Abstract State Machines (tool support)
        → previous ASM modeling for UML parts available




                                                              3
UML-RT and Rational Rose Real-Time

  ROOM (1994) & UML (1997)   UML-RT (1998)




                                             4
UML-RT and Rational Rose Real-Time

  ROOM (1994) & UML (1997)    UML-RT (1998)
                        supported by Rational Rose Real-Time




                                                               4
UML-RT and Rational Rose Real-Time

  ROOM (1994) & UML (1997)    UML-RT (1998)
                        supported by Rational Rose Real-Time
                    port




                                     state machine
                capsule




                                                               4

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Slides for a talk on UML Semantics in Nuremberg in 2005

  • 1. An ASM semantics for the communication layer in Rational Rose Real-Time Stefan Leue Alin Stef˘nescu ¸ a speaking Software Engineering Group University of Konstanz 7–November–2005
  • 2. IMCOS project at the University of Konstanz People: • Prof. Stefan Leue • Wei Wei • Alin Stef˘nescu ¸ a Project IMCOS: • “incomplete but fully automated methods for the analysis and verification of concurrent, object-oriented software systems” • buffer-boundedness scalable test for RoseRT models and other communicating machines (stage: mature) • model checking RoseRT models (stage: in progress) 2
  • 3. Motivation Goal: formal analysis of models as implemented by a tool (Rational Rose Real Time) • Formal semantics of model behavior is essential → tuned analysis algorithms → tool documentation also sometimes too informal → not enough UML-RT formalization • Executable semantics → Abstract State Machines (tool support) → previous ASM modeling for UML parts available 3
  • 4. UML-RT and Rational Rose Real-Time ROOM (1994) & UML (1997) UML-RT (1998) 4
  • 5. UML-RT and Rational Rose Real-Time ROOM (1994) & UML (1997) UML-RT (1998) supported by Rational Rose Real-Time 4
  • 6. UML-RT and Rational Rose Real-Time ROOM (1994) & UML (1997) UML-RT (1998) supported by Rational Rose Real-Time port state machine capsule 4
  • 7. UML-RT and Rational Rose Real-Time ROOM (1994) & UML (1997) UML-RT (1998) supported by Rational Rose Real-Time port → ← state machine capsule Communication Services Goal: • understand and formalize the communication services in RoseRT with Java as underlying detail and target language 4
  • 8. Communication layer specified by UML-RT → ← all communication exclusively via asynchronous message passing • p2p connections via ports (sole public interface) regulated by binary protocols • event-driven paradigm • priority-based message dispatching • run-to-completion behavior → messages arriving while capsule busy are queued 5
  • 9. ASM formalism • We choose Abstract State Machines (ASM) introduced by Gurevich as semantic envelope for our formalization. • ASMs are transitions systems with → states described by sets with relations and functions → initial state → transitions described by update rules controlling the modification of functions • Multi-agents ASMs (used for our concurrent setting) → a set of (sequential) agents → each executing a program consisting of ASM rules. 6
  • 10. UML-RT capsule signature in ASM static domain Capsule static interface: Capsule → P(Port) static stateMachine: Capsule → StateMachine currMessage: Capsule → Message static domain Port static capsule: Port → Capsule static inSignals: Port → P(Signal) static outSignals: Port → P(Signal) static conjugate: Port → Port constraint ∀p ∈ Port : p.conjugate.conjugate = p ∧ p.outSignals ⊆ p.conjugate.inSignals 7
  • 11. Communication layer implemented by RoseRT Controller 1 Controller N capsules ... capsules messages in transit messages in transit scheduler scheduler all communication is in the hands of controllers • each controller runs on a separate thread • one-to-many relation between controllers and capsules • scheduler iteratively dispatches messages to capsules Although one thinks of each capsule as a separate ‘active agent’, we add in ASM agents only for controllers, and not for capsules (concurrency is at the level of controllers only). 8
