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What does it mean to be bilingual

Presentation to CARLA Immersion conference on DELF and Common European Framework- How does a language learner know he/she is really bilingual?

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What does it mean to be bilingual

  1. 1. What does it mean to bebilingual?Assessment and instruction with the Common EuropeanFramework of Reference for Language
  2. 2. Mais sommes-nous bilingues?  Stories from the French Immersion classroom
  3. 3. What is the goal of a languageprogram? How does the teacher know where the student is along the path to reaching that goal? How does the student determine where they are on the path to reaching that goal?
  4. 4. Assessment in language programs Exams- produce a grade, out of 5, a percentage, a letter grade Performance assessments How do these translate into competency?
  5. 5. Placement tests Often used to evaluate language competence Varied from area to area and depending on objective Not a common standard Language learner does not necessarily gain a clear understanding of their language competency
  6. 6. What am I able to do with my French? Answer the phone?Write a formal letter? Make a reservation? Present aresearch paper? Convince someone of my political opinion? How to vote?
  7. 7. Explore the following How does using competency levels re- frame assessment? How does the CEFR re-frame program development? How does the CEFR re-frame classroom instruction?
  8. 8. History In the wake of a growing interest in a common framework of reference for languages across Canada as a common basis for describing and measuring language proficiency, national standards and a national FSL proficiency test to track progress against proposed targets such as the Government of Canada’s Action Plan which proposed to double the proportion of secondary school students graduating with a functional level of proficiency in their second official language by the year 2013 (PCO, 2003).
  9. 9. History Council of Ministers of Education of Canada  Initial research project examining the possible role of the CEFR in Canada ( Dr. L. Vandergrift,S. Rehorick)  Increasing use in public education system of DELF exams ( 82 exams 2005, 2920 exams in 2011)  Use of competency levels as the basis for language programs
  10. 10. Common European Frameworkof Reference for Languages The importance of the CEFR framework is due to its provision of a comprehensive, transparent, and coherent account of language competencies common basis for describing and measuring language proficiency across Canada  © Conseil de l’Europe / Les Éditions Didier, Paris 2001
  11. 11. Common European Frameworkof Reference for Languages • The provision of a common set of proficiency statements will facilitate comparisons of objectives, levels, materials, tests and achievement in different systems and situations.    A framework including both horizontal and vertical dimensions facilitates the defi- nition of partial objectives and the recognition of uneven profiles, partial competen- cies.  © Conseil de l’Europe / Les Éditions Didier, Paris 2001
  12. 12. Description of levels of competencyBreakthrough is considered the lowest level of generativelanguage use – the point at which the learner can interactin a simple way, ask and answer simple questions aboutthemselves, where they live, people they know, and thingsthey have, initiate and respond to simple statements inareas of immediate need or on very familiar topics, Waystage It is at this level that the majority of descriptors stating social functions are to be found, like use simple everyday polite forms of greeting and address; greet people, ask how they are and react to news; handle very short social exchanges; 
  13. 13. Description of levels of competency Threshold where the speaker has the ability to maintain interaction and get across what you want to, in a range of contexts and the ability to cope flexibly with problems in everyday life, Vantage he/she acquires a new perspective, can look around him/her in a new way; a level described as ‘Limited Operational Proficiency and adequate response to situations normally encountered, a focus on effective argument; effective social discourse and on language awareness
  14. 14. Description of levels of competency  Effective Operational Proficiency which was called ‘Effective Proficiency’ ,by Trim ‘Adequate Operational Proficiency’ by Wilkins, and represents an advanced level of competencesuitable for more complex work and study tasks; good access to abroad range of language, which allows fluent, spontaneouscommunication Mastery . not intended to imply native-speaker or near native- speaker competence; the degree of precision, appropriateness and ease with the language which typifies the speech of those who have been highly successful learners: convey finer shades of meaning precisely by using, with reasonable accuracy, a wide range of modification devices; has a good command of idiomatic expressions and colloquialisms with awareness of connotative level of meaning; backtrack and restructure around a difficulty so smoothly the interlocutor is hardly aware of it.
