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Thesis w notes_alimac

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here is the final presentation with my oral presentation notes in caps below

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Thesis w notes_alimac

  1. 1. Digital Memory and the Demise of Forgetting
  2. 2. Hypothesis This thesis presents the hypothesis that the external memory created by social networking sites and other forms of digital recording in cyberspace may have negative consequences for personal and professional advancement.!"#$%!"&$#$%(&$&)!$%!"&%"*+!"&$#$%!",!%!"&%&-!&(),.%/&/+(*0(&,!&1%2*%$+0#,.%)&!3+(4#)5%$#!&$%,)1%+!"&(%6+(/$%+6%1#5#!,.(&0+(1#)5%#)%0*2&($,0&%/,*%",7&%)&5,!#7&%0+)$&89&)0&$%6+(%+9(&($+),.%,)1%(+6&$$#+),.%,17,)0&/&)!: 2
  3. 3. THE HIGH LEVEL OF DETAIL WITH WHICH SITES LIKEFACEBOOK RECORD EVENTS INTERFERES WITH OURNATURAL ABILITY TO FORGET, SUGGESTING THAT ANEED EXISTS FOR DIGITAL FORGETFULNESS. INCONTRAST TO WIDELY ACCEPTED NOTIONS OF THEDESIRABILITY FOR LEGACY THROUGH PHOTOGRAPHICAND TEXT-BASED DOCUMENTATION, BEING ABLETO QUICKLY SURPASS EVERY DETAIL OF A DIFFICULTEXPERIENCE, CAN BE ULTIMATELY ADVISABLE FORPERSONAL AND SOCIAL BETTERMENT.
  4. 4. UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF HUMAN MEMORY INPERSONAL DEVELOPMENT MIGHT PROVIDE ANEXPLANATION FOR HOW DIGITAL ARCHIVING HINDERSTHE NATURAL PROCESS OF LETTING GO. THIS INTURN COULD LEAD TO A SOLUTION THAT WOULDRESTORE THE ABILITY TO FORGET EVERY DETAIL OFPAST EXPERIENCES.
  5. 5. What is Human Memory? mem•o•ry (mm-r)n. pl. mem•o•ries the faculty by which the mind stores and remembers informationHUMAN MEMORY IS THE FACULTY BY WHICHTHE MIND STORES AND REMEMBERSINFORMATION
  6. 6. Three Main Branches of Human MemoryTHERE ARE THREE MAIN BRANCHES OF HUMAN MEMORY: SENSORY,SHORT TERM, AND LONG TERMSENSORY MEMORY IS THE INFORMATION WE RECALL THROUGH OURSENSES. LASTS A FEW SECONDSSHORT TERM MEMORY (STM) IS HOW THE INFORMATION WE GATHERTHROUGH OUR SENSES IS TRANSFERRED INTO OUR CONSCIOUSNESS. THISIS ACTIVE INFORMATION THAT LASTS UP TO 30 SECONDS. READING THISSLIDE IS AN EXAMPLE OF STM.LONG TERM MEMORY (LTM) IS BROKEN DOWN INTO TWO FORMS OFMEMORY (MOVE ON TO NEXT SLIDE) •IMPLICIT (OR PROCEDURAL) MEMORY AND DECLARATIVE MEMORY 6
  7. 7. IMPLICIT (OR PROCEDURAL) MEMORY IS AUTOMATIC MEMORY THAT HASBEEN STORED DUE TO EXCESSIVE PRACTICE OR HABIT; IE. BRUSHING YOURTEETHDECLARATIVE MEMORY IS MEMORY THAT WE CONSCIOUSLY ACCESS.THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF DECLARATIVE MEMORY (MOVE TO NEXT SLIDE)
  8. 8. !SEMANTIC MEMORY: GENERICFACTS; FLORENCE IS A CITY IN ITALY!EPISODIC MEMORY:AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL MEMORIES; ILIVED IN FLORENCE FOR 4 MONTHSDURING COLLEGE.
  9. 9. What is External Memory? Information stored outside of the human mind Forms of external memoryEXTERNAL MEMORY IS MEMORY WE STOREOUTSIDE OF OUR BRAINS. WE THINK OFEXTERNAL MEMORY THESE DAYS IN TERMS OFTECHNOLOGY, SINCE IT IS THE NAME GIVEN TOPORTABLE DEVICES USED FOR STORINGINFORMATION. HOWEVER EXTERNAL MEMORYHAS BEEN AROUND FOR MORE THAN 30,000YEARS.UP UNTIL DIGITIZATION, EXTERNAL MEMORY HAS EXISTED INANALOG FORMAT. FORMS OF THIS TYPE OF EXTERNALMEMORY INCLUDE (TURN TO NEXT SLIDE) 9
  10. 10. CAVE PAINTINGS, THE OLDEST FORM OF EXTERNAL MEMORY
  11. 11. WRITING. ABOVE IS AN EXAMPLE OF ANCIENTCHINESE TEXT
  12. 12. THE FIRST CAMERA IN 1817
  13. 13. TO THE INVENTION OF THE PHONOGRAPH IN 1878
  14. 14. TO FILM RECORDING IN 1895.