  • 12. Topology of a controller Each controller organizes messages in global FIFO queues 8 < m ··· m · · · (priority 0) internal messages ··· m ··· m · · · (priority 6) : 8 < m ··· m · · · (priority 0) incoming messages ··· m ··· m · · · (priority 6) : deferred messages m ··· m ··· static domain Controller static controller : Capsule → Controller internalQueue: Controller × Priority → Message∗ incomingQueue: Controller × Priority → Message∗ deferredQueue: Controller × Priority → Message∗ 9
  • 13. Message dispatching (scheduler behavior) 8 < m ··· m · · · (priority 0) internal messages ··· m ··· m · · · (priority 6) : 8 < m ··· m · · · (priority 0) incoming messages ··· m ··· m · · · (priority 6) : In an infinite loop, the scheduler of each controller: 1 selects the highest-priority non-empty queue of incoming messages 2 appends it to the queue of internal messages with the same priority 3 pops the first message in the highest-priority non-empty queue of internal messages and 4 dispatch it to the corresponding capsule for processing 10
  • 14. Scheduler behavior in ASM internal queues (Q0, . . . , Q6) + incoming queues (Q0, . . . , Q6) For each agent a ∈ Agent associated to a controller: Rule SchedulerMessageDispatching (Self ) let ctrl=Self .controller in seq appendHighestIncomingQueueToInternal(crtl) let msg=firstHighestInternalMessage(ctrl) in messageProcessing (msg,msg.destinationPort.capsule) dequeue(msg,ctrl.internalQueue(msg.priority )) where e.g. messageProcessing (msg ,capsule) ≡ seq capsule.currMessage := msg stateMachineExecution(capsule.stateMachine, msg ) capsule.currMessage := nil 11
  • 15. Actions under focus → ← • Send – port.signal.send(priority ) • Invoke – port.signal.invoke • Reply – port.signal.reply • Defer – defer • Recall – port.recall(ahead) • Purge – port.purge 12
  • 16. Send (asynchronous message) → port.signal.send(priority ) ≡ let (destCtrl=port.conjugate.capsule.controller ∧ originCtrl=port.capsule.controller ∧ msg= port.conjugate, signal, priority , port ) in if (destCtrl == originCtrl) then enqueue(msg,destCtrl.internalQueue(priority )) else enqueue(msg,destCtrl.incomingQueue(priority )) 13
  • 17. Invoke (procedure call) {Capsule A invokes capsule B}: A sends a message to B for processing, waits for a reply from B, then continues its execution RoseRT restrictions • invokes are allowed only inside a controller • no circular invokes • invokes cannot be deferred Implementation details • invoked messages are directly sent to destination capsule for processing (no queues involved) • replies to invokes are specially handled by controllers currReplyInvoke: Controller → Message 14
  • 18. Reply → ← While processing a message, a capsule may reply to the sender • the reply must be send via the port the original messages was received • the semantics depending on the original message msg: → if msg is an (ordinary) send, then reply is also an ordinary send with the same priority → if msg is an invoke, then reply will just place an acknowledgment in a dedicated holder on the sender’s controller 15
  • 19. Defer – recall – purge While processing a message, a capsule may defer it, and recall it sometime later. Batches of deferred messages may be simply discarded (purged), if expired. • a global queue of deferred messages per controller • all defer/recall/purge operations explicit in action code • this approach diverges from e.g. UML 2.0 recomandation: → states may have lists of deferrable events → deferred events are automatically reconsidered when “a state is reached where either the event is no longer deferred or where the event triggers a transition.” 16
  • 20. Next steps • towards an executable semantics for RoseRT (communication) • adding timing facilities → timeouts as special messages • RoseRT state machines → based on existing ASM semantics for UML state diagrams • simulation and testing of the ASM model → looking into Spec Explorer from Microsoft (and AsmL) • incorporating communication details into a model checker → playing with Bogor from Kansas University Critics and suggestions are welcome! 17