  15. 15. 4  of  the  6  levels  of     competence   Independent  In  our  public  school  system,students  in  our    French  language  programs  generally  can   B2  a=ain  the  following  levels:     Avanced  or   Threshold   independant       B1             Intermediate        Introductory     A2        A1        Discovery     Survival  
  16. 16. The five competencies •  Oral comprehension (reception)•  Oral production•  oral interaction•  Written comprehension•  Written production
  17. 17. How does this affect assessment? Self assessment grid Portfolio Authentic tasks as assessment tasks - DELF
  18. 18. Diplôme d’études de languefrançaise An exam for each level (A1,A2,B1,B2,C1,C2) Assessing each competency- listening comprehension, reading comprehension, oral interaction, oral presentation, written production Authentic language tasks Trained examiners and correctors International standard of language competency
  19. 19. DELF in Canada  23 Centres d’examen DELF-DALF au Canada repartis parmi les ministères d’éducation, des conseils scolaires, des universités et des Alliances françaises  3611 récipients en 2011  20e plus grand nombre de participants au monde  97% de récipients des diplômes viennent du DELF Scolaire
  20. 20. THE DELF in Canada: Stakeholder’sPerceptionSeptember 2012  Teacher comments point to the washback effects of the DELF on their teaching. In other words, the DELF can and does change pedagogy. FSL classes become more communicative in orientation through increased practice of speaking skills and more emphasis on authentic documents for listening and reading.
  21. 21. Teacher comments  ‘Ma compréhension du DELF et le concept du CECR mont fait changer mes méthodes denseignements qui sont maintenant beaucoup plus interactives, orales, incluent de la pensée critique et de linstruction différenciée’ ‘Je fais maintenant plus de compréhension de lorale’
  22. 22. Teacher comments I believe that the DELF adds that little extra bit of "pressure" on the students in a positive way. They begin to realize that they do need to be accurate, and put effort into their work, in order to be well understood in a real life situation. I have started to base my evaluation less and less on very specific grammatical rules, and more to broad contextual evaluations, with a grammatical component.
  23. 23. Students ‘It is a great opportunity to challenge yourself and experience something different’ ‘I think that its a good way to challenge yourself, and it made me more confident in the French language’ ‘It is a great way to assess what you have learned and proceed further into the French language to extend you skills’ ‘I was stressed at first, but it was actually comforting and makes me feel proud of myself that I could accomplish an exam like that :) ‘
  24. 24. Students ‘it is a good marker to see your level of French, and a way to compare yourselves to a certain standard’ ‘Taking a test not given by your teacher is a great way to see how well youre doing in the course and it’s a great confidence booster...’ ‘It provides an indication of French proficiency and encourages students to improve in areas where they struggle’
  25. 25. How does this affect curriculumdevelopment? Draft Revised French curriculum British Columbia Based on the Common european Framework Structure:  Provincially required learning outcome statements  Suggested Can-do statements  Suggested profiency-based Can Do statements
  26. 26. Language learning Engages learners in meaningful and authentic and purposeful language- learning tasks Is not additively sequential but recursive Proficiency includes both production and comprehension Instruction takes learning styles and rates into account Assessment reflects instructional goals and is based on performance  Draft Curriculum
  27. 27. Examples:   Provincially required learning outcome statements   Suggested Can-do statements   Suggested profiency-based Can Do statements
  28. 28. Other curricula Second language program in the Atlantic provinces correlated with the CEFR Second language program Province of Ontario inspired by the CEFR Programme de langues secondes en Ontario Second language programs in Alberta (PONC) inspired by the CEFR
  29. 29. How does this affect classroominstruction  Authentic tasks  Student ownership of learning  Classroom resources levelled  Goal-setting with outcomes in mind
  30. 30. Impact on National debate Stakeholders’ Meeting on the Implementation of CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference) in Canada March 11, 2011 Gatineau, Quebec Lévaluation dans un contexte de mouvance individuelle et sociétale Centre Canadien d’études et de recherche en bilinguisme et aménagement linguistique 28 et 29 avril 2011
  31. 31. references  Council of Ministers of Education, Canada. (2010).  Working with the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) in the Canadian Context: Guide for policy-makers and curriculum designers. Toronto, ON: Author.  Vandergrift, L. (2006). New Canadian perspectives: Proposal for a common framework of reference for languages for Canada. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Heritage  OCDSB Quality Assurance Division. (2011). Grade 12 French proficiency test: Results from the 2010-11 administration. Mimeo.