Background: Earlier the sensor networks comprised of a few number of sensor nodes wired to a central processing station. B...
Load Balancing
Network Coverage</li></ul>Scope of our work: There are many scopes in WSN field. Such as temperature, humidity, vehicular ...
Siva D. Muruganathan, Daniel C. F MA, Rolly, Bhasin and Abraham O. Fapojuwo, “A Centralized Energy-Efficient Routing Proto...
D. Estrin, R. Govindan, J. Heidemann, S. Kumar, Next century challenges: scalable coordination in sensor networks, ACM Mob...
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Study On Energy Efficient Centralized Routing Protocol For Wireless Sensor Networks Based On Leach C

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Proposing the best cluster head selection technique so that life time of each node may increase.

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Study On Energy Efficient Centralized Routing Protocol For Wireless Sensor Networks Based On Leach C

  1. 1. Background: Earlier the sensor networks comprised of a few number of sensor nodes wired to a central processing station. But these days wireless sensor networks, comprising of hundreds or even thousands of small nodes, are employed in a wide range of applications. These nodes, with limited computing, communicating and sensing capabilities as well as limited energy, can make the best use of themselves to gather data from sensor nodes to Base Station (BS) by using excellent network topologies, optimized routing schemes or data fusion algorithms in order to gain the lifetime as long as possible[1]. Various routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks such as Direct Communication, MTE, LEACH, LEACH-C, BCDCP etc. Within these protocols some use multi-hop routing, some use two-hop routing. Scientists are trying to improve the performance of such protocols, so innovative routing protocols are designed.<br />Problem Statement: The routing protocols which are proposed so far have problems. Such as in the simplest direct communication (DIRECT) routing protocol, each sensor node directly communicates with the base station. Since the distance is large, it consumes the energy quickly in most cases. Another routing protocol, minimum-transmission-energy (MTE) routing protocol improves the energy efficiency of DIRECT by multi-hop transmission. But MTE only considers the energy of the transmitter and neglects the energy dissipation of the receivers in determining the routes, thus it is not correct [2]. In LEACH, cluster heads are self elected. Every round LEACH reorganizes that cluster. The cluster heads are selected randomly except for the sensor nodes previously selected as heads. The cluster may or may not be divided equally. If the cluster is not divided properly, each sensor node's energy consumption would increase. LEACH-C uses centralized clustering algorithm to improve LEACH. In LEACH-C, during the initial stage, each node has to send information about its current location and energy level to the base station. The base station runs an optimization algorithm to determine the clusters for that round. Thus, LEACH-C requires the position of each node at the beginning of each round. A global positioning system GPS is required for this purpose [2]. <br />Objectives: After much study on advantages and disadvantages of such protocols which are discussed above, we conclude that we will work to solve four considerations. There are:<br /><ul><li>Energy Hierarchical Communication
  2. 2. Load Balancing
  3. 3. Network Coverage</li></ul>Scope of our work: There are many scopes in WSN field. Such as temperature, humidity, vehicular movement, lightning condition, pressure, soil makeup, noise levels, the presence or absence of certain kinds of objects, mechanical stress levels on attached objects, and the current characteristics such as speed, direction, and size of an object. Sensor nodes can be used for continuous sensing, event detection, event ID, location sensing, and local control of actuators. The concept of micro-sensing and wireless connection of these nodes promises many new application areas. We categorize the applications into military, environment, health, home and other commercial areas. It is possible to expand this classification with more categories such as space exploration, chemical processing and disaster relief [3].<br />Gantt Chart of our work: The following figure represents the relation of tasks corresponding to time.<br /><ul><li>Figure 1: Gantt chart of our work</li></ul>Methodology: Here we are going to discuss the methods which are used to solve the tasks shown in Figure 1.<br />Task1 represents the study on existing systems i,e. to know what the latest technology is used. Their working technique that is protocols they used. The comparism of results among existing systems.<br />Task2 represents, understanding the problem of existing system. The ways which are using now in modern world in this field have problems. We tried to find out those problems.