  15. 15. How digitization has revolutionized external memory “By eliminating noise, the incremental forgetting inherent in analog technology, the notion of originals and copies is rapidly becoming an outdated concept.” -from Delete: The Virtue of Forgetting in the Digital Age, p. 60THE PROBLEM WITH THE ANALOG FORMAT ISTHAT EVERYTIME SOMETHING IS COPIED,RANDOM VARIATIONS OR NOISE ARE ADDED TOTHE ORIGINAL INFORMATION. EXAMPLES OFTHIS WOULD BE COPYING A CASSETTE TAPEOR XEROXING A PAGE FROM A BOOK.DIGITIZATION HAS REMOVED THAT NOISE ANDIN TURN HAS MADE IT SO THAT COPIES AREINDISTINGUISHABLE FROM THEIR ORIGINALS.THIS GIVES ANYONE WHO HAS A COPYPERFECT ACCESS TO ALL OF THEINFORMATION OF THAT ORIGINAL. 15
  16. 16. Forgetting “Today, with the help of widespread technology, forgetting has become the exception, and remembering the default” -from Delete: The Virtue of Forgetting in the Digital Age, p. 2BECAUSE OF DIGITIZATION THERE IS A SHIFT INTHE BALANCE BETWEEN REMEMBERING ANDFORGETTING. SINCE THE BEGGINING,FORGETTING HAS BEEN THE NORM ANDREMEMBERING THE EXCEPTION.“TODAY, WITH THE HELP OF WIDESPREADTECHNOLOGY, FORGETTING HAS BECOME THEEXCEPTION, AND REMEMBERING THE DEFAULT” 16
  17. 17. Why We Forget “My memory, sir, is like a garbage heap.” Funes the Memorious As INDIVIDUALS we forget so that we can survive The famous example of “Funes, the Memorious” by Jorge Luis Borges As a SOCIETY we forget so that individuals can redeem themselves Ted Williams, the homeless man with a “golden voice”WHY DO WE FORGET? 17
  18. 18. AS INDIVIDUALS WE FORGET SO THAT WE SURVIVE
  19. 19. IF WE AS INDIVIUALS CAN’T FORGET, WE ARE CONFINEDBY MEMORIES OF OUR PAST, WE CANNOT LIVEAND ACT IN THE PRESENT. THIS IS THE CASE FORJILL PRICE, KNOWN AS AJ IN SCIENCE JOURNALS. SHEHAS SUCH AN EXTRAORDINARY MEMORY THAT SHECAN REMEMBER EVERY EPISODIC MEMORY DATINGBACK TO WHEN SHE WAS 14. WHEN SHE REMEMBERSBAD MEMORIES, THE EMOTIONS SHE FELT ARE JUSTAS STRONG AS WHEN THEY HAPPENED IN THE PAST.SHE DESCRIBES FREQUENT BOUTS OF DEPRESSIONWHERE SHE CAN’T DO ANYTHING BUT STAY IN BEDRELIVING THE PAST.
  20. 20. AS A SOCIETY WE FORGET SO THATINDIVIDUALS CAN REDEEM THEMSELVES
  21. 21. THROUGH SOCIETAL FORGETTING, HUMANBEINGS HAVE THE CHANCE TO EVOLVE AND TOLEARN FROM PAST EXPERIENCES. ROBERTDOWNEY JR. FELL FROM PUBLIC GRACE IN THELATE 90s DUE TO HIS PROBLEMS WITH DRUGSAND THE LAW. TODAY HE IS WINNING AWARDSAND MAKING MILLIONS AS SHERLOCK HOLMESAND IRON MAN.
  22. 22. With the demise of forgetting • Time • PowerIN HIS BOOK DELETE: THE VIRTUE OF FORGETTING IN THEDIGITAL AGE, VICTOR MAYER-SCHONBERGER EXPLAINS THATWITH THE DEMISE OF FORGETTING WE FACE THE CHALLENGEOF LOSING TIME AND POWER.HE GIVES FOUR REASONS WHY EXTERNAL MEMORY NEGATESTIME1)IT ACTS AS A MEMORY CUE THAT CAUSES US TO RECALLEVENTS WE THOUGHT WE HAD FORGOTTEN.2) IT MAKES IT HARD TO PUT PAST EVENTS IN PROPERTEMPORAL SEQUENCE3) BEING CONFRONTED WITH SO MUCH OF OUR PAST IMPEDESOUR ABILITY TO ACT IN THE PRESENT (LIKE FUNES)4) BECAUSE DIGITAL MEMORY INTERFERES WITH OUR HUMANRECOLLECTION OF EVENTS, WE LOSE TRUST IN OUR OWNABILITY TO REMEMBERAND WITH POWER, WE LOSE CONTROL BECAUSE OF THEACCESSIBILTY AND DURABILITY OF THE INFORMATION WE PUTON THE INTERNET.… 22
  23. 23. For example…I KNOW THIS FROM FIRST HAND EXPERIENCE. MYFRIEND UPLOADED THIS PHOTO OF ME AND ANOTHERFRIEND ONTO FACEBOOK. EVEN IF I ASKED THAT MYFRIEND DELETE THIS FOR FEAR THAT IT MIGHT LOOKBAD TO POTENTIAL EMPLOYERS, IT WOULD STILL BEVISIBLE IN A GOOGLE SEARCH OF MY NAME.