<br />According to the problems discussed in task2, we tried to the find the way to solve the problems in task3.<br />After finding the solution, we attempted to design algorithms or protocols in task4 to get an improved technique for this field.<br />We modified parallel simulated annealing algorithm and we were going to implement it with the suitable simulation software which means task5.<br />We got a result from the above implementation and compared this result with the performance of existing system at task6. But performance of our protocol is not so much better than the existing system. <br />We completed up to task6 so far. The other tasks are our future work. <br />As we did not get good result, we further start studying in task7, to develop a new a technique that can show a better performance than existing system.<br />After getting new technique, we will implement that technique to observe the performance of our proposed technique at task8.<br />In task9, we will compare result with previous result which we got from task6 and with the performance of existing system.<br />Description: Wireless networks consist of a number of nodes which communicate with each other over a wireless channel. Various routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks such as Direct Communication, MTE, LEACH, LEACH-C, BCDCP etc. In the direct transmission protocol, the base station serves as the destination node to all the other nodes in the network where the end user can access the sensed data. In MTE, the nodes closest to the base station will rapidly drain their energy resources since these nodes engage in the routing of a large number of data messages (on behalf of other nodes) to the base station [2]. LEACH is proposed that employs the technique of randomly rotating the role of a cluster head among all the nodes in the network. LEACH-C utilizes the base station for cluster formation. The key ideas in BCDCP are the formation of balanced clusters where each cluster head serves an approximately equal number of member nodes to avoid cluster head overload, uniform placement of cluster heads throughout the whole sensor field, and utilization of cluster-head-to-cluster-head (CH-to-CH) routing to transfer the data to the base station [2]. <br />Our Proposed Technique: In our technique we used a modified parallel simulated annealing algorithm that is “Clustering Algorithm for Simulated Annealing” for selecting cluster heads efficiently. In parallel simulated annealing algorithm, solutions were chosen randomly and distributed it to every node. But in our algorithm we did not do that. We took the solutions randomly and the best one was distributed to every node for further process. We implemented this algorithm and simulated it with the simulation software. After simulation we did analysis the result to observe how good performance is showed by our technique. But it did not show much better result than existing systems. The comparison of results among various protocols including our technique is given below.<br />Figure 2: Comparison among LEACH, LEACH-C and Our technique.<br />Here we considered some metrics to make a comparison among these techniques. The new metric First Node Dies (FND) denotes an estimated value for this event for a specific network configuration. The metric Last Node Dies (LND) gives an estimated value for the overall lifetime of a micro sensor network [4].<br />From the figure 2, we can see that in our technique FND is little bit better than other technique but LND is poorer than other technique. So we again started thinking about it to develop another protocol that can show us a better performance.<br />Conclusion: We proposed a new algorithm to select cluster heads in each cluster. But the performance is not good. So we tried to develop another algorithm or design protocols to get better performance. If cluster heads can be selected efficiently, the main issue for wireless sensor network that is lifetime of nodes will be increased, energy dissipation will be decreased. <br />Reference:<br /><ul><li>Guangyan Huang, Xiaowei Li, Jing He, “Energy-Efficiency Analysis of Cluster-Based Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks”, published in IEEE Xplore, 2006.
  4. 4. Siva D. Muruganathan, Daniel C. F MA, Rolly, Bhasin and Abraham O. Fapojuwo, “A Centralized Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks”, Proceedings of IEEE Radio Communication, March 2005.
  5. 5. D. Estrin, R. Govindan, J. Heidemann, S. Kumar, Next century challenges: scalable coordination in sensor networks, ACM MobiCom’99, Washingtion, USA, 1999, pp. 263–270.
  6. 6. M. J. Handy, M. Haase, D. Timmermann, “Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy with Deterministic Cluster-Head Selection”, Institute of Applied Microelectronics and Computer Science, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany</li></ul> <br />

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