  24. 24. The counter argument • “But you can easily avoid replaying [upsetting] memories” • “You can put a lock on those events you’d like to forget and never open them up again”WE’VE SEE THE IMPORTANCE OF FORGETTING, BUT WHATABOUT THE COUNTER ARGUMENT IN FAVOR OFREMEMBERING? GORDON BELL HIGHLIGHTS THE POSITIVES OFREMEMBERING WITH GREAT DETAIL. BELL IS A WRITER ANDPRINCIPAL RESEARCHER AT MICROSOFT WHO USES A CAMERAAROUND HIS NECK TO CAPTURE PHOTOS OF PEOPLE HEMEETS. HE CAN ACCESS THE LAST 10 EARS OF HIS LIFE SINCEIT’S ALL BEEN SCANNED AND CATALOGUED INTO A PROGRAMHE MADE HIMSELF. HE HIGHLIGHTS SEVERAL EXAMPLES OFHOW THIS HAS MADE HIS LIFE BETTER. FOR INSTANCE, WHENHE WAS ASKED TO SPEAK AT HIS FRIEND’S FUNERAL HETURNED TO THIS PROGRAM TO RECALL SEVERAL PERSONALEXCHANGES THAT WOULD HAVE OTHERWISE BE FORGOTTEN.WHAT ABOUT THE LARGE NUMBER OF US WHOWOULD PREFER TO FORGET PAST MEMORIES?WHEN ASKED ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE OFFORGETTING, HE HAS SAID THAT IT IS EASY TOAVOID REPLAYING DIFFICULT MEMORIES. 24
  25. 25. But for some of us, avoiding replaying painful memories is not easy…BUT FOR SOME OF US, AVOIDING REPLAYING BADMEMORIES IS NOT EASY. WRITER MARTHA WEINMANLEAR POINTS OUT THAT PSYCHOLOGICAL ANDBRAINSCAN TESTING OVER THE YEARS SHOWSDIFFERENCES IN HOW MEN AND WOMEN REMEMBER.MEN HAVE BETTER SPATIAL MEMORY ANDNAVIGATIONAL ABILITY WHILE WOMEN HAVE BETTERVISUAL MEMORY. WOMEN ALSO HAVE BETTERMEMORY FOR AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL EVENTS. ONEDIFFERENCE THAT STANDS OUT FOR ME IS THATWOMEN HAVE BETTER MEMORY FOR EMOTION-RELATED EXPERIENCES, BOTH POSITIVE ANDNEGATIVE. WE TEND TO RECALL THESE EXPERIENCESWITH MUCH GREATER DETAIL THAN MEN DO.PERHAPS THIS IS WHY GORDON BELL CAN AVOIDREPLAYING EMBARRASSING MOMENTS AND I CAN’T… 25
  26. 26. Potential Solutions • Coping Kit • Virtual SafeAND SO FOR THOSE OF US WHO CAN’T AVOIDFIXATING ON THAT FACEBOOK PHOTO OF A RECENTEX OR ON THE HATEFUL COMMENTS POSTED ONOUR YOUTUBE VIDEOS, MY PROPOSED SOLUTIONVIRTUAL MEMORY KIT WILL PROVIDE PEOPLE WITHA WAY TO COPE. 26
  27. 27. THERE WILL BE THREE FEATURES OF THIS VIRTUALMEMORY KIT.THIS SYSTEM WILL ACT AS A VIRTUAL SAFE TO STOREINFORMATION THAT ONE DOES NOT WISH TO SHAREPUBLICLY. IT WILL ALLOW USERS TO CREATE AHIERARCHY OF THEIR MEMORIES SO THAT POSITIVESCAN BE SEPARATE FROM THE NEGATIVES. AND MOSTIMPORTANTLY IT WILL PROVIDE AN OUTLET FORPEOPLE TO ADDRESS THE PROBLEMS THEY’REFACING WITH PAINFUL MEMORIES FORMED IN THEVIRTUAL WORLD.THE FORMAT IS TO BE DETERMINED.

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